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Care Economies

Reasoned Choice or Performative Care? Women’s Transformative Peacebuilding Identities in Manipur, India

Citation:

Riddle, Karie Cross. 2019. “Reasoned Choice or Performative Care? Women’s Transformative Peacebuilding Identities in Manipur, India.” Journal of Human Development and Capabilities 20 (1): 54–68.

Author: Karie Cross Riddle

Keywords: care ethics, gender, identity, India, agency, performativity

Annotation:

Countering the inevitability of communal violence, Amartya Sen defines identities as the product of individual, reasoned choice. Although he acknowledges that such choices are constrained, I argue that Sen’s position overlooks (1) the relational character of identities which reflect caring responsibility rather than autonomous choice, and (2) the power structures that constrain agents’ choices. Using original ethnographic research conducted with women’s peacebuilding groups in India in 2014 and 2015, I develop a theory of identity as performative and grounded in care. Theorizing first from women’s peacebuilding practices and then adding insights from Sara Ruddick’s care ethics and Judith Butler’s theory of performativity, I demonstrate how relationships and structures circumscribe women’s choices, leading them to transform their relational identities rather than choose them after a process of reasoning. Women peacebuilders take up socially-ascribed responsibility for others, building peace relationally as mothers and conflict-affected widows. Post-structural feminism helps us to guard against essentializing these women’s experiences as natural, instead seeing their work as deeply constrained by gender norms even as their peace work transforms those norms. My understanding of identity as relational and performative thus illuminates new sources for and new constraints upon agency.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Conflict, Economies, Care Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Peacebuilding Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2019

Care as Everyday Peacebuilding

Citation:

Vaittinen, Tiina, Amanda Donahoe, Rahel Kunz, Silja Bára Ómarsdóttir, and Sanam Roohi. 2019. “Care as Everyday Peacebuilding.” Peacebuilding 7 (2): 194–209.

Authors: Tiina Vaittinen, Amanda Donahoe, Rahel Kunz, Silja Bára Ómarsdóttir, Sanam Roohi

Abstract:

Analyses of everyday peace provide a critical response to existing peace practices. However, absent from these discussions is the feminist research that theorizes peace through everyday practices of care. We argue that contemporary debates on everyday peace should engage with this largely forgotten tradition. We explore the contributions of this research through case studies that span the north-south divide: from Northern Ireland to Aceh, and Kashmir to Reykjavik. Demonstrating how care is an essential ingredient of everyday peace, we suggest that a care lens allows us to reframe the understanding of everyday peace to provide a fuller picture that also addresses the complex and contradictory nature of social relations involved in everyday peacebuilding. By resolving conflicts over immediate care needs and building the capacity of communities in ways that subtly challenge the fixity of conflict, care cumulatively creates possibilities for peaceful transformation.

Keywords: care, everyday peace, trust, social transformation, feminist peace research

Topics: Conflict, Economies, Care Economies, Feminisms, Peacebuilding Regions: Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Western Europe Countries: Iceland, Indonesia, Ireland

Year: 2019

Peacebuilding Through the Care Work Lens

Citation:

Ibnouf, Fatma Osman. 2020. “Peacebuilding Through the Care Work Lens.” In War-Time Care Work and Peacebuilding in Africa: The Forgotten One, edited by Fatma Osman Ibnouf, 113–48. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author: Fatma Osman Ibnouf

Abstract:

This chapter examines the contribution of women as caregivers to peacebuilding and why they are needed in peacebuilding processes. It outlines how women can be granted audience in formal peacebuilding processes and justifies why their role as care workers during and in the aftermath of conflict should be acknowledged in national and international peace discourses. It also recommends that the peacebuilding processes should be carried out pragmatically, considering wartime care work arrangements and ethics of care. Women as caregivers during conflict have practical experiences and thus are best suited to ensure pragmatic approaches to peacebuilding. Finally, it analyses the impact of armed conflict on gender inequality, considering care work.

Keywords: ethics of care, human security, gender equality, women's voices, peacebuilding

Topics: Armed Conflict, Conflict, Economies, Care Economies, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peacebuilding

Year: 2020

Rural Women’s Livelihoods in Post-Conflict Sri Lanka: Connection between Participation in Agriculture and Care Work across the Life Course

Citation:

Gunawardana, Samanthi Jayasekara. 2018. “Rural Women’s Livelihoods in Post-Conflict Sri Lanka: Connections between Participation in Agriculture and Care Work across the Life-Course.” Monash Gender Peace and Security Centre Research Papers 1/2018, Monash University, Melbourne.

Author: Samanthi Jayasekara Gunawardana

Annotation:

Summary:
This working paper explores the relationship between participation in rural agricultural livelihoods and unpaid care work across the life course of rural Sri Lankan women. This research was conducted as part of an Oxfam-Monash Partnership2 that set out to explore the barriers and enablers for rural women’s participation and recognition in agricultural livelihoods in post-war Sri Lanka. Our study shows that rural Sri Lankan women’s participation in agriculture dropped to the lowest levels when they had young children. Paradoxically, their engagement in any other non-agricultural livelihood activity peaked at this time in their lives. Activities included home-based non-agricultural production, garment productin, self-employment, and migration on temporary labour contracts. Thus, women did not exit livelihood activities altogether when they had children. Rather they took up non-agricultural work. Once women were in their 40s, participation in agriculture again increased for our sample.

Topics: Agriculture, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Care Economies, Gender, Women, Households, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Sri Lanka

Year: 2018

Achieving a Gendered Transformation of the Post-Conflict Military through Security Sector Reform: Unpacking the Private–Public Dynamics

Citation:

Wilén, Nina. 2020. “Achieving a Gendered Transformation of the Post-Conflict Military through Security Sector Reform: Unpacking the Private–Public Dynamics.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 22 (1): 86–105.

