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Child Soldiers

Girl Soldiers: Denial of Rights and Responsibilities

Citation:

Brett, Rachel. 2004. “Girl Soldiers: Denial of Rights and Responsibilities.” Refugee Survival Quarterly 23 (2): 30-7.

Author: Rachel Brett

Abstract:

The article focuses on the participation of girls in conflict and its implications for their demobilisation and reintegration. Girl soldiers fail to go through the demobilisation processes partly because they are not recognised as soldiers but as abductees, sex slaves and concubines. Some girls experience a measure of protection and fulfillment in the military life, but many still find themselves being required to provide sexual services. It suggests designing demobilisation and reintegration programmes that do not exclude girl soldiers.

Topics: Combatants, Child Soldiers, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Girls, Rights

Year: 2004

'Like Going to a Fiesta’ - the Role of Female Fighters in Colombia’s FARC

Citation:

Herrera, Natalie, and Douglas Porch. 2008. “'Like Going to a Fiesta’ - The Role of Female Fighters in Colombia’s FARC.” Small Wars & Insurgencies 19 (4): 609-34.

Authors: Natalie Herrera, Douglas Porch

Abstract:

Traditionally women and children have been seen as victims rather than protagonists in conflict. However, since the 1970s, women and children have assumed an active role as combatants in Colombian insurgencies. This is especially true of the FARC-EP, which integrates women into its political and military structure in ways that give them a sense of participation, accomplishment and satisfaction. Without their contributions, including sexual services, the FARC could probably not survive. However, despite their favourable experiences, many women ultimately become disillusioned with the FARC's masculine culture and value system that fails to accommodate their aspirations as women.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Child Soldiers, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Girls, Boys, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Non-state Armed Groups, Political Participation, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2008

Girl Soldiers: Challenging the Assumptions

Citation:

Brett, Rachel. 2002. Girl Soldiers: Challenging the Assumptions. New York: Quaker United Nations Office.

Author: Rachel Brett

Abstract:

This paper is based on QUNO's research in The Voices of Girl Child Soldiers. It highlights those aspects of the research that add new dimensions and greater specificity to the problem of girl child soldiers, with implications for policy and programmatic issues. (Quaker United Nations Office)

Topics: Combatants, Child Soldiers, Female Combatants, Gender, Girls

Year: 2002

Child Soldiers: From Violence to Protection

Citation:

Wessells, Michael G. 2006. Child Soldiers: From Violence to Protection. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Author: Michael G. Wessells

Abstract:

Examines the plight of child soldiers who are used by government forces and other military groups around the world as combatants, spies, porters, human land-mine detectors, and sexual slaves; analyzes the lives of these boys and girls within armed groups; discusses the impacts of these experiences on their lives; and considers the issues of reintegration into normal society, and how to prevent the problem(WorldCat)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Child Soldiers, DDR, Gender, Girls, Boys, Health, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Sexual Violence, Sexual Slavery

Year: 2006

War and Children: A Reference Handbook

Citation:

Dupuy, Kendra E., and Krijn Peters. 2010. War and Children: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

Authors: Kendra E. Dupuy, Krijn Peters

Abstract:

A comprehensive, up-to-date presentation of how children and young people are affected by and respond to situations of armed conflict and postwar reconstruction. (WorldCat)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Child Soldiers, Gender, Girls, Boys, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction

Year: 2010

The Effects of Armed Conflict on Girls and Women

Citation:

McKay, Susan. 1998. “The Effects of Armed Conflict on Girls and Women.” Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology 4 (4): 381–92.

Author: Susan McKay

Abstract:

This article discusses the gender-specific effects of armed conflict on girls and women that are addressed by the Machel Study. Among the most traumatic of these effects is sexual exploitation and gender-based violence, each having profound psychosocial consequences. Other gendered effects occur when girls are recruited as child soldiers, girls and women become internally and externally displaced refugees, and public health services, such as reproductive health care, are inadequate or unavailable. The Machel Study emphasizes women's proactive roles as peacebuilders and challenges governmental and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to focus greater attention upon building women's capacities in order to better protect children's physical and psychosocial well-being.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Child Soldiers, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender-Based Violence, Governance, Health, Mental Health, Reproductive Health, Trauma, NGOs, Peacebuilding, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse

Year: 1998

Girl Soldiers: Human Security and Gendered Insecurity

Citation:

Fox, Mary-Jane. 2004. “Girl Soldiers: Human Security and Gendered Insecurity.” Security Dialogue 35 (4): 465-79.

