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West Africa

Land Grab, Property Rights and Gender Equality in Pluralistic Legal Orders: A Nigerian Perspective

Citation:

 Nwapi, Chilenye. 2016. “Land Grab, Property Rights and Gender Equality in Pluralistic Legal Orders: A Nigerian Perspective.” African Journal of Legal Studies 9 (2): 124–46.

Author: Chilenye Nwapi

Abstract:

This article considers the impact of land grab on the promotion of gender inequality within the Nigerian pluralistic legal order. It examines the interface between customary law and statute law in the determination of land ownership and access in Nigeria. It makes two key arguments. (1) While legal pluralism presents opportunities for curtailing the excesses of customary law, it has often resulted in the dominant legal system – statute law – fostering gender inequality in a manner that is beyond the capacity of the so-called barbaric customary laws. (2) The capacity of law to effectively address the problem of gender inequality within the context of land grab is very limited, because the nature of most land grab-related activities that promote gender inequality are appropriately legal and it is their unintended consequences that undermine women’s rights. The article argues for an effective use of the political process to complement legal interventions.

Keywords: land grab, customary law, statute law, legal pluralism, gender inequality, Property Rights

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Justice, Land Grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2016

The Poverty of Neoliberalized Feminism: Gender Equality in a ‘Best Practice’ Large-Scale Land Investment in Ghana

Citation:

Lanz, Kristina, Elisabeth Prügl, and Jean-David Gerber. 2020. “The Poverty of Neoliberalized Feminism: Gender Equality in a ‘Best Practice’ Large-Scale Land Investment in Ghana.” The Journal of Peasant Studies 47 (3): 525-43.

Authors: Kristina Lanz, Elisabeth Prügl, Jean-David Gerber

Abstract:

Feminist ideas have entered the neoliberal agricultural development agenda, including increasingly ubiquitous public-private partnerships and businesses. Rhetorically committed to gender equality, these new development actors have reduced equality to a matter of numbers, seeking to include women in their projects while disregarding intersectionally gendered power relations that suffuse any development context. This article seeks to illustrate how such power relations inhabit business-led development projects. Based on ethnographic research of a ‘best practice’ large-scale land investment in Ghana's Volta Region, we argue that a narrow focus on including women and superficial Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) promises fail to address intersectional inequalities because they pay inadequate attention to local institutions for resource management and the power relations they embed. Focusing on gender equality without regard to local institutions at best serves to empower a few well-connected women and at worst acts as a cover-up of highly exploitative practices.

Keywords: gender, intersectionality, large-scale land investment, institutions, power relations

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Intersectionality, Land Grabbing Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2020

Women, Internal Displacement and the Boko Haram Conflict: Broadening the Debate

Citation:

Ajayi, Titilope F. 2020. "Women, Internal Displacement and the Boko Haram Conflict: Broadening the Debate." African Security 13 (2): 171-94.

Author: Titilope F. Ajayi

Abstract:

Women and children make up 79 per cent of the population displaced by the conflict between the Nigerian government and the armed movement informally known as Boko Haram. Their lived experiences expose the considerable protection and humanitarian risks of being female in violent contexts and the complexities of addressing them. In addition to open conflict and inconsistent policy and humanitarian responses, women’s displacement is being protracted by disjunctures between women’s roles and their construction as victims in policy and humanitarian frameworks. Construed as lacking agency, displaced women are resisting the hardship of displacement by returning to Boko Haram. This article argues for a rethinking of the importance of context, autonomy and agency as a prerequisite to reconciling false narratives about women’s experiences of conflict and displacement and their lived realities. It speaks to broader debates about women and conflict and the utility of current approaches and frameworks for addressing the roles and needs of women in these contexts.

Keywords: Nigeria, gender and security, IDPs, UNSCR 1325, women, peace and security in Africa

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Humanitarian Assistance, Peace and Security, Terrorism, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2020

Intersections of Gender and Water: Comparative Approaches to Everyday Gendered Negotiations of Water Access in Underserved Areas of Accra, Ghana and Cape Town, South Africa

Citation:

Harris, L., D. Kleiber, J. Goldin, A. Darkwah, and C. Morinville. 2016. "Intersections of Gender and Water: Comparative Approaches to Everyday Gendered Negotiations of Water Access in Underserved Areas of Accra, Ghana and Cape Town, South Africa." Journal of Gender Studies 26 (5): 561-82.