Author: Nina Wilén

Abstract:

Reforms of the post-conflict military are often part of a broader security sector reform (SSR), focusing on public state institutions in the security domain. The military, as a traditionally masculine institution, has been targeted for reforms related to gender integration and mainstreaming in order to make it more democratic and representative. Yet, while these efforts have partly succeeded in making gender issues essential to the military, I argue here that in order to achieve a gendered transformation of the military and erase the gender hierarchy, it is necessary to move focus beyond the public sphere and into the private to examine how these are mutually dependent. I illustrate this point through examples taken from interviews with soldiers from national armies in two countries that have experienced wide-ranging reforms following conflict: Burundi and South Africa. I identify three societal borders policing women in the private sphere, which have an impact in the public sphere: resistance to women in the army, women as primary caregivers, and men’s perceived superiority over women. The examples show how a gendered transformation needs to collapse borders between public and private in order to make visible gendered forms of exclusion and discrimination in the military.

Keywords: gender, military, security sector reform (SSR), private/public distinction, women

Topics: Combatants, Economies, Care Economies, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Post-Conflict, Security Sector Reform Regions: Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Burundi, South Africa

Year: 2020

The Triangle of the Human Economy: Household - Cultivation - Industrial Production An Attempt at Making Visible the Human Economy in Toto

Citation:

Pietilä, Hilkka. 1997. “The Triangle of the Human Economy: Household - Cultivation - Industrial Production An Attempt at Making Visible the Human Economy in Toto.” Ecological Economics 20 (2): 113–27.

Author: Hilkka Pietilä

Abstract:

This paper is an attempt at outlining a comprehensive framework within which it would be possible to perceive that the totality of the human economy consists of three distinct components: household, cultivation and industrial production. Each one of these components operates according to its own particular logic. Therefore, the logic of one cannot be imposed on the logic of another without serious consequences — as is now already seen, when the logic of industrial production has hitherto been imposed upon the whole human economy. It is to be hoped that establishing a new, more comprehensive and relevant perception of the human economy as a whole would help humanity to adopt a lifestyle which will provide the prerequisites for a dignified quality of life for all people, with due respect to the ecological boundaries of the biosphere. In this process, a recognition of the economic, social and cultural contribution of women is decisive, as well as a respect for the values and priorities set within women's culture and way of life.

Keywords: women's work, gender and economics, cultivation economy, alternative economics, new theory of economics, economy versus ecology, the human economy, unpaid work and production, household as basic economy

Topics: Economies, Care Economies, Ecological Economics, Environment, Gender, Women, Households

Year: 1997

Social Provisioning as a Starting Point for Feminist Economics

Citation:

Power, Marilyn. 2004. “Social Provisioning as a Starting Point for Feminist Economics.” Feminist Economics 10 (3): 3–19.

Author: Marilyn Power

Abstract:

The past decade has seen a proliferation of writing by feminist economists. Feminist economists are not identified with one particular economic paradigm, yet some common methodological points seem to be emerging. I propose making these starting points more explicit so that they can be examined, critiqued, and built upon. I use the term ‘‘social provisioning’’ to describe this emerging methodology. Its five main components are: incorporation of caring and unpaid labor as fundamental economic activities; use of well-being as a measure of economic success; analysis of economic, political, and social processes and power relations; inclusion of ethical goals and values as an intrinsic part of the analysis; and interrogation of differences by class, race-ethnicity, and other factors. The paper then provides brief illustrations of the use of this methodology in analyses of US welfare reform,gender and development, and feminist ecological economics.

Keywords: social provisioning, welfare reform, gender and development, feminist political economics, feminist ecological economics, feminist methodology

Topics: Class, Development, Economies, Care Economies, Feminist Economics, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Race Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2004

Making the Hidden Visible: The Importance of Caring Activities and Their Principles for Any Economy

Citation:

Jochimsen, Maren, and Ulrike Knobloch. 1997. “Making the Hidden Visible: The Importance of Caring Activities and Their Principles for Any Economy.” Ecological Economics 20 (2): 107–12.

Authors: Maren Jochimsen, Ulrike Knobloch

Abstract:

In this paper we emphasize the interrelation of the monetary, free-enterprise sector of the economy and its maintaining basis. The current discussion on sustainability has so far placed too little attention on this circumstance. To us this interrelation is fundamental; it is one important key to understanding present day economics and economies. By concentrating on this interrelation we question the widely accepted dualism between the public and the private, between the officially acknowledged economic and the invisible economic. By this we create our own specific approach to the question of how to reform economic thought and action in order to achieve a naturally and socially sustainable living.

Keywords: feminist economics, discoursive ethics, ecological economics, sustainable development, caring economy

Topics: Development, Economies, Care Economies, Ecological Economics, Feminist Economics, Environment, Feminisms

Year: 1997

Ecology, Sustainability, and Care: Developments in the Field

Citation:

Nelson, Julie A., and Marilyn Power. 2018. “Ecology, Sustainability, and Care: Developments in the Field.” Feminist Economics 24 (3): 80–8.

Authors: Julie A. Nelson, Marilyn Power

Abstract:

Over the past three decades, scholars and activists have been attempting to enrich the field of economics with both feminist and ecological perspectives. This essay reviews some highlights of such efforts, describes the current state of the field (particularly in regard to notions of “care”), and introduces a short symposium.

Keywords: feminist economics, ecological economics, green economics, gender, care, care work

Topics: Economies, Care Economies, Ecological Economics, Feminist Economics, Environment, Gender

Year: 2018

Pages

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