Southern Africa

Towards a Gender Sensitive Vulnerability Assessment for Climate Change: Lambani, Limpopo Province, South Africa

Citation:

Goldin, Jacqueline, Cobus Botha, Thabiso Koatla, Kobus Anderson, Germaine Owen, and Ally Lebese. 2019. "Towards a Gender Sensitive Vulnerability Assessment for Climate Change: Lambani, Limpopo Province, South Africa." Human Geography 12 (1): 19-32.

Authors: Jacqueline Goldin, Cobus Botha, Thabiso Koatla, Kobus Anderson, Germaine Owen, Ally Lebese

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Women's limited access to resources and decision-making processes increases their vulnerability to impacts of climate change. Despite their own vulnerability, women are often responsible for caring for close relatives, extended families and friends during hazardous and traumatic events (whether its famine, floods, drought or forced displacements). Based on experience and knowledge it is believed that women are more vulnerable to the effects of climate change than men, primarily as they constitute the majority of the world's poor and are more dependent for their livelihood on natural resources that are threatened by climate change. The paper proposes a gender sensitive vulnerable assessment framework that is scaffolded by three key concepts: exposure, temporality and resource base. Because the study is grounded in the Capability Approach Framework it captures multi-dimensionality and intangible goods which are emotions such as fear, anger, shock or shame. It seeks to better understand the differentiated responses of men and women to climate variations and stress such as extreme heat, cold, droughts or floods in a specific site, Lambani, in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. The main aim is to understand different responses of men and women to climate change in order to design and populate a vulnerability assessment (VA) framework. In order to do so the Capability Approach (CA) is applied as a theoretical frame with its lens on diversity and social justice. The CA thus provides an expanded notion of human well-being that taps into the emotional life of women and men in Lambani.

SPANISH/CASTILIAN ABSTRACT:
El acceso limitado de las mujeres a los recursos y los procesos de toma de decisiones aumenta su vulnerabilidad a los impactos del cambio climático. A pesar de su propia vulnerabilidad, las mujeres a menudo son responsables de cuidar a sus familiares cercanos, familiares extendidos y amigos durante eventos traumáticos y peligrosos (ya sea hambre, inundaciones, sequías o desplazamientos forzosos). Sobre la base de la experiencia y el conocimiento, se cree que las mujeres son más vulnerables a los efectos del cambio climático que los hombres, principalmente porque constituyen la mayoría de las personas pobres del mundo y son más dependientes para su subsistencia en los recursos naturales que están amenazados por el cambio climático. El documento propone un marco de evaluación vulnerable sensible al género que está estructurado por tres conceptos clave: exposición, temporalidad y base de recursos. Debido a que el estudio se basa en el marco de enfoque de capacidades, captura elementos multidimensionales e intangibles que son emociones como el miedo, la ira, el shock o la vergüenza. Busca comprender mejor las respuestas diferenciadas de hombres y mujeres a las variaciones climáticas y al estrés como el calor extremo, el frío, las sequías o las inundaciones en un sitio específico, Lambani, en la provincia de Limpopo, Sudáfrica. El objetivo principal es comprender las diferentes respuestas de hombres y mujeres al cambio climático para diseñar y poblar un marco de evaluación de vulnerabilidad (AV). Para ello, el enfoque de capacidades (CA por sus cifras en inglés) se aplica como un marco teórico con su lente sobre la diversidad y la justicia social. El CA proporciona así una noción ampliada de bienestar humano que se nutre de la vida emocional de las mujeres y los hombres en Lambani.

Keywords: climate change, Capability Approach, emotions, gender, Limpopo Province, resilience, vulnerability, social justice

Topics: Economies, Care Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Gender Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 2019

Ecofeminism in a World of BRICS: Opportunities and Challenges

Citation:

Dellios, Rosita, Arundhati Bhattacharyya, and Cindy Minarova-Banjac. 2019. “Ecofeminism in a World of BRICS: Opportunities and Challenges.” Culture Mandala 13 (2): 1-18.

