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Women and the Economic Miracle: Gender and Work in Postwar Japan


Brinton, Mary C. 1994. Women and the Economic Miracle: Gender and Work in Postwar Japan. Berkley: University of California Press.

Author: Mary C. Brinton


This lucid, hard-hitting book explores a central paradox of the Japanese economy: the relegation of women to low-paying, dead-end jobs in a workforce that depends on their labor to maintain its status as a world economic leader. Drawing upon historical materials, survey and statistical data, and extensive interviews in Japan, Mary Brinton provides an in-depth and original examination of the role of gender in Japan's phenomenal postwar economic growth.

Brinton finds that the educational system, the workplace, and the family in Japan have shaped the opportunities open to female workers. Women move in and out of the workforce depending on their age and family duties, a great disadvantage in a system that emphasizes seniority and continuous work experience. Brinton situates the vicious cycle that perpetuates traditional gender roles within the concept of human capital development, whereby Japanese society "underinvests" in the capabilities of women. The effects of this underinvestment are reinforced indirectly as women sustain male human capital through unpaid domestic labor and psychological support.

Brinton provides a clear analysis of a society that remains misunderstood, but whose economic transformation has been watched with great interest by the industrialized world. (Summary from Google Books)

Table of Contents
1. Introduction
2. Women in the Japanese and U.S. Economies
3. Human Capital Development Systems
4. The Evolution of a Gendered Employment System
5. Gendered Work Lives
6. Gendered Education
7. Conclusion


Topics: Age, Development, Economies, Education, Gender, Gender Roles, Households, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: Japan

Year: 1994

Mujeres Reinsertadas: Postconflicto en la Ciudad de Barranquilla


Pichón, Leticia Elena Hundek. 2016. "Mujeres Reinsertadas: Postconflicto en la Ciudad de Barranquilla." Advocatus 14 (27): 65-82. 

Author: Leticia Elena Hundek Pichón


La mayoría de las mujeres reinsertadas ingresaron al grupo armado durante la adolescencia, motivadas por factores tanto ideológicos como personales, atraídas por la búsqueda de un nuevo “proyecto de vida”. Si la reinserción a la vida civil fue un proceso traumático para los combatientes en general, para la mujer reinsertada lo fue mucho más si se reconoce la prevalencia de un contexto socio-cultural que mantiene la inequidad de las relaciones de género. Desarmada y desprovista de su rol revolucionario, tiene que competir ahora en un nuevo terreno al parecer menos favorable para su participación política. Las mujeres reinsertadas se ven ahora enfrentadas a un mundo que les sigue siendo hostil, desprovistas de las armas que en el pasado le dieron una dimensión diferente a su rol tradicional y envueltas ahora en la complicada trama de recomponer su vida afectiva, familiar y laboral. Las mujeres reinsertadas dejaron las actividades propias de la insurgencia, para asumir el retorno a una sociedad que aún se nutre de patrimonios culturales ancestrales, patriarcales, discriminatorios y represivos que generalmente limitan a la mujer al desempeño de roles domésticos, sexuales y reproductivos.
Most of the reinserted women entered the armed group during adolescence, motivated by both ideological and personal factors, attracted by the search for a new “life project”. If reintegration into civilian life was a traumatic process for the combatants in general, it was much more so for the reinserted woman if the prevalence of a socio-cultural context that maintains the inequality of gender relations was recognized. Disarmed and devoid of its revolutionary role, it has now to compete in a new terrain apparently less favorable to its political participation. Reinserted women now face a world that is still hostile to them, deprived of the weapons that in the past gave them a different dimension to their traditional role and are now involved in the complicated plot of recomposing their affective, family and work life. The reinserted women left the activities of the insurgency, to assume the return to a society that still feeds on ancestral, patriarchal, discriminatory and repressive cultural patrimonies that limit women to the performance of domestic, sexual and reproductive roles.

