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Armed Conflict

Gendered Patterns of Mobilization and Recruitment for Political Violence, Experiences from Three Latin American Countries

Citation:

Dietrich Ortega, Luisa Maria. 2012. “Gendered Patterns of Mobilization and Recruitment for Political Violence, Experiences from Three Latin American Countries.” In Understanding Collective Political Violence, 84–104. Conflict, Inequality and Ethnicity. Palgrave Macmillan: London.

Author: Luisa Maria Dietrich Ortega

Abstract:

Over the past decades a feminist perspective on international relations, security studies and conflict has broadened the scope of the field.1 Troubled by the absence of women as research objects and subjects, feminist scholars have started to ask different questions and to employ alternative methodologies in order to unveil gendered distortions, namely, male bias and gender-neutral appearance. Both are inherent in the study of political violence and mobilization research. Male bias is deeply rooted in the study of political violence, which centres on male-connoted concepts such as nation-states, war, military and armed groups and predominantly male actors, such as presidents, soldiers, rebel leaders, presuming a connection between violence and masculinities. Thus, a worldview that equates male experiences to the norm continually reproduces a male value system that excludes women from conventional accounts of political violence and constructs a symbolic ‘woman’ as deviant from or in respect to male-as-norm criteria (Ackerly et al. 2006: 4; Peterson and True 1998: 15). Due to the absence of women from conflict narratives, the invisibility of gender regimes operating in the context of conflict, mainstream scholars maintain the normative fiction that conflicts are gender-free (Ní Aoláin and Rooney 2007: 342). (Abstract from Springer)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Violence, Weapons /Arms Regions: Americas, South America

Year: 2012

Beyond the Hegemonic in the Study of Militaries, Masculinities, and War

Citation:

Chisholm, Amanda, and Joanna Tidy. 2017. “Beyond the Hegemonic in the Study of Militaries, Masculinities, and War.” Critical Military Studies 3 (2): 99-102.

Authors: Amanda Chisholm, Joanna Tidy

Annotation:

Summary:
"This special issue advances what we identify as an emerging curiosity within accounts of military masculinities. This curiosity concerns the silences within and disruptions to our well-established and perhaps too comfortable understandings of and empirical focal points for military masculinities, gender, and war. The special issue is situated within emerging critiques of military masculinities. Scholars such as Stachowitsch (2015), Richter-Montpetit (2007), Howell (2007), and Belkin (2012) all expand where we locate gendered militarist logics of war and its various contestations. In common with these scholars, the contributors to this special issue trouble the ease with which we might be tempted to synonymize militaries, war, and a neat, ‘hegemonic’ masculinity. Taking the disruptions, the asides, and the silences seriously, we claim, challenges the common wisdoms of military masculinities, gender, and war in productive and necessary ways" (Chishom and Tidy 2017, 99).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, conflict, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarism

Year: 2017

Living Archives and Cyprus: Militarized Masculinities and Decolonial Emerging World Horizons

Citation:

Agathangelou, Anna M. 2017. “Living Archives and Cyprus: Militarized Masculinities and Decolonial Emerging World Horizons”. Critical Military Studies 3 (2): 206-11.

Author: Anna M. Agathangelou

Abstract:

Huddled within the most influential theorisations and praxes of war and violence are imaginations of collating masculinities, texts and their embodiments. Interpreting and reading my mother as a non-dominant body, and her stories about war, violence, and Cyprus as re-iterative corporeal insights and practices challenging such toxic masculinities, I argue that such performances and embodiments (what I call living archives), albeit with multiple tensions, re-orient us to emerging decolonial horizons. In doing so, I directly challenge and unsuture the complacent IR historiographies of security and war and the ways they insist on composing and writing by bringing together certain archives (i.e., images of violent places and state documents) and silencing those which systematically and consistently point to modernity’s violent frameworks including their production of violent masculinities on which extinguishment and futures lie. Such an insistence colludes with certain toxic regimes of representation expecting certain subjects, sovereigns, and institutions to order and reiterate (produce) colonial and violent racialized masculine (and racialized feminized) practices between ourselves and the world. Living archives are also those invented signs, imaginations, and excesses that press materiality and its impasses (i.e., in the form of capture, blackness, non-genders, etc. and resolution of signs and fictions), exposing the limits of modernity’s fictioning, and against any resolution and labor that produces violence all the while sublating it.