Authors: Rosita Dellios, Arundhati Bhattacharyya, Cindy Minarova-Banjac

Abstract:

While feminism and environmentalism have long and illustrious histories in the annals of social movements, together they are less well recognised or understood beyond the academic community. Far from being an eclectic intersection of interests between women and the environment, ‘ecofeminism’ holds a wider significance for integrative sustainable development in the coming decades. This is especially so when viewed from the Global South and its ‘rising powers’, three of which – China, India and Brazil – form case studies in this article. Will the developing world, in the course of its development and especially under China’s influence, advance or squander the opportunity for an ecofeminist contribution to a better world order? Policy implications derived from this study call for a cross-sector approach that includes culture and religion. These challenge the limitations of binary thinking and promote interconnectedness.

Keywords: ecofeminism, sustainable development, culture, global south, BRICS

Topics: Development, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Europe Countries: Brazil, China, India, Russian Federation, South Africa

Year: 2019

Desigualdades de género em contextos rurais em Moçambique: estudos de caso em localidades no Província de Nampula

Citation:

Agy, Aleia Rachide. 2018. “Desigualdades de género em contextos rurais em Moçambique: estudos de caso em localidades no Província de Nampula.” Trabaalho apresentado na Desafios da Investigação Social e Económica em Tempos de Crise, Maputo, Setembro 19-21.

Author: Aleia Rachide Agy

Annotation:

Summary:
"Nos países africanos, em geral, e na África Austral, em particular, as desigualdades de género têm sido discutidas tendo em conta os papéis sociais, a gestão dos rendimentos, as disparidades no acesso à educação, à saúde, aos recursos, à informação e à comunicação, bem como a participação nos processos de tomada de decisão.
 
Nas abordagens sobre desigualdades sociais em Moçambique constata-se que a mulher constitui, frequentemente, o actor mais fraco, particularmente no que respeita ao acesso a recursos, como rendimento ou terra, ou ao nível da participação cívica e comunitária.
 
Apesar de as mulheres rurais realizarem muitas horas de trabalho na actividade agrícola, em termos de acesso e controlo de bens, tecnologias, insumos e serviços necessários para o desempenho e facilitação dessas tarefas, as mulheres aparecem desfavorecidas. A falta de segurança das mulheres em relação à posse da terra, a concentração dos serviços de extensão na figura masculina (Valá, 2006: 113), as barreiras para a obtenção do crédito comercial e outras formas de discriminação constituem factores determinantes para colocar a mulher no círculo vicioso de baixo rendimento, baixa produtividade, cargas laborais elevadas e saúde deficiente. Os rendimentos baixos (e incertos) das mulheres estruturam-se noutros factores socioeconómicos e culturais, muitos dos quais são importantes para compreender a sua vulnerabilidade.
 
Os distritos de Monapo e Nacarôa, localizados na província de Nampula, caracterizam-se pela presença de comunidades matrilineares. Todavia, verificam-se fortes mudanças, relacionadas com o casamento, contrariando o princípio verificado por Geffray (1990), matrilocal, segundo o qual, após o casamento, o homem se muda para a aldeia da mulher. Com efeito, nos distritos em estudo, após o casamento, o casal passa a residir nas terras do homem e, mesmo nos casos em que vive algum tempo na zona da mulher, posteriormente o casal transfere-se para as terras do marido ou para as chamadas “zonas neutras”2, facto que foi igualmente constatado por Osório (2006).
 
Osório (2006: 9-13) explica que esta situação reflecte a perda de influência das estruturas familiares, uma vez que o abandono da matrilinearidade reforça o modelo patriarcal e se traduz num enfraquecimento dos laços entre casais. Constata-se que, mesmo existindo a estrututura matrilinear, o homem é sempre identificado (por mulheres e homens) como o chefe da família e como o dono da terra. Para os homens, ser chefe de família é “educar as mulheres e as crianças”, “vender produtos” e “construir casa”.
 
Embora existam diversas abordagens sobre temas ligados à cultura e à desigualdade de género, a realidade é que, em regiões de investimento (como Monapo) e de pobreza (como Nacarôa), as dinâmicas culturais estão em constante mutação e readaptação, constatando-se um défice de análises sobre a influência da linhagem ao nível das desigualdades sociais. Por conseguinte, importa analisar o acesso aos recursos de poder como à terra, o acesso e a gestão dos rendimentos, o acesso à educação, bem como aos cuidados de saúde, como factores preponderantes para a emancipação da mulher no meio rural. Assim, a categoria género é utilizada como um conceito que permite trazer ao de cima as relações sociais, as hierarquias de poder subjacentes à convivência de mulheres e homens nas famílias. O uso deste conceito permite identificar os efeitos de diferenças de género configuradas por estruturas de poder, marcadas pela dominação masculina.
 