Authors: L. Harris, D. Kleiber, J. Goldin, A. Darkwah, C. Morinville

Abstract:

A large and growing body of literature suggests that women and men often have differentiated relationships to water access, uses, knowledges, governance, and experiences. From a feminist political ecology perspective, these relationships can be mediated by gendered labour practices (within the household, at the community level, or within the workplace), socio-cultural expectations (e.g. related to notions of masculinity and femininity), as well as intersectional differences (e.g. race, income, and so forth). While these relationships are complex, multiple, and vary by context, it is frequently argued that due to responsibility for domestic provision or other pathways, women may be particularly affected if water quality or access is compromised. This paper reports on a statistical evaluation of a 478 household survey conducted in underserved areas of Accra, Ghana and Cape Town, South Africa in early 2012. Interrogating our survey results in the light of the ideas of gender differentiated access, uses, knowledges, governance, and experiences of water, we open up considerations related to the context of each of our study sites, and also invite possible revisions and new directions for these debates. In particular, we are interested in the instances where differences among male and female respondents were less pronounced than expected. Highlighting these unexpected results we find it helpful to draw attention to methods – in particular we argue that a binary male–female approach is not that meaningful for the analysis, and instead, gender analysis requires some attention to intersectional differences (e.g. homeownership, employment, or age). We also make the case for the importance of combining qualitative and quantitative work to understand these relationships, as well as opening up what might be learned by more adequately exploring the resonances and tensions between these approaches.

Keywords: Ghana, South Africa, gender, water, methods, triangulation, intersectionality

Topics: Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Gender Analysis, Governance, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Intersectionality, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana, South Africa

Year: 2016

Gender and Impact of Climate Change Adaptation on Soybean Farmers' Revenue in Rural Togo, West Africa

Citation:

Ali, Essossinam, Nadège Essossolim Awade, and Tahirou Abdoulaye. 2020. "Gender and Impact of Climate Change Adaptation on Soybean Farmers' Revenue in Rural Togo, West Africa." Cogent Food & Agriculture 6 (1).

Authors: Essossinam Ali, Nadège Essossolim Awade, Tahirou Abdoulaye

Abstract:

This study assesses the impact of climate change (CC) adaptation on farm-level revenue among 500 soybean farmers randomly selected in three districts in Togo using endogenous switching regression method. The survey results indicate that only 40.37% of the women have adapted to CC against 59.62% of the men. Moreover, being member of farmer-based organization (FBO), access to credit and extension services, agricultural training of women are the main factors that increase the likelihood of adaptation. The gender-differentiated impact shows that women would earn more than men from adaptation, while losing compared to men if they do not take any adaptation actions. The loss from non-adapting to CC will increase by 0.268% of the soybean revenue. However, the heterogeneity effects suggest further assessment on the adopted technology in soybean farming in the study areas. Adaptation policy that seeks to ensure food security and enhance farmers’ welfare in subsistence agriculture should consider the gender dimension, while reviewing the financial policy in terms of affordability, access of extension services and supporting FBO will increase technologies adoption and farming revenue.

Keywords: adaptation, climate change, gender, soybean, endogenous switching regression

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Togo

Year: 2020

The Vulnerability of Women to Climate Change in Coastal Regions of Nigeria: A Case of the Ilaje Community in Ondo State

Citation:

Akinsemolu, Adenike A., and Obafemi A. P. Olukoya. 2020. "The Vulnerability of Women to Climate Change in Coastal Regions of Nigeria: A Case of the Ilaje Community in Ondo State." Journal of Cleaner Production 246.

Authors: Adenike A. Akinsemolu, Obafemi A. P. Olukoya

Abstract:

Values, patriarchal norms, and traditions related to gender and gendering are diverse among societies, communities, and precincts. As such, although climate change is expected to exacerbate vulnerabilities and deepen existing gender inequities and inequalities, the impacts will be unequally felt across geographical strata. This implies that the specificity of the vulnerability of women to climate change may also vary from community to community and society to societies. However, mainstream literature on the vulnerability of women to climate changes in coastal zones trivializes the plurality and nuances of different geographical contexts by universalizing context-specific vulnerability to climate change. Mindful of the limitations associated with the generalizing conception of women’s vulnerability, this paper is therefore underpinned by the implicit assumption that a successful response to the vulnerability of women to climate change in coastal zone is forged in the nexus between contextual investigation of climate change parameters and a localized investigation of differentiation in gender roles, patriarchal norms and other unknown factors in a particular setting. Thus, this paper presents a case study of the contextual vulnerability of women to climate change in Ilaje coastal region in Nigeria. Examining the intersecting complex of contextual factors, the paper establishes that beyond patriarchal traditions and norms: economic, political, educational and environmental factors are at play in the vulnerability of women to climate change in Ilaje community. To this end, this paper posits that to alleviate the vulnerability of women to climate change in coastal zones, the understanding of contextual factors play a fundamental role.

