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Armed Conflict

Possible Contributions of a Psychology of Liberation: Whither Health and Human Rights?


Lykes, M. Brinton. 2000. “Possible Contributions of a Psychology of Liberation: Whither Health and Human Rights?” Journal of Health Psychology 5 (3): 383–97.

Author: M. Brinton Lykes


This article explores the possible contributions of a psychology of liberation for the practice of health psychology. It explores alternative psychological 'practices', for example participatory action research, with groups historically marginalized from access to power and resources. Selected lenses for crafting a liberatory psychology include: discourse of human rights and mental health; cultural and constructivist psychological theory; and reflexivity. Specific examples from the author's work with Mayan women in rural Guatemala in the context of ongoing war and subsequent efforts at peace building are discussed to clarify possible contributions of psychologists committed to accompanying local communities in creating more just futures. Selected challenges and contradictions encountered in this work are discussed.

Keywords: health, human rights, liberatory psychology

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, Peacebuilding, Rights, Human Rights Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Guatemala

Year: 2000

Cowboy of the World? Gender Discourse and the Iraq War Debate


Christensen, Wendy M., and Myra Marx Ferree. 2008. “Cowboy of the World? Gender Discourse and the Iraq War Debate.” Qualitative Sociology 31 (3): 287–306. doi:10.1007/s11133-008-9106-0.

Authors: Wendy M. Christensen, Myra Marx Ferree


In this article we examine the debate preceding the most recent war in Iraq to show how gendered framing can compromise the quality of debate. Drawing on a sample of national news discourse in the year before the war began, we show that both anti-war and pro-war speakers draw on binary images of gender to construct their cases for or against war. Speakers cast the Bush administration’s argument for invasion either as a correct “macho” stance or as inappropriate, out-of-control masculinity. The most prominent gendered image in war debate is that of the cowboy, used to characterize both President Bush and US foreign policy in general. The cowboy is positioned against a diplomatic form of masculinity that is associated with Europe and valued by anti-war speakers, but criticized by pro-war speakers. Articles that draw on gender images show a lower quality of the debate, measured by the extent to which reasons rather than ad hominem arguments are used to support or rebut assertions.

Keywords: gender, Iraq war, News debate, Cowboy masculinity

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Masculinity/ies Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq

Year: 2008

Guerrilleras víctimas de trata de seres humanos en prisión en Colombia


Villacampa Estiarte, Carolina, and Katherine Flórez Pinilla. 2016. “Guerrilleras víctimas de trata de seres humanos en prisión en Colombia.” Revista de Victimología / Journal of Victimology 0 (3): 87–119.

Authors: Carolina Villacampa Estiarte, Katherine Flórez Pinilla


Este artículo expone los principales resultados de una investigación cualitativa efectuada con 20 mujeres presas en Colombia que fueron guerrilleras ahora desmovilizadas al haberse acogido a los benefi cios de la Ley de Justicia y Paz de 2005. El estudio muestra que las historias vitales narradas por 16 de estas mujeres permite identifi carlas como víctimas de trata para explotación criminal sin que hayan sido detectadas como tales. Se evidencia cómo en el 80% de los casos analizados estas mujeres sufrieron episodios de victimización que las llevaron a ingresar y mantenerse en el grupo armado, en muchas ocasiones contra su voluntad, empleando medios tanto para captarlas cuanto para mantener su actividad en el mismo que muestran que sufrieron un proceso de trata.

Keywords: Trata de personas, explotación criminal, victimización de mujeres, justicia y paz, conflicto armado en Colombia

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, Non-state armed groups, Rights, Human Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2016

Sexual Violence and Armed Conflict


Leatherman, Janie. 2011. Sexual Violence and Armed Conflict. Cambridge; Malden, MA: Polity.

Author: Janie Leatherman


Every year, hundreds of thousands of people become victims of sexual violence in conflict zones around the world, most of them women and girls; in the Democratic Republic of Congo alone, approximately 200,000 have faced sexual violence since 1998, and those attacks continue to devastate Eastern Congo in particular, leading to the systematic collapse of safe space. This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the causes and consequences of, as well as responses to, sexual violence in contemporary armed conflict. It explores the functions and effects of wartime sexual violence as part of a global political economy of violence. To understand the motivations of the men (and occasionally women) who perpetrate this violence, the book analyzes the role played by systemic and situational factors such as patriarchy and militarized masculinity in a tangled web of plunder and profit. Difficult questions of accountability are tackled; in particular, the case of child soldiers, who often suffer a double victimization when forced to commit sexual atrocities and other crimes. The book concludes by looking at strategies of prevention and protection as well as an ethics of caring to support the rehabilitation of survivors and their reintegration into family and community life. Sexual violence in war has long been a taboo subject but, as this book shows, new and courageous steps are at last being taken--at both local and international levels--to end what has been called the "greatest silence in history." (Page 4 of cover)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Masculinity/ies, Militarism, Political Economies, Sexual Violence

Year: 2011

The Quiet Revolutionaries: Seeking Justice in Guatemala


Afflitto, Frank M, and Paul Jesilow. 2007. The Quiet Revolutionaries: Seeking Justice in Guatemala. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Authors: Frank M. Afflitto, Paul Jesilow


