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Armed Conflict

Untapped Resources for Peace: A Comparative Study of Women’s Organizations of Guerrilla Ex-Combatants in Colombia and El Salvador

Citation:

Dietrich Ortega, Luisa Maria. 2015. “Untapped Resources for Peace: A Comparative Study of Women’s Organizations of Guerrilla Ex-Combatants in Colombia and El Salvador.” In Female Combatants in Conflict and Peace, edited by Seema Shekhawat, 232–49. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Author: Luisa Maria Dietrich Ortega

Abstract:

Over the past decades, the international community has increased efforts to enhance spaces of women’s meaningful participation in all spheres of conflict to post-conflict transition. The acknowledgement of women as essential actors for sustainable peace has prompted advocacy activities to include women in planning, implementing and monitoring of peace-building efforts. Despite significant advances in the field, the challenge remains to overcome stereotypical notions that associate women as passive bystanders or only as bearers of the violent consequences of armed conflicts, while ignoring the role women play as political actors. A step towards a more inclusive and holistic transition consists of exploring contributions the female actors in armed conflict can bring to peace-building. Female ex-combatants have played active political and military roles in insurgent organizations. Besides their first-hand experience in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) programmes, some of them maintain connections with former insurgent groups and may influence processes from within. In that sense, organizations of female ex-combatants constitute an untapped resource for the promotion of gender-responsive transitions. (Abstract from Springer)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Women, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Post-Conflict Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Colombia, El Salvador

Year: 2015

Women, War and Empowerment: A Case Study of Female Ex-Combatants in Colombia

Citation:

Magnæs Gjelsvik, Ingvild. 2010. “Women, War and Empowerment: A Case Study of Female Ex-Combatants in Colombia.” Master’s Thesis, Peace Research Institute Oslo, University of Tromsø.

Author: Ingvild Magnæs Gjelsvik

Annotation:

"While we have seen an increased focus in the past few decades on the role of women in armed conflict, women are still chiefly perceived and categorized as victims, civilians or being in supporting roles for male fighters (Goldstein 2001). Women‟s direct participation as combatants has received less attention. Existing literature is dominated by discourses on victimhood and vulnerability, with attention mainly focused on the negative experiences women have. In the Colombian context, little has been written about women's gains as combatants; the focus has rather been directed at issues such as forced recruitment, sexual exploitation, and forced abortions. The positive experiences women obtain from being part of armed groups has been less visible, often unknown outside the armed groups. This thesis represents an effort to offer a more nuanced and multifaceted perspective on women's experiences in war in Colombia. The analysis proceeds from the research question: To what extent are women empowered by joining guerrilla groups in Colombia?" (Gjelsvik, 2010, p. 6).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2010

Reintegración y emprendimiento, análisis del programa de educación para el trabajo de la ACR para mujeres excombatientes

Citation:

Matiz Cortés, Stefanie. 2016. “Reintegración y emprendimiento, análisis del programa de educación para el trabajo de la ACR para mujeres excombatientes.” Master’s Thesis, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.

Author: Stefanie Matiz Cortés

Abstract:

Spanish abstract:

En esta investigación se hizo un análisis del programa de formación para el trabajo, que hace parte de la ruta de Reintegración Económica de la ACR, con el propósito de determinar si dicho programa lograba dar respuesta a las necesidades y expectativas sobre actividades productivas de las mujeres desmovilizadas de grupos armados. Para ello se realizó un estudio de tipo etnográfico – colaborativo que permitió comprender con las excombatientes, cómo y bajo qué condiciones se está desarrollando la dimensión productiva. Propone la profundización en el enfoque de género que tiene actualmente la Ruta de Reintegración con el fin de lograr que las exintegrantes de grupos armados logren reintegrarse en condiciones ajustadas a su realidad, sus intereses y sus posibilidades. En este sentido se rescata como elemento esencial las narrativas de las mujeres entrevistadas, ya que analizando sus necesidades, es indispensable que no se anule esa experiencia femenina dentro de la dinámica de la guerra y las transformaciones que experimenta en la sociedad. Por último se establece que es poco adecuado que los programas de emprendimiento sean considerados como un mecanismo de salida a la pobreza o una solución para impulsar el retorno de la población desmovilizada a la legalidad de forma autosostenible. Sencillamente porque el programa está planteado desde una perspectiva de emprendimiento por necesidad y no de emprendimiento por oportunidad, lo que va en contra de la naturaleza del emprendimiento y lleva la política al fracaso, pues lo que deberían ser empresas resultantes de aptitudes emprendedoras resultan siendo nada más que mecanismos simples de autoempleo (Abstract from original source​).

