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Caste

Diverting the Flow: Gender Equity and Water in South Asia

Citation:

Zwarteveen, Margreet, Sara Ahmed, and Suman Rimal Gautam, eds. 2012. Diverting the Flow: Gender Equity and Water in South Asia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Authors: Margreet Zwarteveen, Sara Ahmed, Suman Rimal Guatam

Annotation:

Summary:
South Asia's significant water resources are unevenly distributed, with about a fifth of the population lacking adequate access. Across the region this vital substance determines livelihoods and in some cases even survival. By revealing the extent to which water access depends on power relations and politics, Diverting the Flow offers new perspectives on the relationship between gender equity and water issues in South Asia.
 
Drawing on empirical research and relevant theoretical frameworks, the contributors show how gender intersects with other axes of social difference--such as class, caste, ethnicity, age, and religion--to shape water use and management practices. Each of the volume's six thematic sections begins by introducing key concepts, debates, and theories before moving on to parse such issues as rights, policies, technologies, and intervention strategies. Taken together, they demonstrate that gender issues are the key to understanding and improving water distribution and management practices in the region. Featuring work by leading scholars in the field, this volume will be essential reading for students and scholars of water, gender, and development in South Asia. (Summary from University of Chicago Press
 
Table of Contents
1. Gender and Water in South Asia: Revisiting Perspectives, Policies and Practice
Sara Ahmed and Margreet Zwarteveen
 
2. Understanding Gendered Agency in Water Governance
Frances Cleaver
 
3. Gender, Water Laws and Policies: An Introduction
Margreet Zwarteveen and Sara Ahmed
 
4. Decentralising or Marginalising Women: Gender Relations and Sector Reforms in India
Seema K. Kulkarni and K.J. Joy
 
5. The Right to Water in Different Discourses
Priya Sangameswaran
 
6. Water Rights and Gender Rights: The Sri Lanka Experience
Kusum Athukorala and Ruana Rajepakse
 
7. Gender in Drinking Water and Sanitation: An Introduction
Deepa Joshi and Margreet Zwarteveen
 
8. Sanitation for the Urban Poor: Gender Matters
Deepa Joshi, Ben Fawcett and Fouzia Mannan
 
9. Reducing a Community’s Water and Sanitation Burden: Insights from Maharashtra
Nitish Jha
 
10. Gendered Waters, Poisoned Wells: Political Ecology of the Arsenic Crisis in Bangladesh
Farhana Sultana
 
11. Modern Water for Modern Women: Questioning the Relationship between Gender, Empowerment and Participation
Kathleen O’Reilly
 
12. Gender, Water and Agrarian Change: An Introduction
Margreet Zwarteveen
 
13. Groundwater Vending and Appropriation of Women’s Labour: Gender, Water Scarcity and Agrarian Change in a Gujarati Village, India
Anjal Prakash
 
14. Highlighting the User in Waste Water Irrigation Research: Gender, Class and Caste Dynamics of Livelihoods near Hyderabad, India
Stephanie Buechler and Gayathri Devi Mekala
 
15. Gender and Water Technologies: An Introduction
Margreet Zwarteveen
 
16. Farming Women and Irrigation Technology: Cases from Nepal
Bhawana Upadhyay
 
17. Gender and Water Technologies: Linking the Variables in Arsenic and Fluoride Mitigation
Nandita Singh
 
18. Perspectives on Gender and Large Dams
Lyla Mehta
 
19. Large Water Control Mechanisms: Gender Impact of the Damodar Valley Corporation, India
Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt
 
20. Strategies to Address Gendered Water Concerns: An Introduction
Suman Rimal Gautam and Margreet Zwarteveen
 
21. Improving Processes of Natural Resources Management at the Grassroots: The Case of the Self Employed Women’s Association (SEWA)
Smita Mishra Panda and Ravi Sannabhadti
 
22. Thinking and Acting on Gender Issues: The Interface of Policy, Culture and Identity
Pranita Bhushan Udas
 
23. Adopting a Gender Approach in a Water and Sanitation Project: The Case of the 4WS Project in Coastal Communities in South Asia
Christine Sijbesma, Kochurani Mathew, Rashika Nishshanka, Palitha Jayaweera, Marielle Snel, Helvi Heinonen-Tanski, Avizit Reaz Quazi, M.D. Jakariya

