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Southeast Asia

Incorporating Gender into Low-Emission Development: A Case Study from Vietnam

Citation:

Farnworth, Cathy Rozel, Trần Thu Hà, Björn Ole Sander, Eva Wollenberg, Nicoline C. de Haan, and Shawn McGuire. 2017. “Incorporating Gender into Low-Emission Development: A Case Study from Vietnam.” Gender, Technology and Development 21 (1-2): 5-30.

Authors: Cathy Rozel Farnworth, Trần Thu Hà, Björn Ole Sander, Eva Wollenberg, Nicoline C. de Haan, Shawn McGuire

Abstract:

Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture is needed to meet global climate policy targets. A number of low emission development (LED) options exist in agriculture, which globally emits 10–12% of GHG emissions. In paddy rice production, alternative wetting and drying (AWD) can reduce emissions by up to 48%. Co-benefits of AWD include lower water consumption, lower use of fertilizer and seeds, and higher resistance to some pests and diseases. These are expected to result in improved benefits for individual farmers while lowering the sector’s overall contribution to GHG emissions. Women are strongly involved in rice production, hence improving their access to AWD technology, participation in decisions about it, and capacity to use it influences AWD adoption and resulting emissions. Involving women in AWD and LED more broadly also can provide distributional and procedural justice gains for women. The authors develop a conceptual model to show how these issues can be integrated. They suggest that intermediary organizations such as farmer associations and women’s organizations are central to enabling women to realize their personal goals while allowing gender to be taken to scale in LED, as is the case for other technology interventions. This requires work to expand their social capacities. A case study developed from work on taking gender-responsive LED to scale in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, illustrates the model.

Keywords: low-emission development, alternative wetting and drying, rice, Vietnam, gender

Topics: Development, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Infrastructure, Livelihoods, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Vietnam

Year: 2017

Seasonal Water Insecurity in Urban Philippines: Examining the Role of Gender, Resources, and Context

Citation:

Mason, Lisa Reyes. 2013. “Seasonal Water Insecurity in Urban Philippines: Examining the Role of Gender, Resources, and Context.” PhD diss., Washington University in St. Louis.

Author: Lisa Reyes Mason

Abstract:

Seasonal water insecurity is a complex problem of growing concern in many urban areas, due in part to urbanization, population growth, and environmental change. Using multiple research methods, this study documents the extent and nature of seasonal water insecurity among and within households in an urban neighborhood in Baguio City, the Philippines. This study also examines how individual and household factors--gender and financial, physical, and social resources--and contextual factors may relate to water insecurity by season. Data collection methods include archival research, informal interviews, randomly-sampled household surveys: N=396), randomly-sampled individual subsurveys: N=291), and in-depth interviews: N=18).
 
This study conceptualizes and measures water insecurity along three dimensions: quantity, quality, and accessibility of water for everyday household and individual use. Key findings are that water insecurity varies widely among households in the study neighborhood, and to some extent, within households. These differences are more pronounced in the dry than rainy season. Household financial and physical resources are associated with some dimensions of water insecurity, also with seasonal variation. In general, quantitative methods in this study find few associations between water insecurity and gender or household social resources; relationships among these variables are found, however, using qualitative methods. Neighborhood and municipal factors such as geography, water utility characteristics, and population and environment trends are discussed.
 
This study contributes an important documentation of the heterogeneities in water insecurity that exist among a population and which are often masked by municipal, regional, and national statistics. Study findings also have implications for programs and policies designed to bolster the factors associated with reduced water insecurity by season--in urban areas of the Philippines, and in other countries expecting to experience seasonal water insecurity for the first time or to a greater extent than in the past.

Topics: Development, Environment, Gender, Governance, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2013

Gender and Transport: Experiences of Marketplace Workers in Davao City, Philippines

Citation:

Rivera, Roselle Leah K. 2010. “Gender and Transport: Experiences of Marketplace Workers in Davao City, Philippines.” Environment and Urbanization ASIA 1 (2): 171–86. 

Author: Roselle Leah K. Rivera

Abstract:

What are the strategies which men and women in poor communities utilize to meet their daily mobility needs? This is a key question which captures the emerging policy discussion on transport deprivation in developing countries. As transport deprivation means how people in poor communities, mostly women, experience greatest access problems. The article revisits a neglected dimension of urban poor housing discourse. More often than not, communities are seen as homogenous without recognizing that women and men, from diverse backgrounds, in poor communities have widely varying mobility and accessibility needs. This article initially begins a discussion on the transport experiences, the gendered differences of mobility and travel patterns of the men and women in poor communities, their transport conditions, and the related conditions experienced by poor men and women in three marketplaces. Methods for primary data gathering include (1) a random sample survey of 120 men and women from 3 major marketplaces of the three districts of the city (2) focus group discussions with representatives from four sectors (i.e., transportation leaders, public sector, private sector and NGOs, feminist leaders) and (3) key informant interviews of local and national officials. Secondary data such as official documents of the city were also utilized. While the costs of journey to work vary in the three districts, the time spent traveling for the short distance to work raises time poverty concerns. The article shows that men and women are predominantly pedestrians in a city whose official transport policy and practice is very biased towards high cost projects praised for technological efficiency and management.

