Printer-friendly versionSend by emailPDF version


Stars and Stripes and Sex: Nationalism and Globalization in the Kijich’on


Moon, Katherine H. S. 2004. “Stars and Stripes and Sex: Nationalism and Globalization in the Kijich’on.” Women’s History in Modern Korea.

Author: Katherine Moon

Topics: Citizenship, Gender, Women, Globalization, Nationalism, Sexuality Regions: Asia, East Asia

Year: 2004

Lives in Times of Conflict: Locating Women and Accountability of the State in Kashmir


Sapna K Sangra. 2011. “Lives in Times of Conflict: Locating Women and Accountability of the State in Kashmir.” International Journal or Interdisciplinary Social Sciences 6 (5): 51.


Author: Sapna K Sangra

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Citizenship, Combatants, Gender, Women, Girls, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, Peacekeeping, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2011

Entangling Alliances: Foreign War Brides and American Soldiers in the Twentieth Century


Zeiger, Susan. 2010. Entangling Alliances: Foreign War Brides and American Soldiers in the Twentieth Century. New York: New York University Press.

Author: Susan Zeiger


Throughout the twentieth century, American male soldiers returned home from wars with foreign-born wives in tow, often from allied but at times from enemy nations, resulting in a new, official category of immigrant: the “allied” war bride. These brides began to appear en masse after World War I, peaked after World War II, and persisted through the Korean and Vietnam Wars. GIs also met and married former “enemy” women under conditions of postwar occupation, although at times the US government banned such unions.
In this comprehensive, complex history of war brides in 20th-century American history, Susan Zeiger uses relationships between American male soldiers and foreign women as a lens to view larger issues of sexuality, race, and gender in United States foreign relations. Entangling Alliances draws on a rich array of sources to trace how war and postwar anxieties about power and national identity have long been projected onto war brides, and how these anxieties translate into public policies, particularly immigration.
(New York University Press)

Keywords: history, gender & women's studies, sociology

Topics: Citizenship, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Women, Men, Nationalism, Post-Conflict

Year: 2010

Every Coward’s Choice'? Political Objection to Military Service in Apartheid South Africa as Sexual Citizenship


Conway, Daniel. 2004. "‘Every Coward’s Choice'? Political Objection to Military Service in Apartheid South Africa as Sexual Citizenship." Citizenship Studies 8 (1): 25-45. doi:10.1080/1362102042000178418.

Author: Daniel Conway


Sexuality was articulated by the apartheid state as a means of disciplining the white population and marginalizing white opponents of apartheid. As such, homophobia was a recurrent feature of political and legal discourse. The End Conscription Campaign (ECC) opposed compulsory conscription for all white men in the apartheid era South African Defence Force (SADF). Its challenge was a potentially radical and profoundly destabilizing one and it articulated a competing definition of citizenship to that offered by the state. The pro- and anti-conscription discourse was inherently gendered and overtly sexualized. The South African government regularly associated men who objected to military service with effeminacy, cowardice and sexual ‘deviance’. The case of Dr Ivan Toms’ objection, a gay objector who wished to cite his sexuality as a primary motivation for his objection, reveals the unwillingness of the ECC to engage in sexual politics. Using Shane Phelan’s and Zygmunt Bauman’s concept of friends, enemies and strangers, this paper investigates the construction of both white gay men and white people who opposed apartheid as ‘strangers’ and suggests that the deployment of homophobia by the state was a stigmatizing discourse aimed at purging the ECC’s political message from the public realm. In this context the ECC adopted an assimilatory discursive strategy, whereby they attempted to be ‘respectable whites’, negotiating over shared republican territory. This populist strategy, arguably safer in the short term, avoided issues of sexuality and the fundamental conflation of sexuality and citizenship in apartheid South Africa. The ECC thus circumscribed its radical and deconstructive political potential and did not offer a ‘radical democratic’ message in opposition to apartheid.

Keywords: sexuality, homosexuality, homophobia, LGBT, South Africa, citizenship

Topics: Citizenship, Gender, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Sexuality Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 2004

Toward an Understanding of Gendered Agency in Contemporary Russia


Holmgren, Beth. 2013. “Toward an Understanding of Gendered Agency in Contemporary Russia.” Signs 38 (3): 535-542. 

Author: Beth Holmgren


Assessments of Russian women’s current social and political status must take into account the complicated legacy of Soviet women’s “emancipation.” Although the Soviet government enforced women’s access to higher education and a broad array of professional opportunities, it never challenged traditional notions of masculinity and femininity, or the double burden tacitly assigned women. It did not invest in products and services that would have eased “women’s work” as homemakers and caretakers, nor did it protect women from sexual harassment on the job. The transition years have bared, glorified, and globalized the patriarchal state that lay just beneath the socialist veneer of the Soviet Union. Indeed, the Putin government has repackaged that patriarchy as conventionally and commercially masculinist. Women do exercise some power as consumers and mothers; they seek other-than-material fulfillment in facilitating positions rather than face opprobrium as public leaders. Some are attempting to scout new forms of agency as managers and business entrepreneurs. Yet there is no straightforward upward ladder for women in work and no generally acceptable movement toward lobbying for women’s rights. The women who wield the greatest sociopolitical influence in Russia today are media pundits, writers of serious literature, and journalists who combine writing with general social and political activism. In order to bridge the great divide in historical conditioning and contemporary circumstance that separates us from Russian women, we must work toward a better understanding of their complex forms of agency.

Topics: Citizenship, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Masculinism, Governance, Livelihoods, Political Participation Regions: Asia, Europe Countries: Russian Federation

Year: 2013

'Goodbye Serbian Kennedy': Zoran Dindic and the New Democratic Masculinity in Serbia


Greenberg, Jessica. 2006. “’Goodbye Serbian Kennedy’: Zoran Dindic and the New Democratic Masculinity in Serbia.” East European Politics and Societies 20 (1): 126-51. 