Keywords: women, vulnerability, coastal region, climate change, Ilaje, Nigeria

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2020

Media, Gender Protection and Disaster Risk Reduction in the Lagos Mega City: Content Analysis of News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) Reportage of Flood

Citation:

Okudolo, Ikemefuna Taire Paul, Itumeleng Mekoa, and Mutiu Adekunle Ganiyu. 2019. "Media, Gender Protection and Disaster Risk Reduction in the Lagos Mega City: Content Analysis of News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) Reportage of Flood." Gender and Behaviour 17 (3): 13486-99.

Authors: Ikemefuna Taire Paul Okudolo, Itumeleng Mekoa, Mutiu Adekunle Ganiyu

Abstract:

There are numerous man-made and nature induced disasters besetting mega cities that affect gender protection in both private humanitarian and public mitigation projects. Climate change or man-made induced flood is one of such disasters overwhelming especially coastal mega cities and destroying such gendered societies. Its recurrence, scale of destruction and attendant problems have forced stakeholders to agree that reducing its risk factors to every gender class through pre-disaster mitigation activities is the best approach to curb this hazardous disaster. Media is one of the critical stakeholders whose activities can help to curtail the negative effect of flood and advance gendered empowerment against flood, hence its ever important role as risk reduction facilitator. As a crucial stakeholder and agent of development, the media inform, educate, mobilize, forecast and play other roles aimed at helping gendered society and governments cope with flooding. This paper examines the role being played by the media in flood risk reduction in a mega city like Lagos. Specifically, it examines the role of the News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) in creating pre-flood mitigation awareness and disseminating information about flood in the Lagos mega city. NAN is one of the leading news agencies in the world. It sells stories to numerous subscribers within and outside Nigeria. To achieve this paper’s objectives, content analysis of NAN reports sent out to subscribers between 2014 and 2017 were analyzed. Agenda setting theory is employed in this paper to x-ray the involvement of NAN in reducing flood risks in Lagos. Findings show that NAN mainly reports flood in Lagos during its occurrence and rarely expose effects of socio-cultural-economic activities of Lagos residents that cause flooding. It, however, found that the reportage of flood effects is gendered covering all adult sexes, and also boys and girls The paper recommends amongst others that as a media organization with significant influence and key purveyor of credible information, NAN should engage more in proactive reporting of flood in Lagos before it happens. Its reportage should include weather forecasting, reporting stakeholders’ collaborative activities among other flood risk reduction campaigns.

Keywords: agenda setting theory, disaster risk reduction, flood, gendered society, Lagos, NAN

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Media Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2019

Gender and Climate Change Adaptation Decisions among Farm Households in Southwest Nigeria

Citation:

Ade, Amusa Taofeeq. 2014. "Gender and Climate Change Adaptation Decisions among Farm Households in Southwest Nigeria." PhD diss., University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Author: Amusa Taofeeq Ade

Abstract:

This study investigated gender and climate change adaptation decisions among farm households in Southwest Nigeria. In carrying out the study, five specific objectives and five hypotheses were developed to guide the study. Multi-stage random sampling techniques were employed in selecting the 348 farm units for the study. Data for the study were obtained from primary source using structured questionnaire. Data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as multinomial logit (MNL) model, vulnerability analysis, Heckman’s double stage selection model, factor analysis, t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Based on the data analyzed, the study found that majority (76%) of the farmers were males while 24% were females. The average year of education of the farmers was 7 years with an average household size about 8 persons. The average year of farming experience of the farmers was 36 years. The result on source of awareness of the farmers indicated that, greater percentage (79%) of the farmers were aware of climate change through personal observation, followed by 63% of the farmers that that indicated awareness through extension agents. The study identified 13 effects of climate change of agricultural production with mean values that ranged from 2.51 to 3.58 on a 4- point rating scale. Using household adaptive capacity approach, female headed farming households in southwest Nigeria were more vulnerable to effects of climate change with higher vulnerability index of 0.73 as against male headed households with vulnerability index of 0.43. The result of Heckman’s double stage selection model with rho 0.61561, Wald2 χ= 743.72 and p≤0.0000 showed strong explanatory power of the model. The mean comparison of gender contribution to climate change adaptation decision in crop production activities showed that men had higher mean contribution of 3.42 than women with mean contribution of 2.67. On gender contribution to climate change adaptation decision making in livestock production, women had higher mean contribution of 3.55 against men with mean contribution of 3.27. The result of the parameter estimates from the multinomial logit (MNL) model was significant as indicated by χ 2 statistics are highly significant at (p<0.0000). The explanatory power of the factors as reflected by Pseudo R2 was high (69%). The factors that militate against women contributions to climate change adaptation decision as revealed by the result of varimax-rotated principal component factor analysis include: socio-infrastructural, financial/cultural, technological and institutional factors. The findings on analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was no significant (p≤0.05) difference in the mean ratings of farmers from Ekiti, Ogun and Oyo states on the intensity of the effects of climate change across the local ecological zones. The result of the t-test statistics showed a significant (p≤0.05) difference in vulnerabilities of male and female headed households to the effects of climate change in southwest Nigeria. Based on the above findings, the study inter alia recommended that government should formulate specific policies providing increased women access to education, land and off-farm activities to alleviate the gender disparity in contribution to climate adaptation decision.

