Armed Conflict

Derechos sobre la tenencia de tierras y la lucha de la mujer campesina en Colombia

Citation:

García García, Yadira Esther. 2013. "Derechos sobre la tenencia de tierras y la lucha de la mujer campesina en Colombia." Pensamiento Americano 6 (11): 97-106.

Author: Yadira Esther García García

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Peasant women victims of armed conflict in Colombia, representing a part of the most vulnerable because of their gender. However, the story not only puts wom- en in a state of weakness, but the character shown by his political ideologies, which has made them a warrior on rights, through a long struggle for freedom and social equality among men. Aristotle places the woman in the same status of the slave, but playing different roles (pro- cess alienation of women from her husband, naturally legitimized through history). Thus, a way to leave this state of alienation and apply the alienation, is the development of learning scenarios that allow the active participation of women as future leaders and builders of thoughts towards the common good. 
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Las mujeres campesinas víctimas del conflicto armado en Colombia, representan una parte de la población más vulnerable como consecuencia de su género. Sin embargo, la historia no solo coloca a las mujeres en un estado de debilidad, sino que las ha mostrado protagonistas mediante sus ideologías políticas, lo que ha hecho de ellas unas guerreras en materia de derechos, a través de una larga lucha por la libertad e igualdad social entre los hombres. Aristóteles ubica a la mujer en el mismo estatus del esclavo, pero desempeñando roles diferentes (proceso de alienación de la mujer frente a su marido, legitimado naturalmente a través de la historia). De esta manera, una forma de dejar este estado de alienación y aplicar la desalienación, es la construcción de escenarios educativos, que permitan la participación activa de las mujeres como futuras gobernantes y constructoras de pensamientos hacia el bien común. 

Keywords: mujeres campesinas, Conflicto Armado, ideologias políticas, desalienación, peasant women, armed conflict, political ideologies, alienation

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Land Tenure Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2013

La violencia sexual en contra de las mujeres como estrategia de despojo de tierras en el conflicto armado colombiano

Citation:

Céspedes-Báez, Lina-María. 2010. "La violencia sexual en contra de las mujeres como estrategia de despojo de tierras en el conflicto armado colombiano." Revista Estudios Socio-Juridico 12 (2): 273-304.

Author: Lina-María Céspedes-Báez

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This article reviews the evidence collected by diverse national and international organizations regarding the relationship between sexual violence against women, forced displacement, and dispossession in the context of the Colombian armed conflict. To this end, it uses the concept of "sexual violence regimes" to highlight that the ends pursued by sexual violence are not always exhausted by simple consummation (that is, the act of sexual violence itself), but depending on the context, can be connected with broader strategic goals of armed actors. At the same time, this document admits the difficulty of proving this relationship with respect to judicial procedures, and thus sets out the possibility of creating a rebuttable presumption, in the framework of "unconstitutional state of affairs" created by judgment T-025 of 2004, that alleviates the burden of proof of the victims, and serves as a catalyst to promote new gender-based mechanisms of reparations.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
El presente artículo parte de la evidencia que ha sido recogida por diversas organizaciones, tanto nacionales como internacionales, en materia de la interrelación entre la violencia sexual en contra de las mujeres, el desplazamiento forzado y el despojo en el conflicto armado colombiano. Para el efecto, utiliza el concepto de regímenes de violencia sexual, a fin de realzar el que los fines perseguidos por la conducta no se agotan siempre en el simple consumo, sino que, dependiendo del contexto, pueden estar conectados con objetivos más amplios dentro del repertorio estratégico de los actores armados. Asimismo, el documento admite la dificultad de la prueba de esta correlación en las instancias judiciales pertinentes, por lo cual plantea la posibilidad de crear una presunción desvirtuable, en el ámbito del estado de cosas inconstitucional declarado por la sentencia T-025 de 2004, que morigere la carga de la prueba de las víctimas y sirva como un catalizador para promover nuevos arreglos de género.

Keywords: desplazamiento forzado, Conflicto Armado, violencia sexual, tierras, pruebas, forced displacement, armed conflict, sexual violence, land, evidence

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Land Tenure, International Organizations, Sexual Violence, SV against Women Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2010

Transitional Justice in Colombia—Insights from Postcolonial Feminist Theory

Citation:

Lasota, Josephine. 2020. “Transitional Justice in Colombia—Insights from Postcolonial Feminist Theory.” TLI Think! Paper 13/2020, Dickson Poon School of Law, King’s College London, London.