English abstract:

The purpose of this research was to analyze and look at the work of “the job training program”, as part of the economic reintegration path of the Colombian Agency for Reintegration, whose main objective was to determine if such program could give an answer to the needs and expectations of productive activities of armed group demobilized women .To do this, a collaborative-ethnographic study was conducted to better understand with the ex combats how and under what conditions productive dimensions have been developed. This research highlights the gender approach that the reintegration path currently has, in order to ensure that the former members of armed groups can reintegrate in fair conditions according to their reality, interests and possibilities. In this sense it is highlighted as an essential element the stories and narratives of interviewed women, as analyzing their needs is indispensable not to eliminate this feminine experience within the dynamics of the war and the transformations it faces in the society. Finally, it is stated that it is not appropriate that entrepreneurial programs can be considered as a mechanism to get out of the poverty trap or a solution to foster the comeback of demobilized population to legality in a self-sustainable way. Simply because the program is stated from the perspective of entrepreneurship due to necessities but entrepreneurship for opportunities, what goes against the nature of entrepreneurship and leads the initiative to failure, so what it should be seen as companies resulting in entrepreneurial attitudes it ends up as simple mechanisms of self employment (Translation from original source​).

 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, Male Combatants, DDR Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2016

Desafíos para la reintegración: Enfoques de género, edad y etnia

Citation:

Centro Nacional de Memoria Histórica. 2014. “Desafíos para la reintegración: Enfoques de género, edad y etnia". Bogotá, Colombia: Imprenta Nacional.

Author: Centro Nacional de Memoria Histórica

Annotation:

Spanish Summary:

La Dirección de Acuerdos de la Verdad del Centro Nacional de Memoria Histórica (CNMH) preparó esta publicación a partir de rescatar trabajos y elaboraciones realizados inicialmente por parte de las áreas de Desmovilización, Desarme y Reintegración y de Género y Poblaciones Específicas de la Comisión Nacional de Reparación y Reconciliación (CNRR) referidos a los enfoques diferenciales necesarios de abordar con relación al género y las mujeres, las etnias con referencia a los pueblos indígenas y las comunidades afrodescendientes y la edad en lo relativo a las niñas, niños y adolescentes. 

En conformidad con el mandato legal y la misión institucional de dicha Comisión, tales esfuerzos se orientaron a garantizar los derechos de las víctimas de graves violaciones a los derechos humanos ocurridas en los contextos de violencia y conflicto armado registrados en Colombia durante las últimas décadas, a desarrollar iniciativas de reparación en beneficio de las víctimas y la sociedad y a conseguir garantías de no repetición de tales violaciones (Summary from original source​).

English Summary:

Challenges for Reintegration: Focus on Gender, Age, and Ethnicity 

The Direction of Truth Agreements of the National Center for Historical Memory (CNMH) prepared this publication from recovered works initially produced in the areas of DDR and Gender and Specific Populations of the National Commission for Reparation and Reconciliation (CNRR) referring to the differential focus necessary to address gender and women, ethnicities with reference to indigenous people and afro-descendant communities, and age with reference to girls, boys, and adolescents. 