The last three decades of the twentieth century brought relentless waves of death squads, political kidnappings, and other traumas to the people of Guatemala. Many people fled the country to escape the violence. Yet, at the same moment, a popular movement for justice brought together unlikely bands of behind-the-scenes heroes, blurring ethnic, geographic, and even class lines. The Quiet Revolutionaries is drawn from interviews conducted by Frank Afflitto in the early 1990s with more than eighty survivors of the state-sanctioned violence. Gathered under frequently life-threatening circumstances, the observations and recollections of these inspiring men and women form a unique perspective on collective efforts to produce change in politics, law, and public consciousness. Examined from a variety of perspectives, from sociological to historical, their stories form a rich ethnography. While it is still too soon to tell whether stable, long-term democracy will prevail in Guatemala, the successes of these fascinating individuals provide a unique understanding of revolutionary resistance. (WorldCat)


Table of Contents:

Acknowledgments ix

Introduction 1

Chapter one: Some Background 11

Chapter two: Access Was Not Easy 31

Chapter three: Chronic Ambiguity 54

Chapter four: Seeking Justice 76

Chapter five: The Social Movement to End Impunity 100

Chapter six: The Movement Is Fragmented by the Peace Accords 129

Chapter seven: Identity, Rule of Law, and Democracy 149

Appendix 159

Notes 167

References 181

Index 203

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Gender, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Guatemala

Year: 2007

Manhood Deprived and (Re)constructed during Conflicts and International Prosecutions: The Curious Case of the Prosecutor v. Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta et al.


Turan, Gözde. 2016. “Manhood Deprived and (Re)constructed during Conflicts and International Prosecutions: The Curious Case of the Prosecutor v. Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta et Al.” Feminist Legal Studies 24 (1): 29–47. doi:10.1007/s10691-016-9313-0.

Author: Gözde Turan


Recent case law on sexual violence crimes heard before the ad hoc international criminal tribunals and courts, that interpret them in connection with ethnic conflict, raises the question of which acts can be defined as sexual violence. The International Criminal Court (ICC), in the situation of Kenya, does not regard acts of forced nudity, forcible circumcision and penile amputation as sexual violence when they are motivated by ethnic prejudice and intended to demonstrate the cultural superiority of one tribe over another. The Court argues that not every act of violence that targets parts of the body commonly associated with sexuality should be considered an act of sexual violence. This recent interpretation of what counts as sexual violence provides another example of the complicity of international criminal law institutions in the ongoing construction process of female subordination. The ICC, in the Kenya situation, implicitly confirms the mutilation of female agency by interpreting penile amputation as a kind of power game between males, and by instrumentalizing the male sexual organ as an indicator of masculinity and manhood.

Keywords: sexual violence, international criminal court, intersectionality, Kenya case, masculinity

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, International Criminal Law, International Tribunals & Special Courts, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2016

Palestinian Women Negotiate Violent Conflict


Holt, Maria. 2004. “Palestinian Women Negotiate Violent Conflict.” Al-Raida. 21(103): 26-30.

Author: Maria Holt


On 6 September 2003, Palestinian women in the West Bank town of Tulkarem organized a demonstration of more than 200 Palestinian, Israeli and international women to protest against the Apartheid Wall that is being built by Israel in the occupied territories. Their action should not surprise us as Palestinian women are well known for their active participation in resisting the occupation. Given the severity of their situation, they have little choice but to focus first and foremost on the national struggle. But does this mean that “women’s issues” will inevitably be sidelined? Are such concerns a luxury, to be attended to once the serious business of war is ended? 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Political Participation, Rights, Human Rights Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2004

Resistance, Repression, and Gender Politics in Occupied Palestine and Jordan


Hasso, Frances Susan. 2005. Resistance, Repression, and Gender Politics in Occupied Palestine and Jordan. New York: Syracuse University Press.


Author: Frances Susan Hasso


Examines gender, women's involvement, and sexuality in the ideologies and strategies of a transnational Palestinian political movement. This book focuses on the central party apparatus of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP), the Democratic Front (DF) branches established in the Occupied Palestinian Territories and Jordan in the 1970s, and the most influential and innovative of the DF women's organizations: the Palestinian Federation of Women's Action Committees in the occupied territories. Until now, no study of a Palestinian political organization has so thoroughly engaged with internal gender histories. In addition, no other work attempts to systematically compare branches in different regional locations to explain those differences. (Abstract from Google books.)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Political Participation Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Jordan, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2005

Taking Women Seriously? Conflict, State-Building and Gender in Afghanistan


Kouvo, Sari. 2011. “Taking Women Seriously? Conflict, State-Building and Gender in Afghanistan.” In Feminist Perspectives on Contemporary International Law: Between Resistance and Compliance?, edited by Sari Kouvo and Zoe Pearson, 159–77. Portland, OR: Hart.

Author: Sari Kouvo

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan

Year: 2011

Unmanned? Gender Recalibrations and the Rise of Drone Warfare


Bayard de Volo, Lorraine. 2016. “Unmanned? Gender Recalibrations and the Rise of Drone Warfare.” Politics & Gender 12 (01): 50–77. doi:10.1017/S1743923X15000252.

Author: Lorraine Bayard de Volo


Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)—drones—are increasingly prominent in U.S. military strategy (Shaw and Akhter 2012). The U.S. Air Force (USAF) trains more UAV pilots than fighter and bomber pilots combined (Parsons 2012). A 2011 Defense Department analysis predicted “a force made up almost entirely of [UAVs] by the middle of this century” (U.S. Department of Defense 2011). Some argue that drones and other robotics so alter the character and conduct of military operations as to constitute a revolution in military affairs (RMA) (Singer 2009).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender Analysis, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Weapons /Arms

Year: 2016


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