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The Role of Gender in Civil-Military Cooperation: A Unique Opportunity for Change


Cook, Charlene, and Donna Winslow. 2007. "The Role of Gender in Civil-Military Cooperation: A Unique Opportunity for Change." Peace and Conflict Studies 14 (1): 58-72.

Authors: Charlene Cook, Donna Winslow


Post-conflict reconstruction provides a unique opportunity to redress the experience of women during war and capitalize on the shifting gender roles prompted by conflict to advance a more equitable female citizenship. However, most post-conflict initiatives have not incorporated a gender-based action plan, impeded by a disparate prioritization of gender by civil and military actors. In order to ensure equitable post conflict outcomes, gender representation and mainstreaming must be comparably prioritized by civil and military engagement in peace building. This paper explores Bosnia as a case study to highlight the necessary role of civil-military cooperation in gender-based peace building. (Cook and Winslow 2007)

Keywords: post-conflict reconstruction, civil-military cooperation, military, civilian, gender mainstreaming, peace building, Afro-Colombian

Topics: Armed Conflict, Citizenship, Civil Society, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Mainstreaming, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina

Year: 2007

Citizenship in Neo-Patrilineal States: Gender and Mobility in Southern Africa


Cheater, Angela P., Gaidzanwa, Ruth.B. 1996. ”Citizenship in Neo-Patrilineal States: Gender and Mobility in Southern Africa.” Journal of Southern African Studies 22 (2): 189-200.

Authors: Angela P. Cheater, Ruth B. Gaidzanwa


Following independence, many states in Southern Africa have modified their rules of access to citizenship, moving from the territorial model of ius soli (applied during the (late) colonial period by and to white settlers) to the more exclusive, descent-based model of ius sanguinis, in a specifically patrilineal mode which explicitly rejects bilateral principles. Newly-independent states in Southern Africa have stressed patrilineality as the basis of their new citizenship, even where, in colonial if not precolonial times, descent systems were recorded as showing only a weak commitment to patrilineality (e.g. the Shona of Zimbabwe), or were unambiguously bilateral (the Lozi of Zambia) or even matrilineal (many Zambian and Malawian 'tribal' categories). Many authors have already analysed the legal disabilities that female citizens suffer in their ordinary lives as a result of this state-defined identity bias. This paper looks at the situation of women who marry across, and those who on informal trade move extensively across, state boundaries, and their position in relation to the new patri-biased citizenship rules.

Keywords: citizenship, mobility, women, state-defined identity

Topics: Citizenship, Gender, Women, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, Southern Africa

Year: 1996

Justice and Power in the Adjudication of Women’s Property Rights in Uganda


Khadiagala, Lynn S. 2003. “Justice and Power in the Adjudication of Women’s Property Rights in Uganda.” Africa Today 49 (2): 101-121.

Author: Lynn S. Khadiagala


This article challenges the notion that women who derive their primary rights from land are unable to use the legal system to assert or protect their property rights. Drawing on fieldwork conducted in southern Uganda, I suggest that female legal consciousness and legal strategies cannot be sufficiently explained by a paradigm of male hegemony and female dependence. Instead, women in Kabale District construct land claims around an ethos of justice entailing a quid pro quo between rights and responsibilities. Drawing on the value of their agricultural labor to the household economy, reinforced by the labor intensity of farming in Kabale, women transform property disputes into claims to the basic elements of citizenship, including membership, participation, and universal norms of justice.

Keywords: women's land rights, legal system, gender

Topics: Citizenship, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Justice, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2003

Gender, Migration and Civil Activism in South Korea


Lee, Hye-Kyung. 2003. "Gender, Migration and Civil Activism in South Korea." Asian and Pacific Migration Journal 12: 127-53.

Author: Hye-Kyung Lee


Since the late 1980s, Korea has experienced an influx of migrant workers from neighboring Asian countries. The total number of migrant workers in 1990 was less than 20,000, but rose to 340,000 in 2002. International migration in South Korea shows less extensive feminization than in comparable receiving countries in East Asia. This paper examines why female migration, which accounts for only 30-35 percent of all migrant workers, is less extensive in South Korea, and why domestic work, the major occupation which has accelerated female migration in the region, is not popular in South Korea. It also assesses the current state of migrant and civil society movements providing assistance to migrant women in South Korea. Although the number of these NGOs is small, their activities have highlighted the problems and issues in international marriages and the entry of foreign female entertainers in the sex industry. The paper argues that civil movements for migrant women have contributed to reconsiderations of notions of nationality and citizenship in Korea.

Keywords: immigration, migrant workers

Topics: Citizenship, Civil Society, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Sexual Livelihoods, Nationalism, NGOs Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: South Korea

Year: 2003

The Women and War Reader


Lorentzen, Lois Ann, and Jennifer E. Turpin. 1998. The Women and War Reader. New York: New York University Press.

Authors: Lois Ann Lorentzen, Jennifer E. Turpin


War affects women in profoundly different ways than men. Women play many roles during wartime: they are "gendered" as mothers, as soldiers, as munitions makers, as caretakers, as sex workers. How is it that womanhood in the context of war may mean, for one woman, tearfully sending her son off to war, and for another, engaging in civil disobedience against the state? Why do we think of war as "men's business" when women are more likely to be killed in war and to become war refugees than men?

The Women and War Reader brings together the work of the foremost scholars on women and war to address questions of ethnicity, citizenship, women's agency, policy making, women and the war complex, peacemaking, and aspects of motherhood. Moving beyond simplistic gender dichotomies, the volume leaves behind outdated arguments about militarist men and pacifist women while still recognizing that there are patterns of difference in men's and women's relationships to war.