Keywords: transport deprivation, mobility, gender and transport, Davao City

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2010

Depleting Fragile Bodies: The Political Economy of Sexual and Reproductive Health in Crisis Situations

Citation:

Tanyag, Maria. 2018. “Depleting Fragile Bodies: The Political Economy of Sexual and Reproductive Health in Crisis Situations.” Review of International Studies 44 (4): 654-71. 

Author: Maria Tanyag

Abstract:

In a crisis-prone world, the number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) uprooted by both armed conflicts and environmental disasters has drastically increased and displacement risks have intensified. Despite the growing attention within global security and development agendas to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), there remain striking gaps in addressing SRHR in crisis situations, particularly among IDP women and girls. This article examines the continuum between social reproduction in times of crisis and the material and ideological conditions that restrict women’s bodily autonomy in everyday life. Using the case of the Philippines where millions of people are routinely affected by conflict and disaster-induced displacements, it argues that the failure to recognise the centrality of women’s health and bodily autonomy not only hinders the sustainable provision of care and domestic labour during and after crisis, but also fundamentally constrains how security is enacted within these spaces. Thus, the article highlights an urgent need to rethink the gendered political economy of crisis responses as a building block for stemming gendered violence and depletion of social reproductive labour at the household, state, and global levels.

Keywords: feminist political economy, social reproduction, depletion, Crisis, global health

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Health, Reproductive Health, Livelihoods, Political Economies Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2018

Right-Wing Sisterhood: Everyday Politics of Hindu Nationalist Women in India and Zionist Settler Women in Israel-Palestine

Citation:

Mehta, Akanksha. 2017. "Right-Wing Sisterhood: Everyday Politics of Hindu Nationalist Women in India and Zionist Settler Women in Israel-Palestine." PhD diss., SOAS University of London.

Author: Akanksha Mehta

Annotation:

Summary: 
"Right-Wing movements have gained political momentum in the last few decades, drawing within their ranks women who not only embody their exclusionary and violent politics but who also simultaneously contest everyday patriarchies. This thesis examines the everyday politics of women in two right-wing movements, the cultural nationalist Hindu right-wing project in India and the settler-colonial Zionist project in Israel-Palestine. Based on fourteen months of ethnographic, narrative, and visual ‘fieldwork’ conducted with women in both these movements, I argue that through a politics of the everyday, right-wing women bargain and negotiate with patriarchal communities/homes, male-formulated ideologies and discourses, and maledominated right-wing projects and spaces. These mediations replicate and affirm as well as subvert and challenge patriarchal structures and power hierarchies, troubling the binaries of home/world, private/public, personal/political, and victim/agent. I assert that dominant literature on rightwing women focuses on motherhood and family, ignoring various other crucial subject positions that are constituted and occupied by right-wing women and neglecting the agential and empowering potential of right-wing women’s subjectivities.
 
"I use four themes/lenses to examine the everyday politics of right-wing women. These are: pedagogy and education; charity and humanitarian work; intimacy, friendship, sociability and leisure; and political violence. By interrogating the practices that are contained in and enabled by these four locations of Hindu right-wing and Zionist settler women’s everyday politics, this thesis highlights the multiple narratives, contradictions, pluralities, hierarchies, power structures, languages, and discourses that encompass right-wing women’s projects" (Mehta 2017, 3-4). 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Nationalism, Political Participation, Religion, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Southeast Asia Countries: India, Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2017

Women and Land Rights in Cambodia

Citation:

Kusakabe, Kyoko, Wang Yunxian, and Govind Kelkar. 1995. "Women and Land Rights in Cambodia." Economic and Political Weekly 30 (43): WS87-92

Authors: Kyoko Kusakabe, Wang Yunxian, Govind Kelkar

Abstract:

After the abandonment of the 'krom samaki' system of collective farming in 1989, both women and men of the People's Republic of Kampuchea secured equal titles to land under the liberalisation process adopted by the government. However, with contradictory and unclear legislation and with no checks and balances, the number of land disputes increased dramatically. This article attempts to understand the effect of this phenomenon on women's social position and on gender relations in Cambodia.

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia

Year: 1995

The Praxis of Access: Gender in Myanmar’s National Land Use Policy

Citation:

Faxon, Hilary Oliva. 2015. “The Praxis of Access: Gender in Myanmar’s National Land Use Policy.” Paper presented at the Conference on Land Grabbing, Conflict and Agrarian‐Environmental Transformations: Perspectives from East and Southeast Asia, Chaing Mai University, June 5-6. 

Author: Hilary Olivia Faxon

Abstract:

In Myanmar, heated struggles around land grabs, acquisition, and formalization fail to acknowledge the complexity and heterogeneity of existing land relations. Gender dynamics are key to shaping these systems, and have been neglected in current research and policy. This paper examines women’s access to land and the emergence of gender discourse in land policy debates through a participant ethnography of the National Land Use Policy consultation process. I explore both ways in which land access is lived by rural women, and feminist contributions to land-based social movements. Attention to the differentiated yet interlinked spheres of the household, customary law, and land formalization enhances understanding of land politics, and women’s presence, gender concerns, and the nascent common identity of the pan-Myanmar women can catalyze effective advocacy for just land reform in Myanmar.

