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South Asia

Women and Citizenship Post-Trafficking: The Case of Nepal

Citation:

Richardson, Diane, Nina Laurie, Meena Poudel, and Janet Townsend. 2016. “Women and Citizenship Post-Trafficking: The Case of Nepal.” The Sociological Review 64: 329-48. 

Authors: Diane Richardson, Nina Laurie, Meena Poudel, Janet Townsend

Abstract:

This article analyses the relationship between gender, sexuality and citizenship embedded in models of citizenship in the Global South, specifically in South Asia, and the meanings associated with having – or not having – citizenship. It does this through an examination of women’s access to citizenship in Nepal in the context of the construction of the emergent nation state in the ‘new’ Nepal ‘post-conflict’.
 
Our analysis explores gendered and sexualized constructions of citizenship in this context through a specific focus on women who have experienced trafficking, and are beginning to organize around rights to sustainable livelihoods and actively lobby for changes in citizenship rules which discriminate against women. Building from this, in the final section we consider important implications of this analysis of post-trafficking experiences for debates about gender, sexuality and citizenship more broadly.

Keywords: citizenship, gender, sexuality, feminism, post-trafficking, Nepal

Topics: Citizenship, Conflict, Gender, Women, Men, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Sexuality, Trafficking Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2016

Land Rights of Women: A Study of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana States, India

Citation:

Reddy, Tada Prabhakar. 2019. “Land Rights of Women: A Study of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana States, India.” Journal of Land and Rural Studies 8 (1): 1-21

Author: Tada Prabhakar Reddy

Abstract:

Empowerment of women takes place through structural changes in women’s lives such as provision of land rights, promotion of non-farm employment, self-employment and support to unleash their potential of entrepreneurial qualities and their participation in decision making at various levels. The initiatives undertaken by the Government such as promotion of rural livelihoods (NRLM) and wage employment (MGNREGS) resulted in enhancement of livelihoods and economic freedom to women. The need for the study arises from the fact that ensuring effective and independent land rights for women is critical as it can serve multiple functions in rural women’s lives and empower them to challenge the socio-economic and political inequalities prevalent in rural semi-feudal society.

The present study while looking at the situation of land rights of women covered five districts from two states, examined the efficacy of ‘Bhoomi’ initiative and studied the processes of securing land rights by eliciting the perceptions of stakeholders in a non-survey method supported by secondary data. The data from Society for Elimination of Rural Poverty of state governments established that the para-legal assistance strategy and Bhoomi Nyaya Sahaya Kendram initiative helped poor women to secure land rights and improve their status significantly. The study found that the initiative of land purchase by the government helped poor women to access land while gender mainstreaming in government departments was a felt need. It is a classic example of ensuring land rights of poor women and thus improving their status and livelihoods among others.

Keywords: land rights, gender equality, inheritance, legal assistance and land purchase

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2019

Property Rights, Intersectionality, and Women’s Empowerment in Nepal

Citation:

Pradhan, Rajendra, Ruth Suseela Meinzen-Dick, and Sophie Theis. 2019. “Property Rights, Intersectionality, and Women’s Empowerment in Nepal.” Journal of Rural Studies 70: 26–35.

Authors: Rajendra Pradhan, Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Sophie Theis

Abstract:

Property is widely recognized as an important resource for empowering women. Many development policies worldwide therefore call for strengthening women’s rights to property, especially to physical assets such as land and livestock. However, the relationship between property and women’s empowerment is more complex than generally assumed because of the overlapping and dynamic nature of property rights. In this paper, we explore how property rights affect the empowerment of women at different stages of the life cycle and different social locations, ethnicities, household structures, and social classes, using the lens of intersectionality. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted for the “Evaluation of the Welfare Impacts of a Livestock Transfer Program in Nepal,” we examine patterns in women’s strategies to exercise specific rights over joint and personal property within their households. The findings show that legal categories of property rights in Nepal fail to account for nuanced rights to assets shared within households. Rather than emphasize individual control over assets for women’s empowerment, the social relations around property need to be considered to understand which rights women value. The paper makes recommendations for how research and development projects, especially in South Asia, can avoid misinterpreting asset and empowerment data by incorporating nuance around the concepts of property rights over the life cycle.

Keywords: gender, Property Rights, life cycle, intrahousehold, empowerment, intersectionality, Nepal

Topics: Gender, Women, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2019

Gender, Domestic Energy and Design of Inclusive Low-Income Habitats: A Case of Slum Rehabilitation Housing in Mumbai, India

Citation:

Sunikka-Blank, Minna, Ronita Bardhan, and Anika Nasra Haque. 2019. “Gender, Domestic Energy and Design of Inclusive Low-Income Habitats: A Case of Slum Rehabilitation Housing in Mumbai, India.” Energy Research & Social Science 49 (March): 53–67.