Author: Josephine Lasota

Abstract:

In 2016, Colombia’s biggest Guerrilla group, the FARC, and the government under president Santos reached a breakthrough in the lasting peace negotiations after the decades-long armed conflict and established a comprehensive transitional justice system. Although the accord is described as relatively progressive, the peace process is currently fraying. This paper aims to address some of the deficits of the Colombian peacebuilding, focusing on insights from postcolonial feminist theory. Building on experiences of past transitional justice processes, the essay examines the Colombian example with regard to women in decision-making positions and the lack of an intersectional approach. Moreover, the paper challenges the capacity of TJ as a tool to address the root causes of conflicts and to achieve a transformation of the society which is necessary in order to accomplish sustainable peace.

Keywords: transitional justice, peacebuilding, Colombia, FARC, Postcolonial Feminist Theory, intersectionality, women, structural inequalities

Topics: Armed Conflict, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Justice, Transitional Justice, Intersectionality, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Peacebuilding, Political Participation Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2020

The Colombian Land Restitution Programme: Process, Results and Challenges, with Special Emphasis on Women

Citation:

García Godos, Jemima, and Henrik Wiig. 2014. The Colombian Land Restitution Programme: Process, Results and Challenges, with Special Emphasis on Women. Oslo: Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research.

Authors: Jemima García Godos, Henrik Wiig

Annotation:

Summary:
Since 2011, Colombia is embarked in an ambitious program of land and property restitution for the more than 5 million internally displaced people who fled their homes and lands due to the internal armed conflict. The restitution process involves the return of IDPs as well as the formalization of property rights. In spite of great initial optimism, by mid-2014 only 20.000 HA of land have been restituted. This report gives a detailed description of the process itself, discussing the many challenges that have risen, including the consideration to innocent third parties farming the land today and the hesitancy among IDPs to return to their land. Furthermore, the report discusses some alternatives that might ease the restitution process and the implications of restitution in a prospective scenario of land reform, given the ongoing peace negotiations between the government and the guerrilla.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Post-Conflict, Peace Processes, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2014

Homophobic Violence in Armed Conflict and Political Transition

Citation:

Serrano-Amaya, José Fernando. 2018. Homophobic Violence in Armed Conflict and Political Transition. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author: José Fernando Serrano-Amaya

Annotation:

Summary:
This book argues that homophobia plays a fundamental role in disputes for hegemony between antagonists during political transitions. Examining countries not often connected in the same research—Colombia and South Africa—the book asserts that homophobia, as a form of gender and sexual violence, contributes to the transformation of gender and sexual orders required by warfare and deployed by armed groups. Anti-homosexual violence also reinforces the creation of consensus around these projects of change. The book considers the perspective of individuals and their organizations, for whom such hatreds are part of the embodied experience of violence caused by protracted conflicts and social inequalities. Resistance to that violence are reason to mobilize and become political actors. This book contributes to the increasing interest in South-South comparative analyses and the need of theory building based on case-study analyses, offering systematic research useful for grass root organizations, practitioners, and policy makers. (Summary from Palgrave Macmillian)

Table of Contents:
1. Introduction

2. Sex, Violence and Politics: The Research Problem

3. Armed Conflict and Sexual Para-politics in Colombia

4. Homophobia in Apartheid and Post-apartheid South Africa

5. The Chiaroscuro of Sexual Politics

6. Telling Truths About Violence

7. Gender and Sexual Orders Making the New Society

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Post-Conflict, Sexuality, Sexual Violence, Violence Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America Countries: Colombia, South Africa

Year: 2018

Queering Colombia's Peace Process: A Case Study of LGBTI Inclusion

Citation:

Maier, Nicole. 2020. "Queering Colombia's Peace Process: A Case Study of LGBTI Inclusion." The International Journal of Human Rights 24 (4): 377-92.