Topics: Agriculture, Education, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2014

Scaling Up Gender Mainstreaming in Transport: Policies, Practices and Monitoring Processes

Citation:

Njenga, Peter, and Nite Tanzarn. 2020. “Scaling Up Gender Mainstreaming in Transport: Policies, Practices and Monitoring Processes.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Transport 173 (2): 64–75.

Authors: Peter Njenga, Nite Tanzarn

Abstract:

Four rural transport programmes, one each in Ghana, Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania, were reviewed in respect of gender mainstreaming. National gender frameworks and transport policies were analysed for each country. The four countries have constitutional, policy and legislative frameworks that underpin the principles of gender equality. Gender mainstreaming measures have further been cascaded downwards into sector policies, including transport. The programmes reviewed showed good practices in integration of gender across the project cycle. However, it is notable that the programmes reviewed were donor-funded and thus were significantly influenced by the gender policies of the funding mechanisms. While it was not ascertained if government-funded rural transport programmes had similarly embedded gender integration issues, there is undoubtedly a good foundation that has been laid through the programmes reviewed in this study. This practice needs to be replicated and institutionalised so that it becomes a common norm across all transport programmes. An important part of this is for national governments to ensure sector-wide enforcement of the constitutional and legislative gender precepts. The case study programmes reviewed have put in place some good gender performance assessment tools, which provide examples of the tools that could be made mandatory as part of gender accountability in the transport sector.

Keywords: developing countries, knowledge management, public policy

Topics: Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda

Year: 2020

Exploring Potential Climate-Related Entrepreneurship Opportunities and Challenges for Rural Nigerian Women

Citation:

Akinbami, C. A. O., J. E. Olawoye, F. A. Adesina, and V. Nelson. 2019. "Exploring Potential Climate-Related Entrepreneurship Opportunities and Challenges for Rural Nigerian Women." Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research 9.

Authors: C. A. O. Akinbami, J. E. Olawoye, F. A. Adesina, V. Nelson

Abstract:

Entrepreneurship is a tool for facilitating rural economic development, which is becoming increasingly needed to respond to the growing impacts of accelerating climate change on rural women’s livelihoods in less developed countries creating constraints on sustainable development. This study examines the awareness of and impacts of climatic changes as perceived by women in South West Nigeria in diverse vegetation zones. It elicits the challenges facing women and which constrain their entrepreneurial activities. It therefore identifies potential adaptation strategies and opportunities, including drawing on a review of wider developments in at international development level, such as technological, institutional and infrastructural innovations. The study employed explorative, mixed approaches, including quantitative and qualitative methods. Five hundred and ninety-five questionnaires were administered to selected respondents through multi-stage sampling technique, while Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) were used to solicit qualitative data from two hundred and forty women. Quantitative data were analysed with SPSS for descriptive and analysis of variance, and Atlas ti. was used to thematically analyse qualitative data. Findings showed that women have high levels of awareness of changes in their climate. Analysis of variance revealed that most of the women involved in crop farming in the vegetation zones showed better understanding than women in other livelihood. They strongly agreed (with mean of approximately 5) that climate change had greatly affected soil fertility, caused less predictable, and prolonged the dry season. Over 90% of the women perceived significant impacts of these changes on their livelihood activities. Overall, there were no clear divergences in women’s attitudes towards innovation and entrepreneurship between the vegetation zones and a relatively high expectation of government support. Wider review of current practice and innovations highlights a wide range of new opportunities for building women’s adaptive capacity which could directly or indirectly catalyse increased entrepreneurship amongst women. Furthermore, the involvement of local authorities and community-based organisations, as well as diverse public and private actors, in the development of adaptation strategies is crucial to achieving this.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, climate change, adaptation strategies, rural women, challenges, opportunities

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2019

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