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South America

Gender, Conflict, Peace, and UNSC Resolution 1325


Shekhawat, Seema, ed. 2018. Gender, Conflict, Peace, and UNSC Resolution 1325. Lanham: Lexington Books.

Author: Seema Shekhawat


"There is an increasing amount of literature on various aspects of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325. While appreciating this scholarship, this volume highlights some of the omissions and concerns to make a quality addition to the ongoing discourse on the intersection of gender with peace and security with a focus on 1325. It aims at a reality-check of the impressive to-dos list as the seventeen years since the Resolution passed provide an occasion to pause and ponder over the gap between the aspirations and the reality, the ideal and the practice, the promises and the action, the euphoria and the despair. The volume compiles carefully selected essays woven around Resolution 1325 to tease out the intricacies within both the Resolution and its implementation. Through a cocktail of well-known and some lesser-known case studies, the volume addresses complicated realities with the intention of impacting policy-making and the academic fields of gender, peace, and security. The volume emphasizes the significance of transforming formal peace making processes, and making them gender inclusive and gender sensitive by critically examining some omissions in the challenges that the Resolution implementation confronts. The major question the volume seeks to address is this: where are women positioned in the formal peace-making seventeen years after the adoption of Resolution 1325?" (Shekhawat 2018)

Table of Contents:

Introduction: Gender, Peace, and UNSC Resolution 1325
Seema Shekhawat

1. Redefining Women’s Roles in Internationl and Regional Law: The Case of Pre- and Post-War Peacebuilding in Liberia
Veronica Fynn Bruey

2. The Contribution of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women to the Implementation of Security Council Resolution 1325
Antal Berkes

3. Faith Matters in Women, Peace, and Security Practices
Elisabeth Porter

4. Creating or Improving a National Action Plan Based on UN Security Council Resolution 1325
Jan Marie Fritz

5. Widowhood Issues for Implementation of UNSCR 1325 and Subsequent Resolutions on Women, Peace, and Security
Margaret Owen

6. The Commodification of Intervention: The Example of the Women, Peace, and Security Agenda
Corey Barr

7. Beyond Borders and Binaries: A Feminist Look at Preventing Violence and Achieving Peace in an Era of Mass Migration
Aurora E. Bewicke

8. The Disconnection between Theory and Practice: Achieving Item 8b of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325
Onyinyechukwu Onyido

9. Gender and Feminism in the Israeli Peace Movement: Beyond UNSCR 1325
Amanda Bennett

10. Conflict Ghosts: The Significance of UN Resolution 1325 for the Syrian Women in Years of Conflict
Emanuela C. Del Re

11. The UNSC Resolution 1325 and Cypriot Women’s Activism: Achievements and Challenges
Maria Hadjipavlou and Olga Demetriou

12. Victims, Nationalists, and Supporters: UNSCR 1325 and the Roles of Ethnic Women’s Organizations in Peacebuilding in Burma/Myanmar
Mollie Pepper

13. Gender and the Building Up of Many “Peaces”: A Decolonial Perspective from Colombia
Priscyll Anctil Avoine, Yuly Andrea Mejia Jerez, and Rachel Tillman

14. “It’s All About Patriarchy”: UNSCR 1325, Cultural Constrains, and Women in Kashmir
Seema Shekhawat

Topics: Armed Conflict, Conflict Prevention, Displacement & Migration, Feminisms, Gender, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace and Security, Peace Processes, Religion, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Africa, MENA, West Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Colombia, Cyprus, India, Israel, Liberia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Syria

Year: 2018

Assessing Gender Perspectives in Peace Processes with Application to the Cases of Colombia and Mindanao


Cóbar, José Alvarado, Emma Bjertén-Günther, and Yeonju Jung. 2018. Assessing Gender Perspectives in Peace Processes with Application to the Cases of Colombia and Mindanao. 2018/6. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 

Authors: José Alvarado Cóbar, Emma Bjertén-Günther, Yeonju Jung


In order to make peace processes more inclusive, increased participation by women and other excluded groups has been emphasised for decades, as well as the need to adopt a gender perspective within peace processes. However, the discussion has tended to focus on counting women and treating women’s participation as synonymous with a gender perspective. Defining what a gender perspective is and how it could be applied throughout a peace process has remained largely unexplored.  This paper seeks to address these lacunae by drawing on current frameworks, proposing a definition of a gender perspective in peace processes and introducing a way of operationalizing this definition. The suggested indicators are used to assess two recent peace processes: the Colombian peace process and the Mindanao peace process in the Philippines. This assessment provides a practical application of the conceptual framework and raises new questions about how the concept can be further measured and assessed.