In accordance with the legal mandate and institutional mission of said Commission, such efforts were oriented towards guaranteeing the rights of victims of serious human rights violations that occurred in contexts of violence and armed conflicts in Colombia over the last decades, to develop reparation initiatives benefitting the victims and wider society, and obtaining guarantees of non-repetition of such violations (Translation from original source​).

Topics: Armed Conflict, DDR, Gender, Women, Justice, Reparations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Paramilitaries, Rights, Human Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2014

Desarmando las manos y el corazón: Transformaciones en las identidades de género de excombatientes de FARC y AUC en Colombia (2004-2010)

Citation:

Rezk, Juanita Esguerra. 2011. “Desarmando las manos y el corazón: Transformaciones en las identidades de género de excombatientes de FARC y AUC en Colombia (2004-2010).” Master’s Thesis, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.

Author: Juanita Esguerra Rezk

Abstract:

Spanish Abstract:

Esta investigación busca comprender cómo se transforman las identidades de género de las mujeres y los hombres que pertenecieron a un grupo armado ilegal alrededor de dos hitos: su vinculación a éste y su desmovilización. Desde una perspectiva etnográfica se ha indagado por los cambios y las permanencias en sus feminidades y masculinidades en el contexto anterior a su vinculación, durante su permanencia en el grupo y en su proceso de reinserción a la vida civil (Abstract from original source).

English Abstract:

Disarming Hands and Heart: Gender Identity Transformations of FARC and AUC Ex-combatants in Colombia (2004-2010)

This research seeks to understand the transformations in gender identities of men and women who belonged to an illegal armed group pivoting around two breaking points in their lives: their adherence to the group and their demobilization. From an ethnographic perspective, this work has explored the changes and permanencies in their femininities and masculinities within the context previous to their entrance to the armed group, the time they belonged to it and their reinsertion into civil life (Translation from original source​).

Keywords: identidades de gênero, masculinidades, feminidades, militarización

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, Male Combatants, DDR, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2011

El papel de las organizaciones sociales en el proceso de reintegración de las mujeres excombatientes en la ciudad de Cali, en el marco de procesos de construcción de paz desde las comunidades, 2010-2014. Estudio de caso: Coomaco

Citation:

Villareal Villa, Daniela. 2016. “El papel de las organizaciones sociales en el proceso de reintegración de las mujeres excombatientes en la ciudad de Cali, en el marco de procesos de construcción de paz desde las comunidades, 2010-2014. Estudio de caso: Coomaco.” Master’s Thesis, Universidad Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario.

Author: Daniela Villareal Villa

Abstract:

Spanish Abstract:

Este trabajo pretende analizar el papel de las organizaciones sociales en los procesos de reintegración, en la configuración de escenarios dedicados al perdón y la resocialización de mujeres en proceso de reintegración en la ciudad de Cali, durante el periodo comprendido entre 2010-2014. Esta investigación puso en evidencia la falta de precisión en la ruta de reintegración de la particularidad de los procesos de reintegración de mujeres excombatientes de las Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC) han llevado a la discriminación de las mujeres durante el proceso. Dejando vacíos importantes que llenaron las organizaciones sociales con las comunidades. Para el desarrollo de este trabajo se realizaron entrevistas grupales a seis mujeres en proceso de reintegración, la líder de la Cooperativa Multiactiva de Madres Comunitarias, y ochenta y cinco sondeos de opinión realizados de manera aleatoria en las ciudades de Cali y Bogotá.

English Abstract:

The Role of Social Organizations in the Reintegration Process of Women Ex-combatants in the City of Cali, Within the Framework of Community-Based Peacebuilding Processes, 2010-2014. Coomaco Case Study. 

This paper analyzes the role of the social organizations in the reintegration process, the development of spaces dedicated to forgiveness and re-socialization of women in process of reintegration in the city of Cali during 2010-2014. This research highlighted the lack of precision on the reintegration program on the particularities of the reintegration processes of six former combatants women of the Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC) that have led to discrimination against women during the process. Leaving important gaps that social organizations have filled through the work with the communities. To provide some recommendations a group of interviews were conducted to six women in the reintegration process, to one officer of the Cooperativa Multiactiva de Madres Comunitarias was made, and eighty-five polls were done randomly in the cities of Cali and Bogota.

