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Armed Conflict

Palestinian Women Negotiate Violent Conflict


Holt, Maria. 2004. “Palestinian Women Negotiate Violent Conflict.” Al-Raida. 21(103): 26-30.

Author: Maria Holt


On 6 September 2003, Palestinian women in the West Bank town of Tulkarem organized a demonstration of more than 200 Palestinian, Israeli and international women to protest against the Apartheid Wall that is being built by Israel in the occupied territories. Their action should not surprise us as Palestinian women are well known for their active participation in resisting the occupation. Given the severity of their situation, they have little choice but to focus first and foremost on the national struggle. But does this mean that “women’s issues” will inevitably be sidelined? Are such concerns a luxury, to be attended to once the serious business of war is ended? 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Political Participation, Rights, Human Rights Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2004

Resistance, Repression, and Gender Politics in Occupied Palestine and Jordan


Hasso, Frances Susan. 2005. Resistance, Repression, and Gender Politics in Occupied Palestine and Jordan. New York: Syracuse University Press.


Author: Frances Susan Hasso


Examines gender, women's involvement, and sexuality in the ideologies and strategies of a transnational Palestinian political movement. This book focuses on the central party apparatus of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP), the Democratic Front (DF) branches established in the Occupied Palestinian Territories and Jordan in the 1970s, and the most influential and innovative of the DF women's organizations: the Palestinian Federation of Women's Action Committees in the occupied territories. Until now, no study of a Palestinian political organization has so thoroughly engaged with internal gender histories. In addition, no other work attempts to systematically compare branches in different regional locations to explain those differences. (Abstract from Google books.)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Political Participation Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Jordan, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2005

Taking Women Seriously? Conflict, State-Building and Gender in Afghanistan


Kouvo, Sari. 2011. “Taking Women Seriously? Conflict, State-Building and Gender in Afghanistan.” In Feminist Perspectives on Contemporary International Law: Between Resistance and Compliance?, edited by Sari Kouvo and Zoe Pearson, 159–77. Portland, OR: Hart.

Author: Sari Kouvo

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan

Year: 2011

Ending Violence against Women in Latin America: Feminist Norm Setting in a Multilevel Context


Roggeband, Conny. 2016. “Ending Violence against Women in Latin America: Feminist Norm Setting in a Multilevel Context.” Politics & Gender 12 (01): 143–67. doi:10.1017/S1743923X15000604.

Author: Conny Roggeband


Latin American feminists brought up the issue of violence in the 1970s under military rule or situations of armed conflict. These contexts made feminists specifically concerned with state violence against women. Women's organizations pointed to torture and rape of political prisoners and the use of rape as a weapon of war and connected these forms of violence to deeper societal patterns of subordination and violence against women in both the private and public spheres. Processes of democratization in the region brought new opportunities to institutionalize norms to end violence against women (VAW), and in many countries feminists managed to get the issue on the political agenda. In the mid 1990s, the region pioneered international legislation on VAW that uniquely included state-sponsored violence. The Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence against Women (1994) established an international obligation for states to prevent, investigate, and punish VAW regardless of whether it takes place in the home, the community, or in the public sphere. While Latin American governments massively ratified this convention, national legislation was not brought in line with the broad scope of the international convention. This points to the complex and often contradictory dynamics of institutionalizing norms to oppose VAW in multilevel settings.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, International Law, Post-Conflict, Women's Rights, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America, South America

Year: 2016

Unmanned? Gender Recalibrations and the Rise of Drone Warfare


Bayard de Volo, Lorraine. 2016. “Unmanned? Gender Recalibrations and the Rise of Drone Warfare.” Politics & Gender 12 (01): 50–77. doi:10.1017/S1743923X15000252.

Author: Lorraine Bayard de Volo


Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)—drones—are increasingly prominent in U.S. military strategy (Shaw and Akhter 2012). The U.S. Air Force (USAF) trains more UAV pilots than fighter and bomber pilots combined (Parsons 2012). A 2011 Defense Department analysis predicted “a force made up almost entirely of [UAVs] by the middle of this century” (U.S. Department of Defense 2011). Some argue that drones and other robotics so alter the character and conduct of military operations as to constitute a revolution in military affairs (RMA) (Singer 2009).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender Analysis, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Weapons /Arms

Year: 2016

(Re)framing the Relationship between Discourse and Materiality in Feminist Security Studies and Feminist IPE


Hudson, Heidi. 2015. “(Re)framing the Relationship between Discourse and Materiality in Feminist Security Studies and Feminist IPE.” Politics & Gender 11 (02): 413–19. doi:10.1017/S1743923X15000124.