Topics: Gender, Women, Post-Conflict, Peace Processes Regions: Americas, South America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Colombia, Philippines

Year: 2018

Gender Patterns of Human Mobility in Colombia: Reexamining Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration


Macedo, Mariana, Laura Lotero, Alessio Cardillo, Hugo Barbosa, and Ronaldo Menezes. 2020. “Gender Patterns of Human Mobility in Colombia: Reexamining Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration.” In Complex Networks XI, edited by Hugo Barbosa, Jesus Gomez-Gardenes, Bruno Gonçalves, Giuseppe Mangioni, Ronaldo Menezes, and Marcos Oliveira, 269–81. Cham: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.

Authors: Mariana Macedo, Laura Lotero, Alessio Cardillo, Hugo Barbosa, Ronaldo Menezes


Public stakeholders implement several policies and regulations to tackle gender gaps, fostering the change in the cultural constructs associated with gender. One way to quantify if such changes elicit gender equality is by studying mobility. In this work, we study the daily mobility patterns of women and men occurring in Medellín (Colombia) in two years: 2005 and 2017. Specifically, we focus on the spatiotemporal differences in the travels and find that purpose of travel and occupation characterise each gender differently. We show that women tend to make shorter trips, corroborating Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration. Our results indicate that urban mobility in Colombia seems to behave in agreement with the “archetypal” case studied by Ravenstein.

Keywords: gender gap, Ravenstein's laws of migration, urban mobility, networks

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2020

Mothers, Warriors and Lords: Gender(ed) Cartographies of the US War on Drugs in Latin America


Telles, Ana Clara. 2019. “Mothers, Warriors and Lords: Gender(ed) Cartographies of the US War on Drugs in Latin America.” Contexto Internacional 41 (1): 15-38.

Author: Ana Clara Telles


This paper aims to offer a feminist, Latin-American reading on the gender representations that constitute the discourse on the US war on drugs in Latin America. Drawing upon the feminist literature on international security, this article explores some of the nuances of the US war-on-drugs discourse when it comes to gender. It argues that, although a gendered discourse has been constantly present in US official discourse, it has visibly changed in character as the USA’s antidrug policies became increasingly internationalized, militarized, and oriented by a ‘supply-side approach.’ Once deployed through the feminization of drug consumption as a moral degradation of the nation’s social body, US war-on-drugs discourse perceptibly changed to encompass a process of hyper-masculinization of the figure of the US drug warrior, supported by subordinate masculinities and femininities represented by the subaltern, feminized Latin American drug warriors, and the ruthless, hyper-aggressive drug lords. Ultimately, the gender(ed) cartographies of the USA’s war-on-drugs discourse work as conditions of possibility for framing the war on drugs as the only ‘solution’ to the ‘drug problem’ and reaffirm the incessant search for sovereignty that has as its ultimate goal the total control, domination and vigilance of human interaction with psychoactive substances: attributes of a hegemonic state masculinity par excellence. Through gendered (in)security performances, the state defends not only its ‘physical’ borders from external threats, but also its own frontiers of possibility.

Keywords: war on drugs, gender studies, gender representations, Latin America, illicit drugs

Topics: Armed Conflict, "New Wars", Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Trafficking, Drug Trafficking Regions: Americas, Central America, South America

Year: 2019

How Do We Reach the Girls and Women Who Are the Hardest to Reach? Inequitable Opportunities in Reproductive and Maternal Health Care Services in Armed Conflict and Forced Displacement Settings in Colombia


Rivillas, Juan Carlos, Raul Devia Rodriguez, Gloria Song, and Andréanne Martel. 2018. "How Do We Reach the Girls and Women Who Are the Hardest to Reach? Inequitable Opportunities in Reproductive and Maternal Health Care Services in Armed Conflict and Forced Displacement Settings in Colombia." PLoS ONE 13 (1): 1-14. 

Authors: Juan Carlos Rivillas, Raul Devia Rodriguez, Gloria Song, Andréanne Martel



This paper assesses inequalities in access to reproductive and maternal health services among females affected by forced displacement and sexual and gender-based violence in conflict settings in Colombia. This was accomplished through the following approaches: first, we assessed the gaps and gradients in three selected reproductive and maternal health care services. Second, we analyzed the patterns of inequalities in reproductive and maternal health care services and changes over time. And finally, we identified challenges and strategies for reaching girls and women who are the hardest to reach in conflict settings, in order to accelerate progress towards universal health coverage and to contribute to meeting the Sustainable Development Goals of good health and well-being and gender equality by 2030.


