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South Asia

Background Report on Gender Issues in Bangladesh


Baden, Sally, Cathy Green, Anne-Marie Goetz, and Meghna Guhathakurta. 1994. Background Report on Gender Issues in Bangladesh. 26. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies.

Authors: Sally Baden, Cathy Green, Annie-Marie Goetz, Meghna Guhathakurta

Topics: Gender, Women, Humanitarian Assistance, NGOs Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 1994

Gender, Participation, and Post-Conflict Planning in Northern Sri Lanka


Harris, Simon. 2004. “Gender, Participation, and Post-Conflict Planning in Northern Sri Lanka.” Gender & Development 12 (3): 60–69.

Author: Simon Harris


The 'mainstreaming' of gender issues throughout all aspects of peace and reconstruction processes has been widely advocated for at least a decade. However, women are often absent from peace processes and most post-conflict planning for reconstruction continues to ignore, or inadequately account for, gender issues. Hence, gender inequalities go unchallenged. This article examines two key challenges in promoting greater female participation and ensuring the effective inclusion of gender issues within peace and reconstruction strategies. First, there is a need for institutions which are sensitive to gender issues, and committed to promoting gender equality as a part of peace processes. Second, women's full participation in these institutions needs to be supported through capacity building. This article discusses two initiatives in Sri Lanka which aim to respond to these challenges.

Keywords: gender equality, peace building, post-conflict reconstruction

Topics: Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peace Processes, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Sri Lanka

Year: 2004

Feminist Nation-Building in Afghanistan: An Examination of the Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan (RAWA)


Fluri, Jennifer L. 2011. “Feminist Nation-Building in Afghanistan: An Examination of the Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan (RAWA).” In The Women, Gender & Development Reader, edited by Nalini Visvanathan, Lynn Duggan, Nan Wiegersma, and Laurie Nisonoff, 425-31. London: Zed Books.

Author: Jennifer L. Fluri


Women-led political organizations that employ feminist and nationalist ideologies and operate as separate from, rather than associated with, male-dominated or patriarchal nationalist groups are both significant and under-explored areas of gender, feminist, and nationalism studies. This article investigates the feminist and nationalist vision of the Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan (RAWA). RAWA exemplifies an effective political movement that intersects feminist and nationalist politics, where women are active, rather than symbolic, participants within the organization, and help to shape an ideological construction of the Afghan nation. RAWA subsequently links its struggle for women's rights (through feminism) with its nationalist goals for democracy and secularism. This article also analyses RAWA's use of conservative nationalist methods to reproduce the future of the organization and to develop ‘citizens’ for its idealized nation, while countering existing patriarchal social and familial structures through a re-configuration of women's roles in the family, community, and nation. This inquiry is based on geographic and feminist examinations of RAWA's organizational structure, literature, and political goals obtained through content analyses of RAWA's political literature and through interviews with RAWA members and supporters living as refugees in Pakistan in the summer of 2003 and winter of 2004/05. RAWA is an instructive example of counter-patriarchal and nationalist feminist politics that questions patriarchal definitions of the nation and its citizenry by reconfiguring gender norms and redefining gender relations in the family as a mirror of the nation.

Keywords: feminist nationalism, resistance, Afghanistan, counter-patriarchy

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Nationalism, Political Participation, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan

Year: 2011

Gender Equality, Development and Transitional Justice: The Case of Nepal


Aguirre, Daniel, and Irene Pietropaoli. 2008. “Gender Equality, Development and Transitional Justice: The Case of Nepal.” International Journal of Transitional Justice 2 (3): 356-77.

Authors: Daniel Aguirre, Irene Pietropaoli


The strong links between transitional justice, development and gender equality have been overlooked and underdeveloped in both theory and practice. Transitions are rare periods of rupture that offer opportunities to reconceive the social meaning of past conflicts in an attempt to reconstruct their present and future effects. The peace-building initiatives unfolding in Nepal encourage a timely examination of the application of the right to development to transitional justice mechanisms. This right embodies much more than economic growth; it is a human rights-based process that aims to empower marginalized groups. In Nepal, this must include women, who not only bore the brunt of the conflict but also continue to suffer systematic discrimination. Many of Nepali women's preexisting problems stem directly from inequality and underdevelopment. This article suggests that transitional justice should go beyond retributive and restorative approaches to consider the economic, social and cultural inequalities that fuel conflicts while setting the foundation for a permanent rights-based development programme that ensures the viability of women's rights in the future. A redistributive approach to transitional justice based on the legal and political process of the right to development is crucial to achieving gender equality in Nepal and avoiding renewed cycles of violence.

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Justice, Transitional Justice, Political Participation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2008


Rubaiyat Hossain

Jyoti Puri

Rakshanda Saleem

Elora Chowdhury

November 3, 2011

Harvard University

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