Author: Mary-Jane Fox

Abstract:

The aim of this article is to make a preliminary attempt to explore the extent to which the subject of girl soldiers might fit into discussions of security. The empirical study of girl soldiers falls within the larger issue of child soldiers, which has received wide exposure in recent years, though there have been few attempts to conceptualize or attach theory to it. This is even more so in regard to girl soldiers, who until recently were barely acknowledged or noticed, though they are currently estimated to comprise somewhere between one-tenth and one-third of all child soldiers. Gender and security literature has also tended to overlook girl soldiers, and there are limitations on applying gender theory to the plight of recruited girls. Although the subjectof girl soldiers is difficult to locate within traditional state-military security or social security discussions, it appears to fall squarely within the human security approach. In spite of the weaknesses of the human security concept, its strengths create a security space in which the gendered insecurities of girl soldiers can be recognized and addressed.

Keywords: girl soldiers, child soldiers, human security, gendered security

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Child Soldiers, Female Combatants, Gender, Girls, Gender Analysis, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Security, Human Security

Year: 2004

Trafficking of Child Soldiers: Expanding the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and Its Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict

Citation:

Valentine, Sandrine. 2003. "Trafficking of Child Soldiers: Expanding the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and Its Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict." New England Journal of International & Comparative Law 9: 109-58.

Author: Sandrine Valentine

Keywords: child soldiers, United Nations, child trafficking, United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, causes

Annotation:

This paper discusses the trafficking of children for participation in armed conflicts. The author’s purpose is “to give an international definition of the trafficking of child soldiers, identify the root causes of, and trends in, trafficking and, finally, to give recommendations to prevent and address the trafficking of child soldiers.” The paper focuses on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as the main international legal instrument addressing this issue, and “calls for an approach to the problem of child trafficking that promotes the idea of sharing responsibilities within the society for the complete and healthy development of children and the eradication of the trafficking of child soldiers” (Valentine, 110).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Child Soldiers, International Law, International Human Rights, Trafficking, Human Trafficking

Year: 2003

Monitoring the Status of Severe Forms of Trafficking in Foreign Countries: Sanctions Mandated under the US Trafficking Victims Protection Act

Citation:

Mattar, Mohamed Y. 2003. "Monitoring the Status of Severe Forms of Trafficking in Foreign Countries: Sanctions Mandated under the US Trafficking Victims Protection Act." Brown Journal of World Affairs 10: 159-78.

Author: Mohamed Y. Mattar

Abstract:

This article discusses human trafficking from a U.S. foreign policy perspective and examines its growing recognition as a human rights issue. Mattar’s article examines the use of sanctions against countries that do not meet “minimum standard” to combat trafficking. The report makes brief contextual references to the link between armed conflict and trafficking of persons:

Instability, hostile occupation, armed conflict, and civil unrest create social vulnerability of an insecure population that becomes disintegrated, displaced, and easily subjected to trafficking for illicit sexual purposes or forced labor. The collapse of the Soviet Union in particular led to an increase of trafficking activities. Women are trafficked from the former Soviet Union to countries of Western Europe, the Middle East, and the United States. Children are being trafficked for military purposes, and recruited to engage in armed forces as young as eight years old, and become subject to forced labor and sexual abuse. (USAID 2004)

Keywords: child soldiers, conflict, global governance, human trafficking, human rights, U.S. foreign policy

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Child Soldiers, Gender, Globalization, Governance, Livelihoods, Militarized livelihoods, Sexual livelihoods, Rights, Human Rights, Security, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2003

Human Trafficking and Development: The Role of Microfinance

Citation:

Getu, Makonen. 2006. "Human Trafficking and Development: The Role of Microfinance." Transformation 23 (3): 142-56.

Author: Makonen Getu

Keywords: economics, africa, microfinance, human trafficking, armed conflict

Annotation:

  • Getu argues for the use of microfinance in combating human trafficking, as “the overwhelming majority of the employment and income opportunities it offers go primarily to women who constitute 70-80% of trafficked persons” (155).
  • In setting up his argument, Getu outlines the main causes of human trafficking, including armed conflict. In this brief section, he focuses primarily on Africa where there has been a widespread recruitment of child soldiers due to the large amount of armed conflicts in Sub-Sarahan Africa.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Child Soldiers, Development, Economies, Humanitarian Assistance, Livelihoods, Militarized livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Trafficking, Human Trafficking Regions: Africa

Year: 2006

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