Keywords: militarized masculinities, international relations grammars, Cyprus, living archives, the colonial, imperial wars, decolonial struggles

Topics: Armed Conflict, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Combatants, Male Combatants, DDR, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Masculinism, Livelihoods, Militarized livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Race, Violence Regions: Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Cyprus

Year: 2017

'I Acted like a Man’: Exploring Female Ex-Insurgents’ Narratives on Nigeria’s Oil Insurgency

Citation:

Oriola, Temitope. 2016. “‘I Acted like a Man’: Exploring Female Ex-Insurgents’ Narratives on Nigeria’s Oil Insurgency.” Review of African Political Economy 43 (149): 451–69. doi:10.1080/03056244.2016.1182013.

Author: Temitope Oriola

Abstract:

English Abstract:
This paper explores how a small sample of female ex-insurgents make sense of their engagement in Nigeria’s oil insurgency. The study is informed by three key questions: How did Delta women join the insurgency? Why did they join? How do they frame their participation? The paper analyses the prevalence of a masculinising rhetoric among participants. The majority of participants view their roles in the insurgency as antithetical to their gender. The implications of these findings are explored. Overall, the paper contributes to the growing body of work on women’s engagement in armed conflict as perpetrators rather than victims of violence.
 
French Abstract:
[« J’ai agi comme un homme » : l’étude des histoires des ex-insurgées sur l’insurrection liée au pétrole au Nigeria.] Cet article examine comment quelques ex-insurgées donnent du sens à leur engagement dans l’insurrection liée au pétrole au Nigéria. Cette étude tente de répondre à trois questions clés : Comment est-ce que les femmes du Delta ont rejoint l’insurrection? Pourquoi l’ont-elles rejoint? Comment est-ce qu’elles formulent leur participation? L’article analyse la prévalence d’une rhétorique masculinisante parmi les participants. La majorité des participants voit son rôle dans l’insurrection comme opposé à son genre. Les implications de ces résultats sont examinées. Dans l’ensemble, l’article contribue à la masse croissante de travail sur l’engagement des femmes dans les conflits armés, où elles sont considérées comme des responsables de la violence plutôt que comme des victimes.

Keywords: Niger Women, women and political violence, oil insurgency, Nigeria

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Female Perpetrators Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2016

Introduction to Conflict and Violence

Citation:

Green, Caroline, and Caroline Sweetman. 2013. “Introduction to Conflict and Violence.” Gender & Development 21 (3): 423-431.

Authors: Caroline Green, Caroline Sweetman

Annotation:

"Here you will find articles from a wide range of practitioners, researchers and activists, focusing on the complicated and context-specific relationships between gender inequality, violence and conflict, and debating ways to end gender-based violence (GBV) in its many pernicious forms" (Green and Sweetman, 2013, p. 423).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Men, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, conflict, peace and security, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Violence

Year: 2013

Gender-Sensitivity in Natural Resource Management in Côte d’Ivoire and Sudan

Citation:

Stork, Adrienne, Cassidy Travis, and Silja Halle. 2015. “Gender-Sensitivity in Natural Resource Management in Côte d’Ivoire and Sudan.” Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice 27 (2): 147–55. doi:10.1080/10402659.2015.1037617.

Authors: Adrienne Stork, Cassidy Travis, Silja Halle

Annotation:

"This essay builds on the 2013 report and investigates how the key issues of gender and natural resources play out in two different conflict-affected settings. Based on UNEP’s field experiences in Côte d’Ivoire and Darfur, the first section discusses the findings of a gender analysis conducted as part of a Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment of Côte d’Ivoire in 2013, and identifies concrete entry points for addressing the identified risks and opportunities. The second part examines how gender considerations have been incorporated into UNEP’s activities in the Wadi El Ku region of Darfur in Sudan, providing tangible examples of how these issues can be taken into account in ground-level programming" (Stork et al., 2015, p. 148-49). 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Extractive Industries, Gender, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Security, Human Security Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa Countries: Côte D'Ivoire, Sudan

Year: 2015

Moving to the Mines: Motivations of Men and Women for Migration to Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining Sites in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

Citation:

Maclin, Beth J., Jocelyn T.D. Kelly, Rachel Perks, Patrick Vinck, and Phuong Pham. 2017. “Moving to the Mines: Motivations of Men and Women for Migration to Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining Sites in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.” Resources Policy: The International Journal of Minerals Policy and Economics 51: 115–22. doi:10.1016/j.resourpol.2016.12.003.