Keywords: Conflicto Armado, Mujeres, DDR, Coomaco, Organización Social, armed conflict, women, social organization

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Women, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2016

Mujeres entre mafiosos y señores de la guerra: Impacto del proceso de desarme, desmovilización y reintegración en la vida y seguridad de las mujeres en comunidades en pugna. Caso Villavicencio

Citation:

Barraza, Cecilia, y Luz Piedad Caicedo. 2007. Mujeres entre mafiosos y señores de la guerra: Impacto del proceso de desarme, desmovilización y reintegración en la vida y seguridad de las mujeres en comunidades en pugna. Caso Villavicencio. Bogotá, Colombia: Centro Regional de Derechos Humanos y Justicia de Género.

Authors: Cecilia Barraza, Luz Piedad Caicedo

Annotation:

Spanish Summary:

"Este estudio ofrece una mirada integral a la situación de las mujeres en los contextos locales de desarme, desmovilización y reintegración, con miras a avanzar en la promoción de la seguridad humana de las mujeres. La investigación tuvo por objeto conocer el impacto de dichos procesos, desde la percepción de las y los funcionarios públicos del municipio, de las mujeres y de actores sociales claves de la región. De tal forma, se plantean una serie de lineamientos para el análisis que permiten evidenciar de forma específica los efectos sobre la vida de las mujeres de la ciudad de Villavicencio a nivel político-organizativo, socio-económico, de derechos sexuales y reproductivos, de seguridad humana y violencia contra las mujeres y niñas" (Barraza & Caicedo, 2007, Presentación).

English Summary:

Women Among Mafia and Warlords: The Impact of the DDR Process on the Lives and Security of Women in Conflict-Affected Communities. The Case of Villavicencio. 

This study provides a comprehensive overview of the situation of women in local DDR contexts, with the aim to make progress in promoting women’s security. The aim of the research was to understand the impact of said processes, from the point of view of the municipality’s public officials, women, and the region’s key social actors.  This gives rise to a series of guidelines for the analysis which highlights the effects on the lives of the women of Villavicencio at the politico-organizational and socio-economic level, as well as at the level of sexual and reproductive rights, human security and violence against girls and women (VAGW).

Topics: Armed Conflict, DDR, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Security, Human Security Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2007

Re-Thinking Hegemonic Masculinities in Conflict-Affected Contexts

Citation:

Myrttinen, Henri, Lana Khattab, and Jana Naujoks. 2017. “Re-Thinking Hegemonic Masculinities in Conflict-Affected Contexts.” Critical Military Studies 3 (2): 103–19.

Authors: Henri Myrttinen, Lana Khattab, Jana Naujoks

Abstract:

Masculinities in conflict-affected and peacebuilding contexts have, generally speaking, been under-researched. Much of the existing research focuses relatively narrowly on men and their ‘violences’, especially that of combatants. Conceptually, much of the policy debate has revolved around either men’s ‘innate’ propensity to violence or relatively simplistic uses of frameworks such as hegemonic, military/militarized, or ‘hyper’-masculinities. These discourses have often been reinforced and reproduced without relating them to their respective local historical, political, and socio-economic contexts. In academic circles, the discussion is more advanced and progressive, but this has yet to filter through to on-the-ground work. Considering the overwhelming role men play in producing and reproducing conflict-related and other forms of violence, a better understanding of the links between masculinities and violence – as well as non-violence – should be central to examining gender, conflict, and peace. Nonetheless, currently a large part of masculinities are side-lined in research, such as those of non-combatants or displaced persons, the associated challenges of ‘thwarted masculinities’, or  the positive agency of peacebuilders. Non-heterosexual masculinities also are largely invisible. Based on recent multi-country field research, we aim to highlight some of the under-researched issues revolving around conflict-affected masculinities while also discussing some conceptual challenges arising as a result. Our two key arguments are that the notion of ‘hegemonic masculinities’ in conflict affected situations needs to be re-examined and re-articulated in more nuanced ways, and that the scope of studying masculinities in these situations needs to be broadened to go beyond merely examining the violences of men.