Topics: Caste, Class, Development, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods, Religion Regions: Asia, South Asia

Year: 2012

Agrarian Stress and Climate Change in the Eastern Gangetic Plains: Gendered Vulnerability in a Stratified Social Formation

Citation:

Sugden, Fraser, Niki Maskey, Floriane Clement, Vidya Ramesh, Anil Philip, and Ashok Rai. 2014. “Agrarian Stress and Climate Change in the Eastern Gangetic Plains: Gendered Vulnerability in a Stratified Social Formation.” Global Environmental Change 29: 258-69. 

Authors: Fraser Sugden, Niki Maskey, Floriane Clement, Vidya Ramesh, Anil Philip, Ashok Rai

Abstract:

This paper reviews the complex impact of climate change on gender relations and associated vulnerability on the Eastern Gangetic Plains of Nepal and India. Field research has identified that gendered vulnerability to climate change is intricately connected to local and macro level political economic processes. Rather than being a single driver of change, climate is one among several stresses on agriculture, alongside a broader set of non-climatic processes. While these pressures are linked to large scale political- economic processes, the response on the ground is mediated by the local level relations of class and caste, creating stratified patterns of vulnerability. The primary form of gendered vulnerability in the context of agrarian stress emerges from male out-migration, which has affected the distribution of labour and resources. While migration occurs amongst all socio-economic groups, women from marginal farmer and tenant households are most vulnerable. While the causes of migration are only indirectly associated with climate change, migration itself is rendering women who are left behind from marginal households, more vulnerable to ecological shocks such as droughts due to the sporadic flow of income and their reduced capacity for investment in off-farm activities. It is clear that policies and initiatives to address climate change in stratified social formations such as the Eastern Gangetic Plains, will be ineffective without addressing the deeper structural intersections between class, caste and gender.

Keywords: climate change, vulnerability, Eastern Gangetic Plains, gender, class, caste

Topics: Agriculture, Caste, Class, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender Regions: Asia, South Asia

Year: 2014

Inventing Saffron History: A Celibate Hero Rescues an Emasculated Nation

Citation:

Chakravarti, Uma. 2000. “Inventing Saffron History: A Celibate Hero Rescues an Emasculated Nation.” In A Question of Silence? The Sexual Economies of Modern India, edited by Janaki Nair and Mary E. John, 243–68. London and New York: Zed Books.

Author: Uma Chakravarti

Annotation:

Summary:
"A standard and well-rehearsed method of dealing with the crisis of the present is to write about or 're'construct the 'nation's' 'glorious' past...Today's political and social crisis and the panacea for it, are not being expressed through powerful writing but through the visual media, cinema and television" (Chakravarti 2000, 244). 

Topics: Caste, Class, Gender, Governance Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2000

The Influence of Caste, Class and Gender in Surviving Multiple Disasters: A Case Study from Orissa, India

Citation:

Ray-Bennett, Nibedita S. 2009. “The Influence of Caste, Class and Gender in Surviving Multiple Disasters: A Case Study from Orissa, India.” Environmental Hazards 8 (1): 5–22.

Author: Nibedita S. Ray-Benett

Abstract:

Sociological and anthropological studies in India reveal that caste, class and gender in everyday life are both rigid and dynamic, but little is known about how they influence the survival mechanisms of women during ‘multiple disasters’, nor about how women negotiate with these structural mores to meet their cultural and biological needs. This is explored through the experiences of 12 women-headed households from different social castes in Orissa, India. Multiple disasters or disasters that occur in ‘one specific place’ (such as floods, cyclone and drought) are regular events in coastal parts of the state of Orissa. The super-cyclone of 1999, two floods of 2001 and 2003 and drought of 2000 and 2002 form the case study. Participant observation, in-depth interviews and documentary evidence complement the fieldwork. The findings suggest a complex interplay of caste, class and gender in surviving the multiple disasters including structural mutability under the purview of social organization. In doing so, women demonstrated their individual and collective agencies in order to meet their cultural and biological needs under severe crisis. This research stresses that gender and disaster studies must include a consideration of caste and class for effective disaster management and social vulnerability reduction.