Topics: Development, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Households, Land grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Myanmar

Year: 2015

Stepchildren of Progress: The Political Economy of Development in an Indonesian Mining Town

Citation:

Robinson, Kathryn M. 1986. Stepchildren of Progress: The Political Economy of Development in an Indonesian Mining Town. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Author: Kathryn M. Robinson

Annotation:

Summary:
Dramatic changes caused by a foreign-owned nickel mining company in an Indonesian town provide the setting for this ethnographic study. Robinson notes the changes that took place in Soroako, a village in Sulawesi. The book outlines the effects of this new development, principally in regard to the 1,000 indigenous Soroakans whose former agricultural land is now the site for the mining town. It presents an analysis of developing capitalist relations in the mining town, investigating changes not only in the sphere of production manifested in daily life as new forms of work, but also in culture and ideology. The book also investigates related changes in other areas of social life, in particular that of women's roles, marriage and the family, and the importance of ideologies of race and ethnicity in regulating relations between different groups in the mining town. Furthermore, Robinson shows that new ideological forms have arisen in the context of the evolving class structure. (Summary from SUNY Press)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
 
2. The Mining Town
 
3. The Village of Soroako: Its People and the Beginnings of Their Incorporation Into the Modern World 
 
4. Political Independence: The Village in the New State 
 
5. Land, Labour, and Social Relations in the Preproject Economy 
 
6. Peasants, Proletarians, and Traders in the Peripheral Capitalist Economy 
 
7. Domination and Conflict: The Company, the Village, and the State
 
8. The Wedding of Hijra: Changing Social Relations
 
9. Race Relations and Class Domination 
 
10. Stepchildren of Progress: Ethnicity and Class Consciousness in the Mining Town
 
11. Conclusion 

Topics: Class, Development, Economies, Ethnicity, Extractive Industries, Gender, Gender Roles, Political Economies, Race, Rights, Indigenous Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 1986

Livelihoods for Women in Mindanao: A Post-Conflict Reconstruction Approach

Citation:

Santillan, Karina R. 2015. “Livelihoods for Women in Mindanao: A Post-Conflict Reconstruction Approach.” Asian Journal of Women’s Studies 21 (1): 15–30.

Author: Karina R. Santillan

Abstract:

The conflict in Mindanao has displaced over two million people in the period 2000 to 2009. As it subsides, the displaced return to their communities and begin the process of reconstruction. This paper studies how women contributed to the post-conflict reconstruction of Mindanao by engaging in livelihood activities. It explores five different livelihood intervention projects implemented in Mindanao between 2000 and 2010. The extent of women's contribution to post-conflict reconstruction is measured by identifying the benefits gained at household and community levels, generated by women's livelihood work. I argue that women's participation in such activities have led to economic, social and political reconstruction of the communities affected by in Mindanao. This paper also compares the women's livelihoods approach with other reconstruction strategies. It also illustrates that interventions for reconstruction therefore must include livelihood programs that encourage women's participation, as exemplified by the experience of Mindanao.

Keywords: Mindanao, women's livelihoods, post-conflict reconstruction, internally displaced persons (IDPs)

Topics: Development, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, conflict, Post-conflict Governance, Households, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2015

Gendered Vulnerabilities of Smallholder Farmers to Climate Change in Conflict-Prone Areas: A Case Study From Mindanao, Philippines

Citation:

Chandra, Alvin, Karen E. McNamara, Paul Dargusch, Ana Maria Caspe, and Dante Dalabajan. 2017. “Gendered Vulnerabilities of Smallholder Farmers to Climate Change in Conflict-Prone Areas: A Case Study from Mindanao, Philippines.” Journal of Rural Studies 50 (February): 45–59.

Authors: Alvin Chandra, Karen E. McNamara, Paul Dargusch, Ana Maria Caspe, Dante Dalabajan

Abstract:

Smallholder farmers in the Philippines are typically considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change, yet, relatively little is known about how that vulnerability differs between men and women farmers, particularly in conflict-prone areas. Using the region of Mindanao in Philippines as a case study, this paper presents an analysis of focus groups (n = 14) and interviews (n = 77) to showcase gendered vulnerabilities of smallholder farmers to climate change. This analysis reveals that both climate change and conflict significantly increase smallholder vulnerability, resulting in loss of livelihoods, financial assets, agricultural yield and the worsening of debt problems. Women and men are affected differently, resulting in changing farming patterns and coping strategies. Women are more disadvantaged and as such tend to farm in smaller plots, work shorter hours or limit farming to cash crops. Extreme climate events in conflict-prone agrarian communities appear to subject women to forced migration, increased discrimination, loss of customary rights to land, resource poverty and food insecurity. The paper concludes by recommending implementing climate-smart agriculture solutions that are both gender and conflict sensitive.

Keywords: agriculture, climate change, gender, Mindanao, smallholder, Loss and damage

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, conflict, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2017

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