Este artigo está organizado em sete secções. Numa primeira fase, a Introdução, em que se apresenta de forma breve o assunto em discussão. A segunda secção faz uma reflexão sobre as desigualdades sociais de género em Moçambique, a terceira apresenta os objectivos e a metodologia. A quarta secção é consagrada ao estudo de caso, em que se descreve o objecto de estudo. Na quinta secção caracteriza-se as dimensões de desigualdade social de género. Na sexta secção são apresentadas as reflexões finais. Por último, encontram-se as referências bibliográficas" (Agy 2018, 369-70).

Topics: Gender, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Mozambique

Year: 2018

Women's Participation in Green Growth - A Potential Fully Realised?

Citation:

Von Hagen, Markéta, and Johanna Willems. 2012. "Women's Participation in Green Growth - A Potential Fully Realised?" Donor Committee for Enterprise Development.

Authors: Markéta von Hagen, Johanna Willems

Annotation:

Summary:
The purpose of the study is threefold: (1) to shed more light on the gender dimension of green growth, especially in the context of private sector development and thereby fill an important knowledge gap in the green growth discourse; (2) to validate women’s contributions to green growth and sustainable private sector development; and (3) ultimately to promote women’s empowerment and gender equality. The overall approach of the study combines three intersecting perspectives, which are dealt with independently as well as in tandem: a gender perspective with a focus on the (potential) participation of women, a greening perspective and a private sector development perspective. The study contains case studies from Brazil, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Philippines, South Africa, Uganda and Vietnam. (Summary from Green Growth Knowledge Platform)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
 
2. Factors Influencing Women's Participation in Green Growth
 
3. Making Women's Participation in Green Growth a Reality: Two Value Chain Examples
 
4. Assessment of Potentials, Risks and Relevant Approaches for Women's Participation in the Green Economy
 
5. Recommendations

Topics: Development, Economies, Ecological Economics, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Africa, MENA, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Brazil, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Philippines, South Africa, Uganda, Vietnam

Year: 2012

Past Wrongs and Gender Rights: Issues and Conflicts in South Africa's Land Reform

Citation:

Jacobs, Susie. 1998. "Past Wrongs and Gender Rights: Issues and Conflicts in South Africa's Land Reform." European Journal of Development Research 10 (2): 70-87.

Author: Susie Jacobs

Abstract:

South Africa's agrarian situation presents a range of daunting issues, including extreme rural poverty & a government hindered by severe financial constraints. At the same time, the country's attempts to incorporate gender issues into land reform are virtually unique. Discussed here are several major issues confronting the present pilot programs operating in 9 provinces & any future reform: demand for land; demand for services; the issue of "the household"; traditional authorities; forms of land tenure; & the nature of public participation. It is stressed that all of these are gender issues, as is the extent of conflict raised through overt discussion of gender processes. None of these questions has a straightforward answer, but their consideration is likely to raise additional questions.

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Gender Analysis, Land Tenure, Households, Political Participation, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 1998

African Democracy and Development: Challenges for Post-Conflict African Nations

Citation:

Veney, Cassandra Rachel, and Dick W. Simpson, ed. 2013. African Democracy and Development: Challenges for Post-Conflict African Nations. Lanham: Lexington Books.

Authors: Cassandra Veney, Dick Simpson

Annotation:

Summary:
Various African nations have undergone conflict situations since they gained their independence. This book focuses on particular countries that have faced conflict (civil wars and genocide) and are now in the process of rebuilding their political, economic, social, and educational institutions. The countries that are addressed in the book include: Rwanda, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In addition, there is a chapter that addresses the role of the African Diaspora in conflict and post-conflict countries that include Eritrea, Liberia, and Somalia. The book includes an examination of the various actors who are involved in post-conflict rebuilding and reconstruction that involves internal and external participants. For example, it is clear that the internal actors involve Africans themselves as ordinary citizens, members of local and national governments, and members of non-governmental organizations. This allows the reader to understand the agency and empowerment of Africans in post-conflict reconstruction. Various institutions are addressed within the context of the roles they play in establishing governance organizations such as the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in Sierra Leone, the African Union, chiefs in Liberia, and non-governmental organizations. Furthermore, the external actors who are involved in post-conflict reconstruction are examined such as international non-governmental organizations and the African Diaspora. They both have their own constituents and agendas and can and do play a positive and negative role in post-conflict reconstruction. It is obvious that countries that are addressed in the book are in dire need of financial assistant to rebuild much needed infrastructure that was destroyed during the conflict. All of the countries covered in the book need schools, medical facilities, roads, bridges, airports, ports, and the government does not have the money to provide these. This is where the international non-governmental organizations and the African Diaspora play an important role. The chapters that address these issues are cognizant of their importance and at the same time, the authors realize that sovereignty can be undermined if Africans are not in the forefront of policy and decision making that will determine their future. There are chapters that provide a gendered analysis of post-conflict when it is appropriate. For example, it is clear that women, men, boys, and girls experienced conflict in different ways because of their gender. They all participated in the conflict in various ways. Consequently, the efforts at peace building are given a gendered analysis in terms of what has happened to women and girls in the demobilization and rehabilitation period including an excellent analysis of land reform in Rwanda and how that affects women and members of a certain ethnic group that are often overlooked in the examination of the 1994 genocide. In sum, this book provides a very good contribution to the literature on conflict and post-conflict African countries because of its depth and the vast topics it embraces. It provides an analysis of the internal and external actors, the role of gender in post-conflict decision making, and it provides the voices of ordinary Africans who were affected by the conflict, and who are determined to live productive lives. (Summary from Google Books)
 
Table of Contents:
1. No Justice, No Peace: The Elusive Search for Justice and Reconciliation in Sierra Leone
Sylvia Macauley
 
2. The Role of Ex-Combatants in Mozambique
Jessica Schafer
 
3. Memory Controversies in Post-genocide Rwanda: Implications for Peacebuilding
Elisabeth King
 
4. Land Reform, Social Justice, and Reconstruction: Challenges for Post-genocide Rwanda
Helen Hintjens
 
5. Elections as a Stress Test of Democratization in Societies: A Comparison of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo
John Yoder
 
6. Partners or Adversaries?: NGOs and the State in Postwar Sierra Leone
Fredline A.O. M'Cormack-Hale
 
7. Chieftancy and Reconstruction in Sierra Leone
Arthur Abraham
 
8. The Role of African Diasporas in Reconstruction
Paul Tiyambe Zeleza
 
9. The Role of the African Union in Reconstruction in Africa
Thomas Kwasi Tieku
 
10. Governance Challenges in Sierra Leone
Osman Gbla
 
11. Challenges of Governance Reform in Liberia
Amos Sawyer
 
12. Achieving Development and Democracy
Dick Simpson

 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Combatants, DDR, Gender, Gender Analysis, Girls, Women, Genocide, Governance, Infrastructure, International Organizations, Justice, NGOs, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Liberia, Mozambique, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia

Year: 2013

Economic Rationality or Social Justice? Gender, the National Qualifications Framework and Educational Reform in South Africa, 1989-1996

Citation:

Unterhalter, Elaine. 1998. "Economic Rationality or Social Justice? Gender, the National Qualifications Framework and Educational Reform in South Africa, 1989-1996." Cambridge Journal of Education 28 (3): 351-68.

Author: Elaine Unterhalter

Abstract:

This article examines the ways in which gender redress has been conceptualised in different phases of the policy development work on the National Qualifications Framework, a key initiative of education reform in South Africa. It identifies two discursive framings for the NQF--the discourse of economic rationalisation, utilised by business and COSATU, and that of social justice, utilised by the ANC and COSATU. It concludes that neither, for different reasons, have grappled with gendered social relations or the gendered, but dispersed, power of the state. The paper points out that the existence of a widespread women's organisation in South Africa during the transition period had little impact on policy formulation in education and training, thus raising questions about ways in which women's demands can have an impact on education policy change.

Topics: Development, Economies, Education, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 1998

Representation Without Participation: Dilemmas of Quotas for Women in Post-apartheid South Africa

Citation:

Myeni, Sithembiso. 2014. " Representation Without Participation: Dilemmas of Quotas for Women in Post-apartheid South Africa." African Journal of Governance & Development 3 (2): 56-78.