Keywords: mujeres reinsertadas, postconflicto, roles politicos-económicos, relaciones de género, reinserted women, postconflict, political-economic roles, gender relations

Topics: Age, Combatants, Female Combatants, DDR, Economies, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Political Participation Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2016

Veteran Masculinities and Audiovisual Popular Music in Post-Conflict Croatia: A Feminist Aesthetic Approach to the Contested Everyday Peace


Baker, Catherine. 2019. “Veteran Masculinities and Audiovisual Popular Music in Post-Conflict Croatia: A Feminist Aesthetic Approach to the Contested Everyday Peace.” Peacebuilding 7 (2): 226–42.

Author: Catherine Baker


In Croatia, campaigners for a more critical public reckoning with the memory of Croatia's 'Homeland War' (1991–5) and the national past confront embeddings of hegemonic myths of the war into everyday life. Among these are the stardom of a musician whose 'patriotic' music claims the same moral authority as the Croatian veterans' movement and whose public persona has embodied militarised masculinity since he became a wartime star. Popular music and youth engagement with it is thus among the sites where everyday understandings of peace are being contested. By exploring the audiovisual aesthetics of the song/video through which this musician re-engaged with veterans' activism in 1998, and showing that popular music spectatorship seeps into the everyday micropolitics of young people building and contesting peace, the paper argues that for critical peace and conflict studies to understand the affective politics of post-conflict masculinities, they must combine a feminist and aesthetic consciousness.

Keywords: audiovisual aesthetics, Croatia, everyday peace, masculinities, popular music, veterans

Topics: Age, Youth, Armed Conflict, Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Croatia

Year: 2019

From Victims to the Vaunted: Young Women and Peace Building in Mashonaland East, Zimbabwe


Chitando, Anna. 2019. “From Victims to the Vaunted: Young Women and Peace Building in Mashonaland East, Zimbabwe.” African Security Review 28 (2): 110–23.

Author: Anna Chitando


Reflecting on young women involved in violence/peace, the dominant views present them as victims. This is understandable, as young women constitute the majority of those who are at the receiving end of violence. Further, young people are generally regarded as a threat. However, this paradigm glosses over the contribution of young women to peacebuilding in their communities. Despite the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 calling for women’s equal participation and full involvement in all efforts for the maintenance and promotion of peace and security, major challenges of its implementation in Africa remain. Therefore, this study sought to establish young women’s understanding of peacebuilding, activities they undertook to contribute to peacebuilding in Mashonaland East in Zimbabwe, and the challenges they encounter. The study prioritised the agency of young women in contributing towards peace in Mashonaland East, Zimbabwe. The research was based on the qualitative method as it sought to establish how women participate in peacebuilding. Findings of the study showed that young women are contributing to peacebuilding, although they face some challenges.

Keywords: peacebuilding, young women, Mashonaland East province, Zimbabwe, women's participation, agency

Topics: Age, Gender, Women, Peacebuilding, Peace and Security, Post-Conflict, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, Violence Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Zimbabwe

Year: 2019

Gender, Peacekeeping, and Child Soldiers: Training and Research in Implementation of the Vancouver Principles


Johnson, Dustin, and Allyssa Walsh. 2020. "Gender, Peacekeeping, and Child Soldiers: Training and Research in Implementation of the Vancouver Principles." Allons-yJournal of Children, Peace and Security 4: 51-60.

Authors: Dustin Johnson, Alyssa Walsh


Since the passage of UN Security Council resolution 1325, there has been a growing focus on the involvement of women in peacekeeping operations. Ambitious UN targets, the Vancouver Principles, and the Canadian government’s Elsie Initiative all aim to support the increased inclusion of uniformed women in peacekeeping missions. This article discusses three areas in which the Roméo Dallaire Child Soldiers Initiative (Dallaire Initiative) is working to support Vancouver Principle (VP) 11 through the training of women security sector actors, training on gendered dimensions of the recruitment and use of child soldiers and SGBV against child soldiers, and through research on how gender matters in peacekeeping operations. Based on these experiences and an engagement with the academic literature, it makes a number of policy recommendations in support of VP 11.