Author: Heidi Hudson


While feminists usually try to ground the meanings that they study, theorizing the mundane or the everyday may very well represent a detour—or even a dead end—if bread-and-butter issues related to the security and economic well-being of ordinary women and men are ignored. What value does feminist theorizing (even if it draws from women's lived experiences) have in war-affected contexts where meeting immediate needs is paramount? At what point does the theorizing of the body under such circumstances become a means to satisfying intellectual fetishes? Theorizing the everyday is messy because it has to contend with the immediate social setting in which popular culture is inseparable from the economic materiality of the conditions of oppression.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Economies, Feminisms, Political Economies, Security

Year: 2015

From Unity to Divergence and Back Again: Security and Economy in Feminist International Relations


Sjoberg, Laura. 2015. “From Unity to Divergence and Back Again: Security and Economy in Feminist International Relations.” Politics & Gender 11 (02): 408–13. doi:10.1017/S1743923X15000112.

Author: Laura Sjoberg


In Gender and International Security: Feminist Perspectives on Achieving Global Security, J. Ann Tickner (1992) identified three main dimensions to “achieving global security”—national security, economic security, and ecological security: conflict, economics, and the environment. Much of the work in feminist peace studies that inspired early feminist International Relations (IR) work (e.g., Brock-Utne 1989; Reardon 1985) and many of Tickner's contemporaries (e.g., Enloe 1989; Peterson and Runyan 1991; Pettman 1996) also saw political economy and a feminist conception of security as intrinsically interlinked. Yet, as feminist IR research evolved in the early 21st century, more scholars were thinking either about political economy or about war and political violence, but not both.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Conflict Prevention, Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Political Economies, Security, Human Security, Violence

Year: 2015

World Views in Peace Building: A Post-Conflict Reconstruction Challenge in Cambodia


Gellman, Mneesha. 2010. “World Views in Peace Building: A Post-Conflict Reconstruction Challenge in Cambodia.” Development in Practice 20 (1): 85–98. doi:10.1080/09614520903436984.

Author: Mneesha Gellman



This article explores post-conflict reconstruction in Cambodia through an analysis of both the dangers of liberal peace building and the positive role that training in capacity building plays in war-torn societies. The central question addressed is how insider–outsider dynamics influence Cambodia’s post-conflict reconstruction projects; and what assumptions do international workers and Cambodian NGO staff make about ‘the good life’ that will be constructed? The article offers an overview of Cambodia’s history and cultural context to situate its analysis of liberal peace building and foreign donors, as well as the behavioural characteristics of international peace builders operating within Cambodia. It assesses the potency of elite capture of insider–outsider partnership, specific NGO management practices, and the role of gender to better illuminate the challenges for post-conflict reconstruction. The article concludes with recommendations for improving future partnerships between insiders and outsiders in Cambodian peace-building projects.


Cet article traite de la reconstruction post-conflit au Cambodge a` travers une analyse des dangers de la construction de la paix selon des principes libe´raux d’une part et, d’autre part, du roˆle positif que la formation en renforcement des capacite´s joue dans les socie´te´s de´chire´es par la guerre. La question centrale traite´e ici est : comment la dynamique entre les entite´s internes et externes influence-t-elle les projets post-reconstruction cambodgiens et quelles suppositions les travailleurs internationaux et le personnel d’ONG cambodgiennes font-ils sur ‘la bonne vie’ qui sera construite? Cet article comporte une vue d’ensemble du contexte historique et culturel du Cambodge afin de situer mon analyse de la construction de la paix libe´rale et des bailleurs de fonds e´trangers, ainsi que des caracte´ristiques comportementales des entite´s internationales qui construisent la paix au sein meˆme du Cambodge. J’e´value la puissance de l’accaparation par les e´lites des partenariats internes-externes, les pratiques de gestion propres aux ONG et le roˆle du genre afin de mieux mettre en relief les de´fis de la reconstruction post-conflit. L’article se conclut par des recommandations en vue de l’ame´lioration des partenariats futurs entre les entite´s internes et externes dans les projets cambodgiens de construction de la paix.