Authors: Minna Sunikka-Blank, Ronita Bardhan, Anika Nasra Haque

Abstract:

Women's involvement in decision-making in domestic energy remains an under-researched area, especially in the urban context. This research adopts a gendered perspective in exploring slum rehabilitation housing in India. Based on a household survey and a focus group discussion (FGD), women’s household and working practices are explored in interview narratives and systems analysis. The findings show that the relocation to slum re- habilitation housing (SRH) has radically changed women’s household routines (cooking, comfort, childrearing, working and entertainment practices) and that women are more affected by the relocation than men. Changed practices, poor design of SRH and lack of outdoor space have radically increased electricity use and living costs in all the surveyed households. The economic pressure forces women into lowly paid jobs or informal economy, creating a vicious circle where women’s time poverty further reduces their social capital and opportunities for self-development in terms of education or formal employment. A comparison of SRH typologies shows that building design has great influence both on gendered use of space and electricity use, advocating a courtyard typology. Further, interviews with policy-makers reveal a dis-juncture between the occupant realities and the policy objectives. The paper argues that gender equality can and should be influenced through energy and housing policies and offers a conceptual framework for inclusive SRH to address this dis-juncture.

Keywords: gender, domestic energy use, inequality, design, slum rehabilitation housing

Topics: Economies, Informal Economies, Education, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2019

Rice Cookers, Social Media, and Unruly Women: Disentangling Electricity’s Gendered Implications in Rural Nepal

Citation:

Matinga, Margaret N., Bigsna Gill, and Tanja Winther. 2019. “Rice Cookers, Social Media, and Unruly Women: Disentangling Electricity’s Gendered Implications in Rural Nepal.” Frontiers in Energy Research 6 (January).

 

Authors: Margaret N. Matinga, Bigsna Gill, Tanja Winther

Abstract:

Rice cookers, social media, and television sets are commonly used in rural Nepal. In this paper we explore how gender norms condition the uptake of these artifacts, and the gendered implications of their uses. We draw on material from a household survey, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews, collected in 2017 in Dhading and Tanahun districts in rural Nepal. The results show that each of the three artifacts initiate distinct, gendered dynamics in terms of uptake, uses, and effects. Women’s use of electric rice cookers aligns with their gendered identity as cooks, helping them improve their gendered work and do not trigger resistance from men. In contrast, the use of mobile phones, social media, and television, prompt complex gender outcomes, resistances, and negotiations. Young people use social media to initiate self-negotiated marriages, shunning arranged marriages thus increasing their agency. It was reported that these self-negotiated marriages tend to be earlier (ages 12–14) than before, as young girls drop out of school to marry their chosen partners, thus threatening their empowerment. Access to television and internet has increased awareness about family planning methods, but persistent gender hierarchies hinder women from freely deciding on and accessing these methods. Women and youth pursuing new opportunities that challenge gender norms are sometimes labeled as unfaithful and unruly by others in the villages. The paper highlights the need to understand subversive responses to social and cultural changes mediated by electricity so that policy and practice can support the desired social transformations.

Keywords: gender relations, energy poverty, electric potential, women's empowerment, energy justice

Topics: Age, Youth, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Media, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2019

Appropriate Gender-Analysis Tools for Unpacking the Gender-Energy-Poverty Nexus

Citation:

Clancy, Joy, Fareeha Ummar, Indira Shakya, and Govind Kelkar. 2007. “Appropriate Gender-Analysis Tools for Unpacking the Gender-Energy-Poverty Nexus.” Gender & Development 15 (2): 241–57.

Authors: Joy Clancy, Fareeha Ummar, Indira Shakya, Govind Kelkar

Abstract:

In rural and low-income urban households, energy is ‘women’s business’: women are responsible for providing energy, and use it for domestic chores and productive activities. However, the poor quality fuels many women use contribute to their time poverty, ill health, and level of drudgery. Despite these negative impacts, energy policy remains gender-blind. This can be attributed to the invisibility of women’s needs to energy planners, stemming from a lack of appropriate gender-analysis tools to meet the particular data requirements of the energy sector. This article analyses why standard gender tools do not provide appropriate gender-disaggregated energy data, and describes a set of tools that have been developed for that purpose. The paper concludes with an evaluation of recent experiences testing the tools in Pakistan, India, and Nepal.