Keywords: gender, peacekeeping, training, child soldiers, SGBV

Topics: Age, Combatants, Child Soldiers, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, International Organizations, Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2020

New Critical Spaces in Transitional Justice: Gender, Art, and Memory


Kurze, Arnaud, and Christopher K. Lamont. 2019. New Critical Spaces in Transitional Justice: Gender, Art, and Memory. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Authors: Arnaud Kurze, Christopher K. Lamont


Since the 1980s, transitional justice mechanisms have been increasingly applied to account for mass atrocities and grave human rights violations throughout the world. Over time, post-conflict justice practices have expanded across continents and state borders and have fueled the creation of new ideas that go beyond traditional notions of amnesty, retribution, and reconciliation. Gathering work from contributors in international law, political science, sociology, and history, New Critical Spaces in Transitional Justice addresses issues of space and time in transitional justice studies. It explains new trends in responses to post-conflict and post-authoritarian nations and offers original empirical research to help define the field for the future.
Preface / Ruti Teitel
Introduction: Reconceptualizing Transitional Justice: Exploring the Nexus between Agency and Spatiality
Part I: Art, Activism, and Politics: Redefining Space in Transitional Justice
1 Borrowing Achilles's Armor: The Political Afterlife of Former Transitional Justice Mechanisms
2 The Site and Sights of Transitional Justice: Art at the Constitutional Court in Johannesburg
3 Youth Activism, Art, and Transitional Justice: Emerging Spaces of Memory after the Jasmine Revolution
Part II: Civil Society, Gender, and Transitions: Emerging Spaces and Victimhood
4 Gendered Postconflict Justice: Male Survivors of Sexual Violence in Northern Uganda
5 Claiming Space: Advocacy for Gender Justice in Cambodia
6 The Question of Gender Inclusiveness of Bottom-Up Strategies in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Part III: Spatiality, Temporality, and the State
7 Libya in Transition: Spaces for Justice after Gaddafi
8 Navigating the Narrow Spaces for Transitional Justice in Iraq
9 Accountability in Syria: What Are the Options?
10 Dignity for the Defeated: Recognizing the "Other" in Post-Yugoslav Commemorative Practices
Conclusion: Practicing Critical Transitional Justice and the Road Ahead

Topics: Age, Youth, Civil Society, Gender, International Law, Justice, Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict, Rights, Human Rights, Sexual Violence, SV against men

Year: 2019

Examining Climate Change and Food Security in Ghana through an Intersectional Framework


Wood, Alexa L., Prince Ansah, Louie Rivers III, and Arika Ligmann-Zielinska. 2019. “Examining Climate Change and Food Security in Ghana through an Intersectional Framework.” The Journal of Peasant Studies. doi:10.1080/03066150.2019.1655639.

Authors: Alexa L. Wood, Prince Ansah, Louie Rivers III, Arika Ligmann-Zielinska


As the effects of climate change intensify, subsistence farmers in Ghana are expected to face increased food insecurity, due to their reliance on rainfed agriculture. Within households, young women are expected to support all aspects of household food security, and will experience a more burdensome load of labor, as a dwindling stock of natural resources will make daily tasks more time consuming. The intersection of age, gender, and location inhibits young women's decision-making responsibilities and wage-earning potential. Climate change exacerbates this dynamic, which restricts opportunities to acquire sufficient food and places increased stress on household food systems.

Keywords: climate change, food security, intersectionality, Ghana, farming

Topics: Age, Youth, Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Households, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2019

Sustaining Peace in the “New Gambia”


Connolly, Lesley. 2018. "Sustaining Peace in the 'New Gambia.'" In Sustaining Peace in Practice: Building on What Works, edited by Youssef Mahmoud, Lesley Connolly, and Delphine Mechoulan, 59-64. International Peace Institute.