Este artigo explora a reconstruc¸a˜o no po´s-conflito do Camboja atrave´s de uma ana´lise dos perigos da construc¸a˜o da paz liberal e o papel positivo que o treinamento em capacitac¸a˜o desempenha nas sociedades arrasadas pela guerra. A questa˜o central abordada e´ como as dinaˆmicas internas–externas influenciam os projetos de reconstruc¸a˜o no po´s-conflito do Camboja; e quais pressupostos os trabalhadores internacionais e funciona´rios de ONG cambojanas adotam sobre ‘a boa vida’ que sera´ construı´da? O artigo oferece minha visa˜o geral sobre o contexto histo´rico e cultural do Camboja para situar a ana´lise de construc¸a˜o da paz liberal e doadores estrangeiros, assim como caracterı´sticas comportamentais de implementadores internacionais da paz que esta˜o atuando dentro do Camboja. Eu avalio a capacidade de obtenc¸a˜o de parceria interna-externa da elite, pra´ticas de gesta˜o de ONGs especı´ficas e o papel da questa˜o de geˆnero para melhor iluminar os desafios para a reconstruc¸a˜o no po´s-conflito. O artigo conclui com recomendac¸o˜es para se melhorar as parcerias futuras entre agentes internos e externos nos projetos de construc¸a˜o da paz do Camboja.


Este ensayo examina la reconstruccio´n durante la etapa de posconflicto en Camboya analizando los riesgos de la construccio´n de la paz y la importancia del fortalecimiento de capacidades en sociedades devastadas por la guerra. La interrogante es ¿co´mo influye la dina´mica interior-exterior en los proyectos de reconstruccio´n durante el posconflicto en Camboya y co´mo suponen los funcionarios internacionales y el personal de las ONG camboyanas que debe ser ‘la buena vida’ a construir? Este ensayo revisa el contexto histo´rico y cultural de Camboya como marco de referencia para analizar la construccio´n de la paz en el paı´s. La autora evalu´a co´mo las e´lites pueden cooptar las alianzas nacionales e internacionales, ciertas pra´cticas administrativas de las ONG y el enfoque de ge´nero, mostrando posibles retos para ası´ ejemplificar los desafı´os de la reconstruccio´n durante el posconflicto. El ensayo concluye con recomendaciones para mejorar futuras alianzas entre organizaciones nacionales y extranjeras en los proyectos de construccio´n de paz en Camboya.

Keywords: aid, conflict, reconstruction, gender, diversity, East Asia

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, NGOs, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia

Year: 2010

Introduction: Feminist Security Studies and Feminist Political Economy: Crossing Divides and Rebuilding Bridges


Elias, Juanita. 2015. “Introduction: Feminist Security Studies and Feminist Political Economy: Crossing Divides and Rebuilding Bridges.” Politics & Gender 11 (02): 406–8. doi:10.1017/S1743923X15000100.

Author: Juanita Elias


The essays here reflect on the need to rebuild bridges between two key strands of feminist International Relations (IR) scholarship: feminist security studies (FSS) and feminist (international) political economy (FPE/FIPE). As many of the contributions to this section point out, feminist IR scholarship has long emphasized how gender relations and identities are constituted globally in relation to processes of militarization, securitization, globalization, and governance. In more recent years, however, feminist IR scholarship has come to be dominated by a concern with security (Prügl 2011). Of course, FPE scholarship has continued to provide critical accounts of the gendered nature of global production, work, and financial crises (among other issues). But it is notable that, in doing so, much FPE scholarship has tended to avoid questions of security and/or violence. This CP section, then, looks to the growing divide between FSS and FPE with all of the contributors seeking to analyse how these two traditions of feminist scholarship might be reintegrated and why this reintegration is important.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender Analysis, Political Economies, Security

Year: 2015

Feminist Theory and the Failures of Post-9/11 Freedom


Anker, Elisabeth. 2012. “Feminist Theory and the Failures of Post-9/11 Freedom.” Politics & Gender 8 (02): 207–15. doi:10.1017/S1743923X12000177.

Author: Elisabeth Anker


After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, freedom was the dominant term used to describe the United States in national political discourse. It was articulated as sovereign power, unencumbered agency, and military triumph. “Freedom” eventually animated global violence, becoming a justification for the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as for substantial increases in state surveillance. A significant body of feminist scholarship has interrogated the discourse of post-9/11 freedom, examining how the call to “free the women of Afghanistan and Iraq” legitimated the push for war (Bhattacharrya 2008; Marso 2007; Mohanty 2008). For these scholars, “freedom” transformed feminist concerns into tools of militarism and imperialism, while worsening living conditions of women across the globe. In this essay, I also examine the discourse of post-9/11 freedom from a feminist perspective, but I ask a different question: How can feminist political theory critique the discourse of American freedom and challenge its trajectory of sovereign and violent state power? In other words, I examine the discourse of Americans upholding their own freedom, rather than their quest to free others, and insist that feminist theoretical arguments are directly relevant to post-9/11 problematics.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Nationalism, Terrorism Regions: MENA, Americas, North America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Iraq, United States of America

Year: 2012


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