Author: Nicole Maier

Abstract:

In August 2016, Colombia's government announced that they had reached an agreement with the country's largest guerrilla group, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). This peace deal was historic in Colombia's more than half-century long armed conflict; however, Colombian voters rejected it. A revised version was ultimately passed through a congressional vote. Despite the intense domestic criticism of the peace talks, they have been praised internationally and revered as a model for the world, particularly with regard to their efforts surrounding victims of the armed conflict. This article focuses on one particular group of victims, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) individuals. The experience of LGBTI people in armed conflicts has historically been one of exclusion from peace processes. This article explores how Colombia's peace process has approached the LGBTI experience through interviews with LGBTI activists and analyses of collaborative civil society efforts. The actions taken by LGBTI organisations reveal the critical role of truth and memory initiatives and capacity building. While much work has been done, Colombia is left with many unanswered questions about what a post-conflict society will look like for LGBTI victims of the armed conflict.

Keywords: LGBT, victim, Colombia, armed conflict, transitional justice, peacebuilding

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Gender, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, Justice, Transitional Justice, LGBTQ, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Sexuality Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2020

Cleansing the Caliphate: Insurgent Violence against Sexual Minorities

Citation:

Tschantret, Joshua. 2018. "Cleansing the Caliphate: Insurgent Violence against Sexual Minorities." International Studies Quarterly 62 (2): 260-73.

Author: Joshua Tschantret

Abstract:

Why do insurgents target certain groups for extermination? Despite a great deal of attention to the targeting of civilian ethnic minorities, comparatively little scholarship exists on insurgent violence against sexual minorities (lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transsexual individuals). This article maintains that the decision to target sexual minorities follows three distinct logics: two strategic and one ideological. First, insurgents face an incentive to outbid rivals by targeting sexual minorities when homophobic violence is politically and socially legitimated. Second, territorial control creates an incentive for insurgents to signal their ability to selectively punish, which they can accomplish through homophobic violence. Third, revolutionary ideologies provide legitimation for exclusionary violence in the pursuit of transforming society. Statistical analysis of insurgent violence against sexual minorities from 1985 to 2015 lends strong support for these arguments. Process tracing of the spread of violence against sexual minorities in Iraq and Syria clarifies the strategic causal mechanisms. When progovernment militias targeted perceived homosexuals with impunity, antigay violence was adopted by insurgent groups seeking to legitimize their claims to power; violence then quickly spread to competing insurgents. Two additional cases from Latin America demonstrate that ideology plays an important role in influencing which groups embrace homophobic violence even under these strategic constraints.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Conflict, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militias, Sexuality, Violence Regions: MENA, Americas, South America, Asia, Middle East Countries: Colombia, Iraq, Peru, Syria

Year: 2018

Still a Blind Spot: The Protection of LGBT Persons during Armed Conflict and Other Situations of Violence

Citation:

Margalit, Alon. 2018. "Still a Blind Spot: The Protection of LGBT Persons during Armed Conflict and Other Situations of Violence." International Review of the Red Cross 100 (907-909): 237-65.

Author: Alon Margalit

Abstract:

This article draws attention to the situation of LGBT persons during armed conflict. Subjected to violence and discrimination outside the context of armed conflict, the latter aggravates their vulnerability and exposure to various abuses. Despite important progress made with respect to their protection under human rights law, a similar effort is largely absent from the international humanitarian law discourse. This article accordingly highlights some of the norms and challenges pertaining to the protection of LGBT persons in time of war.

Keywords: International Humanitarian Law, LGBT, sexual orientation, gender identity, armed conflict, protection, discrimination, non-refoulement, sexual violence

Topics: Armed Conflict, Conflict, Gender, International Law, International Human Rights, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), LGBTQ, Security, Sexuality, Sexual Violence, Violence

Year: 2018

Women's War: Gender Activism in the Vietnam War and in the Wars for Kurdish Autonomy

Citation:

Chaguri, Mariana Miggiolaro, and Flávia X. M. Paniz. 2019. "Women's War: Gender Activism in the Vietnam War and in the Wars for Kurdish Autonomy." Sociologia & Antropologia 9 (3): 895-918.

Authors: Mariana Miggiolaro Chaguri, Flávia X. M. Paniz

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This paper debates women’s activism in two events: the Vietnam War (1954-1975) and the historical Kurdish struggle for autonomy (known as “Kurdish question”). We hypothesize that the reorganization of gender roles during the conflicts marks the meanings of wars and configures what we call a woman for the times of war, that is, a woman who transits across the spaces of public confrontation, armed conflict and domesticity. The approach outlined here is structured into three parts: the first and the second ones present aspects of both conflicts by pointing to possible convergences and differences between them; we also present the variety of networks of participation and activism of women in both cases. In the third and final part, we discuss the interfaces among the production of gender, war, and ideas, crossing a manifold of narratives, experiences, and stories that reveal different dimensions of wars and nations, and the diversity of the regimes of ideas that attached to them.