The Women and War Reader challenges essentialist, class-based, and ethnocentric analysis. A comprehensive volume covering such regions as the former Yugoslavia, Northern Ireland, Israel and Palestine, Iran, Nicaragua, Chiapas, South Africa, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, South Korea, and India, it will provide a much-needed resource. The volume includes the work of over 35 contributors, including Cynthia Enloe, Sara Ruddick, V. Spike Peterson, Betty Reardon, April Carter, Leila J. Rupp, Harriet Hyman Alonso, Francine D'Amico, Nancy Scheper-Hughes, and Carolyn Nordstrom. (Amazon)


Table of Contents:

Many faces : women confronting war / Jennifer Turpin --
The truth about women and peace / Jodi York --
After feminist analyses of Bosnian violence / Darius M. Rejali --
Should women be soldiers or pacifists? / April Carter --
Gendered nationalism : reproducing "us" versus "them" / V. Spike Peterson --
All the men are in the militias, all the women are victims : the politics of masculinity and femininity in nationalist wars / Cynthia Enloe --
Surfacing gender : reconceptualizing crimes against women in time of war / Rhonda Copelon --
Girls behind the (front) lines / Carolyn Nordstrom --
Gender, militarization and universal male conscription in South Korea / Seungsook Moon --
Militarization, conflict and women in South Asia / Anuradha M. Chenoy --
Militarism and Cypriot women / Ninetta Pourou-Kazantzis --
Feminist perspectives on women warriors / Francine D'Amico --
Women munitions makers, war and citizenship / Angela Woolacott --
Women warriors/women peacemakers : will the real feminists please stand up! / Ilene Rose Feinman --
The expanding role of women in United Nations peacekeeping / Janet Beilstein --
War and gender : what do we learn from Israel? / Uta Klein --
Broken dreams in Nicaragua / Diana Mulinari --
Zapatismo : gender, power and social transfromation / Mariana Mora --
Domestic activism and nationalist struggle / Monica E. Neugebauer --
Torture as text / Irene Matthews --
Women's prison resistance : Testimonios from El Salvador / Lois Ann Lorentzen --
Imagining peace / Elaine R. Pgnibene --
"Women of peace" : a feminist construction / Sara Ruddick --
Maternal thinking and the politics of war / Nancy Scheper-Hughes --
War, nationalism and mothers in the former Yugoslavia / Vesna Nikolić-Ristanović --
Drafting motherhood : maternal imagery and organizations in the United States and Nicaragua / Lorraine Bayard de Volo --
Moral mothers and stalwart sons : reading binaries in a time of war / Malathi de Alwis --
Parenting troops : the summons to acquiescence / Rela Mazali --
Women or weapons? / Betty A. Reardon --
Dissension in the ranks : the New York branch of WILPF vs. the National Board, 1914-1955 / Harriet Hyman Alonso --
Solidarity and wartime violence against women / Leila J. Rupp --
Making connections : building an East Asia-U.S. women's network against U.S. militarism / Gwyn Kirk and Margo Okazawa-Rey --
Afghan women in the peace process / Pamela Collett --
The impact of women in black in Israel / Gila Svirsky --
Israeli and Palestinian women working for peace / Ronit Lentin --
Silent or silenced? / Lynne M. Woerhle --
The psychology of societal reconstruction and peace : a gendered perspective / Susan R. McKay --

Topics: Armed Conflict, Citizenship, Combatants, Female Combatants, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Livelihoods, Sexual Livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Peacebuilding, Rights, Women's Rights, Security, Trafficking, Sex Trafficking, Violence

Year: 1998

Feminist-Nation Building in Afghanistan: An Examination of the Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan (RAWA)


Fluri, Jennifer. 2008. "Feminist-Nation Building in Afghanistan: An Examination of the Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan (RAWA)." Feminist Review 89 (1): 34-54.

Author: Jennifer L. Fluri


Women-led political organizations that employ feminist and nationalist ideologies and operate as separate from, rather than associated with, male-dominated or patriarchal nationalist groups are both significant and under-explored areas of gender, feminist, and nationalism studies. This article investigates the feminist and nationalist vision of the Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan (RAWA). RAWA exemplifies an effective political movement that intersects feminist and nationalist politics, where women are active, rather than symbolic, participants within the organization, and help to shape an ideological construction of the Afghan nation. RAWA subsequently links its struggle for women's rights (through feminism) with its nationalist goals for democracy and secularism. This article also analyses RAWA's use of conservative nationalist methods to reproduce the future of the organization and to develop ‘citizens’ for its idealized nation, while countering existing patriarchal social and familial structures through a re-configuration of women's roles in the family, community, and nation. This inquiry is based on geographic and feminist examinations of RAWA's organizational structure, literature, and political goals obtained through content analyses of RAWA's political literature and through interviews with RAWA members and supporters living as refugees in Pakistan in the summer of 2003 and winter of 2004/05. RAWA is an instructive example of counter-patriarchal and nationalist feminist politics that questions patriarchal definitions of the nation and its citizenry by reconfiguring gender norms and redefining gender relations in the family as a mirror of the nation.

Keywords: feminist, nation-building, reconstruction, governance

Topics: Citizenship, Civil Society, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Governance, Nationalism, Political Participation, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Pakistan

Year: 2008

Creating Citizens, Making Men: The Military and Masculinity in Bolivia


Gill, Lesley. 1997. "Creating Citizens, Making Men: The Military and Masculinity in Bolivia." Cultural Anthropology 12 (4): 527-50.

Author: Lesley Gill

Keywords: militarization, masculinity, male soldiers

Topics: Citizenship, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarization Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Bolivia

Year: 1997


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