Keywords: masculinities, conflict, peacebuilding

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, LGBTQ, Peacebuilding, Violence

Year: 2017

Combat as a Moving Target: Masculinities, the Heroic Soldier Myth, and Normative Martial Violence

Citation:

Millar, Katharine M., and Joanna Tidy. 2017. “Combat As a Moving Target: Masculinities, the Heroic Soldier Myth, and Normative Martial Violence.” Critical Military Studies 3 (2): 142–60.

Authors: Katharine M. Millar, Joanna Tidy

Abstract:

This article problematizes the conceptualization and use of ‘combat’ within critical scholarship on masculinities, militaries, and war. We trace, firstly, how combat appears as an empirical category within traditional war studies scholarship, describing an ostensibly self-evident physical practice. We then examine how feminist and gender approaches – in contrast – reveal ‘combat’ as a normative imagination of martial violence. This imagination of violence is key to the constitution of the masculine ideal, and normalization of military force, through the heroic soldier myth. We argue, however, that despite this critical impulse, much of feminist and gender analysis exhibits conceptual ‘slippage’: combat is still often treated as a ‘common-sense’ empirical category – a thing that ‘is’ – in masculinities theorizing. This treatment of gendered imaginary as empirics imports a set of normative investments that limit the extent to which the heroic soldier myth, and the political work that it undertakes, can be deconstructed. As a consequence, whilst we know how masculinities are constituted in relation to ‘combat’, we lack the corollary understanding of how masculinities constitute combat, and how the resulting imagination sustains military authority and the broader social acceptance of war. We argue that unpacking these dynamics and addressing this lacuna is key to the articulation of a meaningfully ‘critical’ gender and military studies.

Keywords: combat, military masculinities, critical, soldiers, violence

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Violence

Year: 2017

War as Feminized Labour in the Global Political Economy of Neo-Imperialism

Citation:

Meger, Sara. 2016. “War as Feminized Labour in the Global Political Economy of Neo-Imperialism.” Postcolonial Studies 19(4): 378–92. 

Author: Sara Meger

Abstract:

This article examines the structures of international relations that facilitate political violence in postcolonial states. It explores the intersections of patriarchy and imperialism in the contemporary political economy to understand how armed conflict and political violence in postcolonial states form an integral element of the global economy of accumulation in deeply gendered ways. By focusing on the structural level of analysis, this article argues that the siting of armed conflict in postcolonial contexts serves to maintain neo-colonial relations of exploitation between the West and non-West, and is made both possible and effective through the gendering of political identities and types of work performed in the global economy. I argue here that armed conflict is a form of feminized labour in the global economy. Despite the fact that performing violence is a physically masculine form of labour, the outsourcing of armed conflict as labour in the political economy is ‘feminized’ in that it represents the flexibilization of labour and informalization of market participation. So while at the same time that this work is fulfilling hegemonic ideals of militarized masculinity within the domestic context, at the international level it actually demonstrates the ‘weakness’ or ‘otherness’ of the ‘failed’/feminized state in which this violence occurs, and legitimizes and hence re-entrenches the hegemonic relations between the core and eriphery on the basis of problematizing the ‘weak’ state’s masculinity. It is through the discursive construction of the non-Western world as the site of contemporary political violence that mainstream international relations reproduces an orientalist approach to both understanding and addressing the ‘war puzzle'.

Keywords: political economy, neo-colonialism, war, gender, feminized labour, feminist international relations, postcolonial theory

Topics: Armed Conflict, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Political Economies, Violence

Year: 2016

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