Three types of data were required: data about health outcomes (relating to rates of females affected by conflict), information about reproductive and maternal health care services to provide a social dimension to unmask inequalities (unmet needs in family planning, antenatal care and skilled births attendance); and data on the female population. Data sources used include the National Information System for Social Protection, the National Registry of Victims, the National Administrative Department of Statistics, and Demographic Health Survey at three specific time points: 2005, 2010 and 2015. We estimated the slope index of inequality to express absolute inequality (gaps) and the concentration index to expresses relative inequality (gradients), and to understand whether inequality was eliminated over time.


Our findings show that even though absolute health care service-related inequalities dropped over time, relative inequalities worsened or remain unchanged. All summary measures still indicated the existence of inequalities as well as common patterns. Our findings suggest that there is a pattern of marginal exclusion and incremental patterns of inequality in the reproductive and maternal health care service provided to female affected by armed conflict.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Domestic Violence, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Reproductive Health, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2018

Indigenous Women's Activism, Ecofeminism, and Extractivism: Partial Connections in the Ecuadorian Amazon


Sempértegui, Andrea. 2019. “Indigenous Women's Activism, Ecofeminism, and Extractivism: Partial Connections in the Ecuadorian Amazon.” Politics & Gender 1–28. doi: 10.1017/S1743923X19000023.

Author: Andrea Sempértegui


Over the last two decades, Latin America has witnessed a massive expansion of resource extraction. One of the most significant countermovements to emerge out of this context in Ecuador features a strong base and leadership of indigenous women from the Amazon. In their collective effort to resist extractivism, Amazonian women have drawn from elements of ecofeminist discourse and, in the process, situated their own claims within the broader indigenous territorial struggle. Ecofeminism has been transformed through this allyship as well, becoming more inclusive of indigenous women's perspectives. To shed light on these complex relationships, this article applies the framework of “partial connection” from feminist anthropology. It shows how postcolonial encounters between the state, missionaries, environmental activists, and indigenous communities in the Amazon carved out unique spaces for indigenous self-organization and politics. The historical analysis of such spaces, I argue, is crucial for grasping the allyship between Amazonian women and ecofeminists today. Rooted in a combination of positions that are partially, asymmetrically, and ambiguously connected, the allyship between Amazonian women and ecofeminists is best understood as a form of partially connected relationship.

Keywords: indigenous women, ecofeminism, state extractivism, environmental movements, indigenous politics, Ecuadorian Amazon

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Environment, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador

Year: 2019

Socioeconomic Impacts Of Mining-Induced Resettlements In Peru: Differences In Age And Gender


Castro, Camilo León. 2019. "Socioeconomic Impacts Of Mining-Induced Resettlements In Peru: Differences In Age And Gender." Pinnacle Sociology & Anthropology 3 (2): 1370-5.

Author: Camilo León Castro


The expansion of mining activities in Peru has resulted in the displacement of a growing number of rural populations. Although some companies adopt the World Bank policies for resettlement, the lack of productive lands in the Peruvian Andes and the absence of legal mechanisms and policies to protect affected people lead to many communities being dispersed in both rural and urban environments without consistent assistance during the process of adaptation to the new environment. The subsequent impact is the weakening of previous socioeconomic organisations without the building of the necessary cultural resources to adapt to the new circumstances. However, these impacts are unequally experienced by community members. This study examines the differential impacts of resettlement on different segments of the population, divided by age and gender. It explores how key resources, especially land, education and jobs, are differently controlled by men and women as well as young adults and elders. Findings demonstrate that segments such as the young educated can take advantage of the compensation schemes offered by mines. Jobs and business opportunities in mining nearby areas can be appropriated by male leaders and many of them see these resettlements as opportunities for self-development. For the elders, especially women, displacement and land loss takes out a key source for their subsistence. For them, resettlement under a land by land approach is fundamental only if complementary infrastructure and services are provided to serve their needs

Keywords: mining, socioeconomic impacts, self-development, resettlements

Topics: Age, Displacement & Migration, Development, Extractive Industries, Gender Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Peru

Year: 2019

Women on the Frontlines of Resistance to Extractivism


Cirefice, V’Cenza, and Lynda Sullivan. 2019. ‘Women on the Frontlines of Resistance to Extractivism.’ Policy and Practice: A Development Education Review, no. 29, 78–99.