Author: Jessica Greenberg


In this article, the author demonstrates how representations of the assassination and funeral of Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Dindic enacted politics, reshaping the relationship between citizen and state during a time of political crisis. The expression of citizen-state relations through public mourning grounded in intimate, familial loss produced a break between a violent, nationalist past and a possible democratic future. This process relied on the deployment of normative assumptions about gender and kinship. The figure of Zoran Dindic represented a heteronormative, democratic masculinity that evoked a new relationship between family, citizen, state, and nation in the Serbian context. In contrast, those held responsible for his assassination were presented as antifamily and part of a clan structure based on non-reproductive, criminal connections that evoked a contrasting and undemocratic form of masculinity. Such representations masked ways that current political institutions and public figures were implicated in past state violence by focusing on a story about Dindic and his killers as certain kinds of men, rather than about structural features of politics and government.

Topics: Citizenship, Clan, Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, Post-Conflict, Security, Violence Regions: Europe, Balkans Countries: Serbia

Year: 2006

Politics in an Age of Anxiety: Cold War Political Culture and the Crisis in American Masculinity, 1949-1960


Cuordileone, K. A. 2000. “Politics in an Age of Anxiety: Cold War Political Culture and the Crisis in American Masculinity, 1949-1960.” Journal of American History 87 (2): 515-45. 

Author: K.A. Cuordileone

Topics: Armed Conflict, Citizenship, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Governance, Political Participation Regions: Africa, North Africa Countries: United States of America

Year: 2000

Gender and International Migration: Globalization, Development, and Governance


Benería, Lourdes, Carmen Diana Deere, and Naila Kabeer. 2012. “Gender and International Migration: Globalization, Development, and Governance.” Feminist Economics 18 (2): 1–33.

Authors: Lourdes Beneria, Carmen Diana Deere, Naila Kabeer


This contribution examines the connections between gender and international migration around three themes: globalization, national economic development, and governance. First, it discusses the connections between globalization and the multiplicity of processes that have contributed to international migration and its feminization, arguing that gender awareness is crucial to understanding these processes. Gender analysis makes visible the increasing commodification of care work on a global scale and highlights how the organization of families is changing. Second, it analyzes the various avenues through which migration may contribute to or hinder economic development, highlighting why remittances, in particular by women, have featured very positively in the migration and development policy discourse. Third, it discusses how issues of citizenship affect the migrant population, showing how gender analysis highlights many challenges with regard to nation-based notions of citizenship, particularly in the receiving countries.

Keywords: gender, international migration, globalization, development, governance

Topics: Citizenship, Development, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Globalization, Governance, Households

Year: 2012

The Abject Bodies of the Maquiladora Female Workers on a Globalized Border


Taylor, Guadalupe. 2010. “The Abject Bodies of the Maquiladora Female Workers on a Globalized Border.” Race, Gender & Class 17 (3/4): 349–63.

Author: Guadalupe Taylor


 The topic of the body has been analyzed from a variety of perspectives. Although biology does not define women, it cannot be denied that women's bodies play a major role in determining their lives. This paper will question the universalism of materialist feminist theories to explain the violence against the bodies of female maquiladora workers. First, I will present Simone de Beauvoir and Judith Butler's conceptualizations of the female body. Second, I will analyze if the Socialist feminist theory is broad enough to encompass the bodies of maquiladora workers in its analysis. Finally, I will advocate the need for conceiving a transcultural-transnational feminist approach that includes class, gender, culture, state, globalization, free-trade agreements, and phenotype of women who work in the maquiladora industry. It seems necessary to formulate an approach that considers a broad scope of issues that affect maquiladora workers who form part of the proletariat on the border between the United States and México. Since the Mexican government exempt of taxes to US companies that opened factories on the border, NAFTA has turned Mexico in an excellent source of profits for transnational companies based on the exploitation of Mexican workers, mainly female workers. The patriarchal state and capitalism have reinserted women in a space where they have lost citizenship and where their bodies have become abject objects for the benefit of globalized industrial production. I suggest that a transcultural-transnational feminist approach is needed to explain and to foster an agenda for improving the plight of the maquiladora workers. This approach is suitable for this population because it includes class, gender, culture, State, capitalism, free trade agreements, and the phenotypes of all women.

Keywords: abject, maquiladora workers, borders, body, ethnicity, social class, patriarchy, gender, race, oppression, capitalism, feminism, materialism, Marxism, feminist theory, indigenous, praxis, disapora, transcultural, transnational, western, mexico, mexican

Topics: Citizenship, Class, Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Femininity/ies, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Globalization, Indigenous, Livelihoods, Multi-National Corporations, Political Economies, Violence Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2010

Violence, Gender, and Subjectivity


Das, Veena. 2008. “Violence, Gender, and Subjectivity.” Annual Review of Anthropology 37: 283-99. doi: 10.1146/annurev.anthro.36.081406.094430.

Author: Veena Das


This review examines the interlocking of violence, gender, and subjectivity within the overarching framework of the sexualization of the social contract. Tracking the question of gendered belonging to the nation state, the article discusses the anthropological literature along with feminist and critical theory to shed light on the relation between reproduction and death as a way of giving life to the nation-state. Sexual and reproductive violence are closely linked to the social and cultural imaginaries of order and disorder; and violence, far from being an interruption of the ordinary, is folded into the ordinary.

Keywords: contract, consent, militarization, sexuality, domestic

Topics: Citizenship, Gender, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Nationalism, Sexual Violence, Violence

Year: 2008


© 2021 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at

Subscribe to RSS - Citizenship