PORTUGUESE ABSTRACT:
Este artigo problematiza a participação e debate o ativismo de mulheres em dois eventos: a Guerra do Vietnã (1954-1975) e as guerras pelo Curdistão (1923 em diante). Como hipótese, sustentamos que tais lutas podem ser lidas a partir do esforço comum de tornar inteligível e nomear um conjunto variado de experiências que, reorganizadas a partir ou em função do conflito armado, produzem novas mediações entre gênero e nação. O artigo está dividido em três partes: nas duas primeiras, são apresentados aspectos dos dois conflitos apontando eventuais convergências e diferenças; na sequência, observam-se as variadas formas de participação e de ativismo de mulheres existentes nos dois casos; finalmente, são debatidas as interfaces entre a produção do gênero, da guerra e das ideias, percorrendo uma multiplicidade de narrativas, experiências e relatos que apontam para a dimensão heterogênea das guerras, das nações e, portanto, do regime de ideias que deve acompanhá-las.

Keywords: Gender, war, nation and nationalism, post-colonial feminism, gênero, guerra, nação e nacionalismo, feminismo pós-colonial

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Civil Society, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Nationalism Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Southeast Asia Countries: Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, Vietnam

Year: 2019

Women's Everyday Lives in War and Peace in the South Caucasus

Citation:

Ziemer, Ulrike, ed. 2020. Women's Everyday Lives in War and Peace in the South Caucasus. Palgrave Macmillan.

Author: Ulrike Ziemer

Annotation:

Summary:
This edited volume explores the everyday struggles and challenges of women living in the South Caucasus. The primary aim of the collection is to shift the pre-occupation with geopolitical analysis in the region and to share new empirical research on women and social change. The contributors discuss a broad range of topics, each relating to women’s everyday challenges during periods (past and present) of turbulent transformation and conflict, thus helping make sense of these transformations as well as adding new empirical insights to larger questions on life in the South Caucasus. Part I begins the discussion of women and social change in Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan by examining the contradictions between traditional gender roles and emancipation and how they continue to dictate women’s lives. Part II focuses on women’s experiences of war and conflict in Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia and Nagorny Karabakh, as well as displacement from Abkhazia and Azerbaijan. Part III examines the challenges faced by sexual minorities in Georgia and feminist activism in Azerbaijan.
 
Women's Everyday Lives in War and Peace in the South Caucasus will be of interest to students and scholars across a range of disciplines, including sociology, politics, gender studies and history. (Summary from Palgrave Macmillan)
 
Table of Contents:
Introduction: Women's Everyday Lives in the South Caucasus
Ulrike Ziemer
 
1. Women as Bearers of Modernity and Tradition
Melanie Krebs
 
2. 'Supra is Not for Women': Hospitality Practices as a Lens on Gender and Social Change in Georgia
Costanza Curro
 
3. Women against Authoritarianism: Agency and Political Protest in Armenia
Ulrike Ziemer
 
4. Between Love, Pain and Identity: Armenian Women after World War I
Anna Aleksanyan
 
5. 'We are Strangers among our Own People': Displaced Armenian Women
Shushanik Ghazaryan
 
6. Vulnerability and Resilience: Women's Narratives of Forced Displacement from Abkhazia
Nargiza Arjevanidze
 
7. The Politics of Widowhood in Nagorny Karabakh
Nona Shahnazarian et al
 
8. Invisible Battlefield: How the Politicization of LGBT Issues Affects the Visibility of LBT Women in Georgia
Natia Gvianishvili
 
9. Exploring Two Generations of Women Activists in Azerbaijan: Between Feminism and a Post-Soviet Locality
Yuliya Gureyeva Aliyeva
 
10. Feminism in Azerbaijan: Gender, Community and Nation-Building
Sinead Walsh

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, LGBTQ, Sexuality Regions: Asia, Central Asia, Europe, South Caucasus Countries: Georgia

Year: 2020

Pages

© 2024 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at info@genderandsecurity.org.

Subscribe to RSS - Armed Conflict