Authors: Beth J. Maclin, Jocelyn T.D. Kelly, Rachel Perks, Patrick Vinck, Phuong Pham

Abstract:

Artisanal and small scale mining (ASM) sites in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) present livelihoods opportunities within an evolving security situation, thus offering the potential for economic and physical security. This paper presents survey data detailing reasons why men and women in eastern DRC migrate to ASM sites, with a specific focus on the extent to which insecurity wrought by the DRC's decades long conflict influences individuals’ migration decisions. It draws from research performed under a World Bank- Harvard Humanitarian Initiative research project. Following the literature review on decision-making related to ASM and migration and its applicability to the research context of eastern DRC, the article first presents basic demographics of the 998 men and women surveyed. It then details participants’ specific motivations for migration and groups them as push or pull factors. Finally, the article looks at the relationship between migration and the relevant migration and security variables separately before creating a multiple regression model to see how these variables inform migration decisions collectively. Participants largely migrated to ASM sites for the purpose of seeking money and/or employment. Security – specifically the presence of an armed group at one's reception site – also informed migration decision making, yet it did not negate the role of economic factors. This is the first paper the authors know of that examines gender-specific motivations for migration to ASM sites as well as how insecurity influences decisions to migrate to ASM sites.

Keywords: mining, migration, DRC, conflict, insecurity

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Men, Livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Security Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Year: 2017

Artisanal Mining, Conflict, and Sexual Violence in Eastern DRC

Citation:

Rustad, Siri Aas, Gudrun Østby, and Ragnhild Nordås. 2016. “Artisanal Mining, Conflict, and Sexual Violence in Eastern DRC.” The Extractive Industries and Society 3 (2): 475–84. doi:10.1016/j.exis.2016.01.010.

Authors: Siri Aas Rustad, Gudrun Østby, Ragnhild Nordås

Abstract:

The natural resource abundance of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has featured in policy debates as the prime example of ‘conflict minerals’ driving conflict-related sexual violence. This narrative has dominated how the conflict in the eastern part of the country has been portrayed in the media and by high-level policy-makers. Despite increased attention to research on mining and gender, systematic analyses of the links between mining, conflict, and sexual violence are scarce. This paper contributes to filling this gap by exploring how artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) and sexual violence are related in Eastern DRC. We combine new subnational data on the geographical location of ASM sites with detailed survey data from the 2013/2014 Demographic and Health survey of women aged 15–49 on their exposure to sexual violence committed by their intimate partners and by others (non-partners). The results indicate that women living in close proximity to ASM are indeed more likely to experience sexual violence of both types, although the effect is stronger for non-partner sexual violence. In the Kivus and Maniema, the risk of experiencing non-partner sexual is particularly high for women that live close to a mine with the presence of an armed actor.

Keywords: armed conflict, ASM, Democratic Republic of the Congo, sexual violence, Mineral mining

Topics: Armed Conflict, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Year: 2016

Engaging Women in Countering Violent Extremism: Avoiding Instrumentalisation and Furthering Agency

Citation:

d’Estaing, Sophie Giscard. 2017. “Engaging Women in Countering Violent Extremism: Avoiding Instrumentalisation and Furthering Agency.” Gender & Development 25 (1): 103–18. 

Author: Sophie Giscard d'Estaing

Abstract:

English Abstract:
Currently, women are on the frontlines of violent extremism, as recruiters, propagators, suicide bombers, and targets, as well as leaders working on de-radicalisation, counter-messaging, and peacebuilding. It is crucial that the international community and governments engage with women in preventing violent extremism, and focus on the gender-related reasons why women become involved as protagonists and supporters of violent extremism. This article examines the limitations of prevention and countering violent extremism programmes and policies in engaging with women, their roles, and gender-sensitivity. Recognising women’s agency, diversity in voices and experiences, and knowledge is fundamental to ensuring their rights and sustainable peace. Their full participation at all levels of decision-making in the design and implementation of preventing and countering violent extremism (PVE/CVE) contributes to the effectiveness and sustainability of these efforts.
 
