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Child Soldiers

High Hopes, Grim Reality: Reintegration and the Education of Former Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone

Citation:

Betancourt, Theresa S., Stephanie Simmons, Ivelina Borisova, Stephanie E. Brewer, Uzo Iweala, and Marie de la Soudière. 2008. “High Hopes, Grim Reality: Reintegration and the Education of Former Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone.” Comparative Education Review 52 (4): 565–87.

Authors: Theresa S. Betancourt, Stephanie Simmons, Ivelina Borisova, Stephanie E. Brewer, Uzo Iweala, Marie de la Soudière

Topics: Combatants, Child Soldiers, DDR, Gender, Girls, Boys Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2008

Girls in Fighting Forces and Groups: Their Recruitment, Participation, Demobilization, and Reintegration

Citation:

Mazurana, Dyan E., Susan A. McKay, Khristopher C. Carlson, and Janel C. Kasper. 2002. “Girls in Fighting Forces and Groups: Their Recruitment, Participation, Demobilization, and Reintegration.” Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology 8 (2): 97–123.

Authors: Dyan E. Mazurana, Susan A. McKay, Khristopher C. Carlson, Janel C. Kasper

Abstract:

The question "Where are the girls?" is seldom raised in discussions about children or adolescents who are members of fighting forces and groups. This is due in large part to the near exclusive focus on boy soldiers. Consequently, scant attention has been given to girls' active involvement and distinct experiences in these forces and groups, whether as combatants or noncombatants. The purpose of this article is to explicate the presence and experiences of girls in fighting forces and groups and some of the challenges they face after they leave these forces and groups and attempt to resume their lives within their communities. We use descriptive data gathered from a wide variety of organizational and scholarly reports to identify girls' involvement and roles in these forces and groups, detail how they are recruited and demobilized, and examine common physical and psychosocial effects of their participation. We contend that during and after armed conflicts, gender-specific physical and psychological impacts must be understood so that both boys and girls receive effective help. Because little is presently known about girls' distinct experiences, programs and policies that might assist them to heal and recover more rapidly from physical and psychological trauma are seldom developed. By being knowledgable about and sensitive to girls' distinct experiences and needs, psychologists can help assure that girls, along with boys, receive more effective psychosocial assistance.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Child Soldiers, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Girls, Military Forces & Armed Groups

Year: 2002

From Child Soldier to Ex-Fighter, a Political Journey: Female Fighters, Demobililisation, and Reintegration in Ethiopia

Citation:

Veale, Angela. 2003. “From Child Soldier to Ex-Fighter, a Political Journey: Female Fighters, Demobililisation, and Reintegration in Ethiopia.” Institute for Security Studies Monographs 85: 1-64.

Author: Angela Veale

Topics: Combatants, Child Soldiers, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender Analysis Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Ethiopia

Year: 2003

Child Soldiers: Reintegration, Pathways to Recovery, and Reflections from the Field

Citation:

Betancourt, Theresa S. 2008. “Child Soldiers: Reintegration, Pathways to Recovery, and Reflections from the Field.” Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics 29 (2): 138–41.

Author: Theresa S. Betancourt

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Child Soldiers, DDR, Post-Conflict

Year: 2008

Girl Soldiers: Denial of Rights and Responsibilities

Citation:

Brett, Rachel. 2004. “Girl Soldiers: Denial of Rights and Responsibilities.” Refugee Survival Quarterly 23 (2): 30-7.

Author: Rachel Brett

Abstract:

The article focuses on the participation of girls in conflict and its implications for their demobilisation and reintegration. Girl soldiers fail to go through the demobilisation processes partly because they are not recognised as soldiers but as abductees, sex slaves and concubines. Some girls experience a measure of protection and fulfillment in the military life, but many still find themselves being required to provide sexual services. It suggests designing demobilisation and reintegration programmes that do not exclude girl soldiers.

Topics: Combatants, Child Soldiers, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Girls, Rights

Year: 2004

'Like Going to a Fiesta’ - the Role of Female Fighters in Colombia’s FARC

Citation:

Herrera, Natalie, and Douglas Porch. 2008. “'Like Going to a Fiesta’ - The Role of Female Fighters in Colombia’s FARC.” Small Wars & Insurgencies 19 (4): 609-34.

Authors: Natalie Herrera, Douglas Porch

Abstract:

Traditionally women and children have been seen as victims rather than protagonists in conflict. However, since the 1970s, women and children have assumed an active role as combatants in Colombian insurgencies. This is especially true of the FARC-EP, which integrates women into its political and military structure in ways that give them a sense of participation, accomplishment and satisfaction. Without their contributions, including sexual services, the FARC could probably not survive. However, despite their favourable experiences, many women ultimately become disillusioned with the FARC's masculine culture and value system that fails to accommodate their aspirations as women.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Child Soldiers, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Girls, Boys, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Non-state Armed Groups, Political Participation, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2008

Girl Soldiers: Challenging the Assumptions

Citation:

Brett, Rachel. 2002. Girl Soldiers: Challenging the Assumptions. New York: Quaker United Nations Office.

Author: Rachel Brett

Abstract:

This paper is based on QUNO's research in The Voices of Girl Child Soldiers. It highlights those aspects of the research that add new dimensions and greater specificity to the problem of girl child soldiers, with implications for policy and programmatic issues. (Quaker United Nations Office)

Topics: Combatants, Child Soldiers, Female Combatants, Gender, Girls

Year: 2002

Child Soldiers: From Violence to Protection

Citation:

Wessells, Michael G. 2006. Child Soldiers: From Violence to Protection. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Author: Michael G. Wessells

Abstract:

Examines the plight of child soldiers who are used by government forces and other military groups around the world as combatants, spies, porters, human land-mine detectors, and sexual slaves; analyzes the lives of these boys and girls within armed groups; discusses the impacts of these experiences on their lives; and considers the issues of reintegration into normal society, and how to prevent the problem(WorldCat)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Child Soldiers, DDR, Gender, Girls, Boys, Health, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Sexual Violence, Sexual Slavery

Year: 2006

War and Children: A Reference Handbook

Citation:

Dupuy, Kendra E., and Krijn Peters. 2010. War and Children: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

Authors: Kendra E. Dupuy, Krijn Peters

Abstract:

A comprehensive, up-to-date presentation of how children and young people are affected by and respond to situations of armed conflict and postwar reconstruction. (WorldCat)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Child Soldiers, Gender, Girls, Boys, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction

Year: 2010

The Effects of Armed Conflict on Girls and Women

Citation:

McKay, Susan. 1998. “The Effects of Armed Conflict on Girls and Women.” Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology 4 (4): 381–92.

Author: Susan McKay

Abstract:

This article discusses the gender-specific effects of armed conflict on girls and women that are addressed by the Machel Study. Among the most traumatic of these effects is sexual exploitation and gender-based violence, each having profound psychosocial consequences. Other gendered effects occur when girls are recruited as child soldiers, girls and women become internally and externally displaced refugees, and public health services, such as reproductive health care, are inadequate or unavailable. The Machel Study emphasizes women's proactive roles as peacebuilders and challenges governmental and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to focus greater attention upon building women's capacities in order to better protect children's physical and psychosocial well-being.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Child Soldiers, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender-Based Violence, Governance, Health, Mental Health, Reproductive Health, Trauma, NGOs, Peacebuilding, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse

Year: 1998

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