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Nepal, Pakistan

Year: 2007

Gender-Inclusive Energy: The Nepal Case

Citation:

Mohideen, Reihana. 2020. “Gender-Inclusive Energy: The Nepal Case.” In Women and the Energy Revolution in Asia, 39–58. Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

Author: Reihana Mohideen

Abstract:

The Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC), Nepal, provides an important real-world example that illustrates the role that governments can and do play in spawning technological development for socio-economic benefits, including addressing social and gender equity issues related to differential access to energy-based technologies. The AEPC is a special case as an institution in the energy sector, because it attempts to address social and gender equity considerations in the development of the renewable energy sector in Nepal and in the delivery of renewable energy technologies and services to rural communities.

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Governance, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2020

Gender Audits: An Approach to Engendering Energy Policy in Nepal, Kenya and Senegal

Citation:

Clancy, Joy S., and Nthabiseng Mohlakoana. 2020. “Gender Audits: An Approach to Engendering Energy Policy in Nepal, Kenya and Senegal.” Energy Research & Social Science 62 (April): 101378.

Authors: Joy S. Clancy, Nthabiseng Mohlakoana

Abstract:

Gender audits are an approach for putting gender on the policy agenda and are an alternative to gender budgets being less dependant on experts in government finance.

This paper explores the effectiveness of gender audits as an approach to mainstreaming in the energy sector which has lagged other sectors in mainstreaming gender. The assessment takes the experiences of an international network on gender and sustainable energy that aims to get gender onto the energy policy agenda. Since there is no standard audit methodology, the network developed its own.

The paper uses an analysis of qualitative data, reviews of audit reports and key informant interviews to answer two questions. As a result of gender audits, have gender issues or attending to women's particular interests been incorporated in energy policy? Did participation in an audit build the capacity of national actors to contribute to gender mainstreaming in the energy sector? Detailed data comes from network countries conducting audits: Kenya, Senegal and Nepal, with supporting evidence from 8 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia.

The gender audit methodology used is partially effective in integrating gender issues into government energy policy. Pragmatic, conceptual and political barriers to gender mainstreaming continue to operate. Adopting gender-aware policies occurs rapidly in organisations that participated in the audits. Male employees more readily accept gender policies when they see that policies also benefits men. In the audit countries, a group of national gender and energy experts has been established able to contribute to mainstreaming gender in the energy sector.

Keywords: gender mainstreaming, gender audits, energy policy, engendering policy, knowledge networks, gender capacity, mainstreaming effectiveness

Topics: Gender, Gender Analysis, Gender Budgeting, Gender Mainstreaming, Governance, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Asia, South Asia Countries: Kenya, Nepal, Senegal

Year: 2020

Indigenous Practice in Agro-Pastoralism and Carbon Management from a Gender Perspective: A Case from Nepal

Citation:

Deshar, Rashila, and Madan Koirala. 2020. “Indigenous Practice in Agro-Pastoralism and Carbon Management from a Gender Perspective: A Case from Nepal.” In Carbon Management for Promoting Local Livelihood in the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) Region, edited by Zhanhuan Shang, A. Allan Degen, Muhammad Khalid Rafiq, and Victor R. Squires, 267–80. Cham: Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

Authors: Rashila Deshar, Madan Koirala

Abstract:

Indigenous knowledge is the means making the practice possible in livelihood activity of HKH region. Pasturelands management and agropastoral activities carried out by indigenous people produce enough carbon and sequester large quantities of aboveground and belowground carbon. Such activities by indigenous people in Nepal Himalaya may have widespread effects on regional climate and global carbon cycles. This chapter showed the evaluating of indigenous gender perspective in the carbon management in Gatlang VDC of Rasuwa District, Nepal. The findings revealed that most of the labor related to agropastoral activities carried out by women contributed to carbon input and output, but their role was hardly recognized and valued. In the major decision-making process, women had either no or little say. Women contributed more than men to carbon input and output activities and. Therefore, their role in carbon management should be given proper attention.

Keywords: agropastoral, carbon sequestration, decision making, gender equality, Nepal Himalaya, women contribution

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Gender, Indigenous, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2020

Low-Carbon Energy Transition in India: Implications for Gender Equality and Social Inclusion

Citation:

Mohideen, Reihana, Pankaj Batra, and Prabhjot Khan. 2020. “Low-Carbon Energy Transition in India: Implications for Gender Equality and Social Inclusion.” IEEE Technology and Society Magazine 39 (1): 76-84.

Authors: Reihana Mohideen, Pankaj Batra, Prabhjot Khan

Abstract:

The Government of India has undertaken the ambitious target of 175-GW installed capacity of renewable power by 2022 as part of its climate treaty commitments. This will amount to 37% of projected installed capacity, second to coal and lignite (45%) and more than hydropower (11%). It has also undertaken a program of universal electricity access to all through the scheme called "Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana" or "Saubhagya".

Keywords: government, employment, gender issues, wind power generation, biomass, capacity planning

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2020

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