Keywords: gender, multiple disasters, Orissa, women-headed households, class, caste

Topics: Caste, Class, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Households Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2009

The Role of Microcredit in Reducing Women’s Vulnerabilities to Multiple Disasters

Citation:

Ray-Bennett, Nibedita S. 2010. “The Role of Microcredit in Reducing Women’s Vulnerabilities to Multiple Disasters.” Disasters 34 (1): 240-60.

Author: Nibedita S. Ray-Bennett

Abstract:

This article explores the relationship between microcredit and vulnerability reduction for women-headed households in ‘multiple disasters’. Here multiple disasters are understood as disasters that occur in one specific place and cause severe devastation. The case study covers the super-cyclone in 1999, floods in 2001 and 2003, and drought in 2002 in Orissa, India. The study entailed eight months fieldwork and interviews with several governmental and non-governmental officials and 12 women-headed households from different social castes. The findings suggest that micro-credit is a useful tool to replace women’s livelihood assets that have been lost in multiple disasters. But inefficient microcredit delivery can cause microdebts and exacerbate caste, class and gender inequalities. It is posited that microcredit delivery cannot achieve vulnerability reduction for women in multiple disasters unless it is complemented by effective financial services, integrated policy planning and disaster management between government, non-governmental organisations and the community.

Keywords: microcredit, multiple disasters, Orissa, vulnerability, women-headed households

Topics: Caste, Class, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Livelihoods, NGOs Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2010

The Role of Gender and Caste in Climate Adaptation Strategies in Nepal

Citation:

Onta, Nisha, and Bernadette P. Resurreccion. 2011. “The Role of Gender and Caste in Climate Adaptation Strategies in Nepal.” Mountain Research and Development 31 (4): 351–56.

Authors: Nisha Onta, Bernadette P. Resurreccion

Abstract:

Despite the growing number of studies and research projects on climate change adaptation, only a few have examined the gender and cultural dynamics of the adaptation process. Inequality has been identified as a major indicator of the vulnerability of individuals and groups; nevertheless, the gender and cultural aspects of inequality have not received much emphasis. The present article attempts to analyze the influence of gender and cultural relations on the process of climate change adaptation by presenting a study of Dalit and Lama households in the mountainous Humla District of Nepal. The inhabitants of Humla have been experiencing a shift in the monsoon season, a decrease in snowfall, and longer dry periods, with adverse effects on their livelihoods. The main focus of this article is to highlight the cultural, social, and economic dependency of the Lama and Dalit ethnic groups and to examine whether processes of adaptation exacerbate or alter gender inequalities and intercaste dependencies. (Abstract from original source)

Keywords: climate change, adaptation, gender, caste, Dalit, Humla, Nepal

Annotation:

Topics: Caste, Environment, Climate Change, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2011

Mining Women: Gender in the Development of a Global Industry, 1670 to 2005

Citation:

Mercier, L., and J. Gier-Viskovatoff. 2006. Mining Women: Gender in the Development of a Global Industry, 1670 to 2005. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Authors: L. Mercier, J. Gier-Viskovatoff

Abstract:

This book explores gender relations and women's work and activism in different parts of the world. It also explores the subject from multiple perspectives and links each of these not only to cultural and domestic arrangements but also to an emerging industrial and capitalist system from the Eighteenth through the Twentieth centuries. (Abstract from Palgrave Macmillan)

Annotation:

Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
Mercier, Laurie et al.
 
2. Mining Women, Royal Slaves: Copper Mining in Colonial Cuba, 1670–1780
Díaz, María Elena
 
3. Making a Difference in Colonial Interventionism in Gold Mining in Wassa Fiase, Gold Coast (Ghana): The Activism of Two Women, 1874–1893
Akurang-Parry, Kwabena O.
 
4. Lifting the Layers of the Mountain’s Petticoats: Mining and Gender in Potosí’s Pachamama
Absi, Pascale
 
5. Kamins Building the Empire: Class, Caste, and Gender Interface in Indian Collieries
Lahiri-Dutt, Kuntala
 
6. Sociability, Solidarity, and Social Exclusion: Women’s Activism in the South Wales Coalfield, ca. 1830 to 1939
Jones, Rosemary
 
7. Gender Relations in Iron Mining Communities in Sweden, 1900–1940
Blomberg, Eva
 
8. Invisible Labor: A Comparative Oral History of Women in Coal Mining Communities of Hokkaido, Japan, and Montana, USA, 1890–1940
Yoshida, Kayoko (et al.)
 