French Abstract:
Actuellement, les femmes sont en première ligne de l’extrémisme violent, en tant que recruteuses, propagatrices, kamikazes et cibles, mais aussi en tant que leaders travaillant sur la déradicalisation, le contre-message et la paix. Il est essentiel que la communauté internationale et les gouvernements s’engagent avec les femmes avec pour but la prévention de l’extrémisme violent, et qu’ils se concentrent sur les raisons, liées au genre, pour lesquelles les femmes s’impliquent en tant que protagonistes et adeptes de l’extrémisme violent. Cet article étudie les limites des programmes et des politiques de prévention et de lutte contre l’extrémisme violent dans leurs efforts pour engager le dialogue avec les femmes, leurs rôles et la sensibilité au genre. La reconnaissance du pouvoir des femmes, ainsi que de la diversité de leurs voix et de leurs expériences, et de leur connaissance, est fondamentale afin d’assurer leurs droits et la paix durable. Leur participation complète à tous les niveaux de prise de décision sur la conception et l’implémentation de la prévention de l’extrémisme violent et de la lutte contre l’extrémisme violent, contribue à l’efficacité et à la durabilité de ces efforts.
 
Spanish Abstract:
Actualmente, las mujeres se encuentran en la primera línea del extremismo violento, sea como reclutadoras, difusoras, atacantes suicidas, como blancos de la violencia o bien como líderes, promoviendo la desradicalización, la divulgación de mensajes alternativos y la construcción de la paz. Por ello, resulta crucial que tanto la comunidad internacional como los gobiernos caminen en el sentido de involucrar a las mujeres en la prevención del extremismo violento, examinando al mismo tiempo aquellas razones vinculadas al género que determinan que las mujeres se vuelvan protagonistas y defensoras de dicho extremismo. El presente artículo analiza las limitaciones de los programas y políticas que actualmente se orientan a prevenir y contrarrestar el extremismo violento, centrándose en su rol y su sensibilidad de género, particularmente en términos de su trabajo con mujeres. En este sentido, resulta fundamental reconocer la autonomía de las mujeres, así como la diversidad de sus voces, vivencias y conocimientos, para asegurar sus derechos y lograr una paz duradera, partiendo de la premisa de que, a la hora de diseñar e implementar acciones encaminadas a prevenir y combatir el extremismo violento, la plena participación de las mujeres en todos los niveles de la toma de decisiones potencia su eficacia y su sostenibilidad.

Keywords: women, violent extremism, peace, prevention, agency, radicalisation, security, Rights

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Peacebuilding, Rights, Women's Rights, Violence

Year: 2017

Demobilized Women in Colombia: Embodiment, Performativity and Social Reconciliation

Citation:

Anctil Avoine, Priscyll, and Rachel Tillman. 2015. “Demobilized Women in Colombia: Embodiment, Performativity and Social Reconciliation.” In Female Combatants in Conflict and Peace, edited by Seema Shekhawat, 216–31. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Authors: Priscyll Anctil Avoine, Rachel Tillman

Abstract:

Colombia has been divided by armed conflict for over half a century. While still confronting multiple forms of violence, since the beginning of the peace talks in 2012 public attention in Colombia has shifted to social reconciliation. In June 2014, Colombians re-elected Juan Manuel Santos as president, his campaign having made peace the centre of attention. The peace negotiations in Havana have been widely recognized as promising by the national and international community, and an agreement with the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia — Ejército del Pueblo (FARC-EP)1 is closer than ever. Women have been considerably marginalized in this peace process, however, especially those who played an active role in the armed conflict. These women experience a double alienation: not only has their participation in the perpetration of violence been largely invisible, but this failure to recognize their presence in the conflict means that they are also being overlooked in the peace-building process. Furthermore, their non-traditional performance of their own gender will make it very difficult for them as women to carve out a place in a post-conflict society. (Abstract from Springer)

Annotation:

"This chapter draws on Judith Butler’s work on gender performativity to articulate a framework of analysis for understanding the possible role of demobilized women in the Colombian peace process. We analyze from the perspective of embodied gender performativity a bibliography of narrative accounts of demobilized women in various regions of Colombia gathered by the Centro National de Memoria Histórica. We also conducted semi-structured interviews of key actors within the demobilization process, specifically with people who have had direct and sustained contact with women ex-combatants. Although these sources are not necessarily statistically representative of the wide range of women involved in combat in Colombia, they nonetheless allow us to build a preliminary panorama of the relationship between gender performativity and the lives of women combatants before, during and after the conflict" (Avoine & Tillman, 2015, p. 216-17). 
 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Women, Peace Processes Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2015

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