Author: Sithembiso Myeni

Abstract:

This article provides a sketch of ways in which ‘formal’ institutions of democratic representation work in practice for women in South Africa (SA). In doing so, the state of women’s participation and representation in the political process in SA is explored. Available data substantiates that women’s organisations and women’s wings of political parties have influenced the Government of SA and political parties to introduce quotas for women. Although quotas have increased the descriptive representation of women in political arenas, their representation in the decision-making process has not yet been ensured. Women face several social, cultural and political challenges that hinder their participation, and are still neglected by their male counterparts. Election of women councillors does not resolve a series of dilemmas concerning how to institutionalise democratic representation within a racially diverse, spatially divided and rapidly changing political landscape in SA.

Keywords: women, participation, representation, government, quota

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Women, Governance, Quotas, Post-Conflict, Political Participation Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 2014

From Power-Blind Binaries to the Intersectionality of Peace: Connecting Feminism and Critical Peace and Conflict Studies

Citation:

Kappler, Stefanie, and Nicolas Lemay-Hébert. 2019. “From Power-Blind Binaries to the Intersectionality of Peace: Connecting Feminism and Critical Peace and Conflict Studies.” Peacebuilding 7 (2): 160–77.

Authors: Stefanie Kappler, Nicolas Lemay-Hébert

Abstract:

Critical Peace and Conflict Studies scholars have increasingly sought to overcome binary approaches to engage more fully the ways in which peacebuilding missions are designed, implemented and contested. In doing so, scholars have tried to understand ‘the local’ and mobilised three different concepts to do so – hybridity, the everyday and narratives. However, this shift has failed to translate into fully convincing research transcending the old binaries of ‘international’ and ‘local’. The use of the ‘everyday’ sees power everywhere, hybridity approaches fall into the same binary trap scholars want to avoid in the first place, and narrative approaches tend to focus on very personal stories, removing structural power from the equation. We suggest that a fruitful interaction with Feminist approaches and methodologies, and especially the scholarship on intersectionality, can help shed a new light on the power imbalances and inequalities within peacebuilding missions. We highlight the possible contribution of the concept of intersectionality to Critical Peace and Conflict Studies through an intersectionality of peace approach, which allows for a better understanding of multiple and complex identities of researchers and researchees. We illustrate this argument through a discussion of intersectional narratives centred around the space of the ‘guesthouse’ of South Africa.

Keywords: hyrbidity, the everyday, intersectionality, feminism, South Africa

Topics: Conflict, Feminisms, Intersectionality, Peacebuilding Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 2019

Gendered Impact of Zimbabwe's Transitional Justice: Too Little Too Late

Citation:

Chaminuka, Lilian. 2019. "Gendered Impact of Zimbabwe’s Transitional Justice: Too Little Too Late." International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science 3 (3): 94-100.

Author: Lilian Chaminuka

Abstract:

The gendered impact of transitional justice after Zimbabwe’s liberation struggle is similar to early efforts in other countries to try and address massive and systematic human rights violations that are largely gender blind. The paper takes a historical analysis highlighting how government chose not to specifically address sexual violence, nor did they examine how women had been distinctly impacted by the war of liberation. There was a pervasive silence regarding violence against, harm to, and the degradation of women with female ex combatants becoming recipients of piecemeal policies and fragmented efforts to accommodate them. The process and what has been done for the Zimbabwean woman is either too little or has been done too late as the legacy of this violence endures long after independence was achieved in 1980. This is not to say government has done absolutely nothing as some gains have been made in building a gender balanced society that factors in contribution of women. The study which employed the qualitative approach, revealed that women are not particularly happy as they feel more can be done as the realities they face today under study show a continuum in the violence exercised against them, their subordinate role, their oppression, the threats and harassment they endured in the past and present lack of economic resources to live a dignified life. The paper is based from a broad study that was undertaken by the author in her studies at the Africa University in 2014.

Keywords: gender, human rights, women ex-combatants, reintegration, transitional justice

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Justice, Transitional Justice, Rights, Human Rights, Sexual Violence, Violence Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Zimbabwe

Year: 2019

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