9. Coal Mining Women Speak Out: Economic Change and Women Miners of Chikuho, Japan
Sone, Sachiko
 
10. “I’m a Johnny Mitchell Man”: Gender and Labor Protest in the Pennsylvania Hard Coal Uprising, 1900–1902
Stepenoff, Bonnie
 
11. Violence and the Colorado National Guard: Masculinity, Race, Class, and Identity in the 1913–1914 Southern Colorado Coal Strike
DeStefanis, Anthony
 
12. “I Hate to Be Calling Her a Wife Now”: Women and Men in the Salt of the Earth Strike, 1950–1952
Baker, Ellen
 
13. Godless Communists and Faithful Wives, Gender Relations and the Cold War: Mine Mill and the 1958 Strike against the International Nickel Company
Steedman, Mercedes
 
14. Just a Housewife? Miners’ Wives between Household and Work in Postwar Germany
Jung, Yong-Sook
 
15. Women into Mining Jobs at Inco: Challenging the Gender Division of Labor
Keck, Jennifer (et al.)
 
16. From Ludlow to Camp Solidarity: Women, Men, and Cultures of Solidarity in U.S. Coal Communities, 1912–1990
Guerin-Gonzales, Camille
 
17. Epilogue
Gier, Jaclyn J.

Topics: Caste, Class, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Bolivia, Cuba, Ghana, India, Japan, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States of America

Year: 2006

From Gin Girls to Scavengers: Women in Raniganj Collieries

Citation:

Lahiri-Dutt, Kuntala. 2001. “From Gin Girls to Scavengers: Women in Raniganj Collieries.” Economic and Political Weekly 36 (44): 4213–21.

Author: Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt

Abstract:

In the beginning, the coal mining industry employed women from the adivasi and lower caste communities in various stages of production. Their role continued to be significant as long as technology remained labour-intensive and collieries were small and surface-bound. The expansion of the industry and increasing mechanisation saw a decline in women's participation. This paper based on research in the Raniganj coalbelt in eastern India describes how the work of resource extraction becomes gendered, the growing marginalisation of women, and their increasing alienation from access to environmental resources and their transformation into illegitimate and invisible beings.

Topics: Caste, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Infrastructure Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2001

Spatial Agendas for Decision-Making in Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh: The Influence of Place, Class and Caste on Women’s Role in Environmental Management

Citation:

Jewitt, Sarah, and Kathleen Baker. 2011. “Spatial Agendas for Decision-Making in Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh: The Influence of Place, Class and Caste on Women’s Role in Environmental Management.” In Gendered Geographies: Space and Place in South Asia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Authors: Sarah Jewitt, Kathleen Baker

Topics: Caste, Class, Environment, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Political Participation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2011

Women and Decentralized Water Governance: Issues, Challenges and the Way Forward

Citation:

Kulkarni, Seema. 2011. “Women and Decentralised Water Governance: Issues, Challenges and the Way Forward.” Review of Women’s Studies 46 (18): 64–72.

Author: Seema Kulkarni

Abstract:

Based on a study of water rights and women’s rights in decentralised water governance in Maharashtra and Gujarat, this paper argues that decentralisation will fail to meet its desired objectives unless the value systems, culture and the nature of institutions, including the family, change. While the policy initiative of introducing quotas for women in public bodies is welcome and necessary, it is certainly not sufficient for the success of decentralisation in a society ridden with discrimination based on class, caste and patriarchy, and where the culture of political patronage is dominant. The presence of vibrant social and political movements that propose alternative cultural, social and political paradigms would be a necessary foundation for major social changes. The success of decentralised water governance is constrained by the conceptualisation of the larger reform in water at one level and the notions of the normative woman, community, public and the private domains, and institutions at another. Unless all of these are altered, decentralised processes will not be truly democratic.

Topics: Caste, Class, Corruption, Democracy / Democratization, Environment, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Governance, Quotas Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2011

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