Author: Lesley Connolly


“This chapter highlights three main areas that should be prioritized for the purpose of sustaining peace in the Gambia: women’s empowerment, youth empowerment and entrepreneurship, and transitional justice and good governance. It explains how investment in these areas has helped prevent the escalation of conflict and how it can contribute to the maintenance of long-term national peace and stability” (Connolly 2018, 59-60).

Topics: Age, Youth, Conflict Prevention, Conflict, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Justice, Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict, Peace Processes Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Gambia

Year: 2018

Child Safeguarding in a Peacekeeping Context: Lessons from Liberia


Blakemore, Sarah, Rosa Freedman, and Nicolas Lemay-Hébert. 2019. "Child Safeguarding in a Peacekeeping Context: Lessons from Liberia." Development in Practice 29 (6): 735-47.

Authors: Sarah Blakemore, Rosa Freedman, Nicolas Lemay-Hébert


This article reviews how peacekeeping officials safeguard children from sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) in Liberia, more than 15 years after the landmark reports published on this issue. Based on original fieldwork conducted in Liberia and in New York, the article introduces an innovative framework to assess whether or not organisations effectively safeguard children from SEA. It reviews three interrelated issues: reinforcing the institutional environment in the country, strengthening prevention of and accountability for child SEA by UN actors. The article concludes with specific policy recommendations for actors involved in peacekeeping activities.

Keywords: aid, accountability, aid effectiveness, civil society, NGOs, Gender and Diversity, youth, Rights, Sub-Saharan Africa

Topics: Age, Youth, Civil Society, Gender, Girls, Boys, NGOs, Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Americas, North America Countries: Liberia, United States of America

Year: 2019

Peace for Whom? Legacies of Gender-Based Violence in Peru


Boesten, Jelke. 2019. "Peace for Whom? Legacies of Gender-Based Violence in Peru." In Politics after Violence: Legacies of the Shining Path Conflict in Peru, edited by Hillel David Soifer and Alberto Vergara. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Author: Jelke Boesten


"In August 2016, a multitude of women, their families, and their friends took to the streets of Lima to protest the high levels of violence against women in Peru and the impunity routinely accorded to the perpetrators of this violence. Never before had so many Peruvians protested violence against women, even if there had been ample reason to do so. In this chapter, I will explore why this mass mobilization happened at this particular point in time by examining the extent to which the violence against women in 2016 might be interpreted as a legacy of the violence of the Internal Armed Conflict (IAC) or as a result of persistent historical structures of violence and inequity. I also consider whether the contemporary response to such violence from both civil society activists and the state should be seen in light of the continuous battles over truth, justice, and reconciliation. In exploring the hypothesis that the contemporary violence against women is a legacy of a much longer history of violence and inequality, I will focus in particular on what aspects might be seen as a sequel to the Internal Armed Conflict. I will ask if high levels of peacetime violence might be seen as either a wartime mechanism or a post-conflict legacy. To examine this, I draw from my research in the archives of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and other sources for my book Sexual Violence during War and Peace: Gender, Power, and Post-Conflict Justice in Peru (2014). But I am also interested in exploring how the lack of justice and visibility regarding cases of conflict-related violence against women contrasts with the more recent mobilization of hundreds of thousands of people to protests against continuous high levels of violence against women. I argue that perhaps historic cases are too politically and socially divisive to work as examples that promote broader gender justice; instead, it may be that the struggle against the everyday violence women and girls experience across lines of class, ethnicity, geography, and age has finally found its historic momentum, with capable activists to lead the way and a political opportunity to rise to the challenge of demanding justice and social change." (Boesten 2019, 297-98)

Topics: Age, Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Class, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Justice, Impunity, TRCs, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Peru

Year: 2019


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