Authors: V'Cenza Cirefice, Lynda Sullivan


We are living in extreme times with planetary boundaries being breached and our current economic model pushing life to collapse.  The pressure to switch to renewable energy can no longer be avoided.  However, many industry actors want to continue with our current economic model and simply switch the energy source.  For this to happen, mining needs to increase dramatically.  Rural and indigenous communities are disproportionately impacted by mining and other extractive industries, with severe negative consequences on local livelihoods, community cohesion and the environment.  In this article we will explore the gendered impacts experienced by these communities, which see women facing the worst impacts of a neoliberal extractive agenda.  Conversely, women are leading the resistance to extractivism and stepping outside of traditional gender roles to be leaders in movements fighting destructive extraction.  We will draw upon examples from the Americas, through a lens of ecofeminism and feminist political ecology, to explore how the women of these movements are demanding systematic change to the paradigms of capitalism, colonialism and patriarchy – highlighting that these forms of domination are connected and thus, need to be eliminated together.

Keywords: ecofeminism, extractivism, feminist political ecology, resistance, climate change, neoliberalism, gender, Americas

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Feminist Political Ecology, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, North America, South America

Year: 2019

Industrial Mining and Social Investment in Santurbán: Reflections from a Gender Decolonial Approach


Villamizar, Raquel M., and Andrea M. Jerez. 2020. “Industrial Mining and Social Investment in Santurbán: Reflections from a Gender Decolonial Approach.” Journal of International Women’s Studies, 21 (1): 30–46.

Authors: Raquel M Villamizar, Andrea M Jerez


The Canadian extractive company, Greystar (currently known as Eco Oro), provides diverse training and consultancy programs for entrepreneur women, as part of their social responsibility policy. This article reflects on the human talent training experience offered by Greystar in the mining towns of Vetas and California, in Santander, Colombia, from a gender decolonial perspective, and a global understanding of social practices. We followed an interpretive qualitative approach for analyzing data collected from public-dissemination brochures regarding the outreach projects offered by the extractive company, and from semi-structured interviews carried out with the studied population. This article shows how these programs emphasize sexist stereotypes, promote a gender-specific division of labor, ignore the capacities and interests of the local women, and do not generate a positive impact on their socio-economic conditions.

Keywords: mining industry, foreign investment, gender stereotypes, gender roles, Colombia

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2020

Women's Struggles Against Extractivism in Latin America and the Caribbean


Muñoz, Enara Echart and Maria del Carmen Villarreal. 2019. “Women's Struggles Against Extractivism in Latin America and the Caribbean.” Contexto Internacional, 41 (2): 303–25.

Authors: Enara Echart Muñoz, Maria del Carmen Villarreal


Since Cynthia Enloe asked, ‘Where are the women?’ in 1989, studies about the place of women in International Relations have increased. However, most of the analyses since then have focused on the participation of women in international organisations, events and institutional spaces, making invisible other practices and places occupied by black or indigenous women from the South. This article aims to highlight the role of women at the international level, analysing their performance in disputes over the meanings of development in Latin America and the Caribbean, based on struggles against extractivism. In addition to denouncing the impacts of this development model, these struggles seek to construct alternatives that, although they could be essentially local, have been multiplied and articulated throughout the Latin American and the Caribbean territory, as part of a broader resistance to the dominant extractivism in the region. These struggles will be mapped using a database of 259 conflicts around mining activities, developed by the Research Group on International Relations and Global South (GRISUL).
Desde que Cynthia Enloe perguntou, “Onde estão as mulheres?”, em 1989, os estudos sobre o lugar das mulheres nas Relações Internacionais aumentaram. Contudo, a maioria das análises desde então tem focado na participação das mulheres nas organizações internacionais, eventos e espaços institucionais, tornando invisíveis outras práticas e lugares ocupados por mulheres negras ou indígenas do Sul. Este artigo tem como objetivo destacar o papel das mulheres no nível internacional, analisando seu desempenho nas disputas sobre os significados do desenvolvimento na América Latina e Caribe, a partir de lutas contra o extrativismo. Além de denunciar os impactos desse modelo de desenvolvimento, essas lutas visam construir alternativas que, embora possam ser essencialmente locais, têm se multiplicado e articulado em todo o território Latino Americano e Caribenho, como parte de uma resistência mais ampla ao extrativismo na região. Essas lutas serão mapeadas usando um banco de dados de 259 conflitos acerca de atividades de mineração, desenvolvido pelo Grupo de Pesquisa em Relações Internacionais e Sul Global (GRISUL).

Keywords: women's struggles, social movements, development, extractivism, Latin America, Caribbean, luta das mulheres, movimentos sociais, desenvolvimento, extrativismo, América Latina e Caribe

Topics: Development, Conflict, Environment, Ethnicity, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Race Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, South America

Year: 2019


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