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South America

Gender Gaps in Civic and Political Participation in Latin America


Espinal, Rosario, and Shanyang Zhao. 2015. “Gender Gaps in Civic and Political Participation in Latin America.” Latin American Politics and Society 57 (1): 123–38. doi:10.1111/j.1548-2456.2015.00262.x.

Authors: Rosario Espinal, Shanyang Zhao


This article examines whether there is gender segmentation in civic participation in Latin America, and whether such segmentation is related to gender differences in political participation. Confirming the findings of other studies, this analysis indicates that there is gender segmentation in civic associational activities, and that men are more involved than women in political activities, except for voting. Among those involved in civic activities, however, women attend meetings more often than men or about equally in all types of activities under consideration, except for sports and recreational pursuits. This highlights the need to differentiate between type and intensity of civic participation and provides empirical evidence that Latin American women have strong community ties through a variety of organizations. The regression analysis shows that civic engagement has a positive effect on political participation but that the magnitude of that effect varies by gender depending on the activity.

Topics: Civil Society, Gender, Women, Men, Political Participation Regions: Americas, Central America, South America

Year: 2015

Manuelita's Boots: Women Between Two Movements


Ciccariello-Maher, George, and Jeff St. Andrews. 2013. “Manuelita’s Boots: Women Between Two Movements.” In We Created Chávez: A People’s History of the Venezuelan Revolution. Durham: Duke University Press.

Authors: George Ciccariello-Maher, Jeff St. Andrews

Topics: Gender, Women, Political Participation Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Venezuela

Year: 2013

Black Women against the Land Grab: The Fight for Racial Justice in Brazil


Perry, Keisha-Khan Y. 2013. Black Women against the Land Grab: The Fight for Racial Justice in Brazil. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Author: Keisha-Khan Y. Perry


In Brazil and throughout the African diaspora, black women, especially poor black women, are rarely considered leaders of social movements let alone political theorists. But in the northeastern city of Salvador, Brazil, it is these very women who determine how urban policies are established. Focusing on the Gamboa de Baixo neighborhood in Salvador's city center, Black Women against the Land Grab explores how black women's views on development have radicalized local communities to demand justice and social change. In Black Women against the Land Grab, Keisha-Khan Y. Perry describes the key role of local women activists in the citywide movement for land and housing rights. She reveals the importance of geographic location for understanding the gendered aspects of urban renewal and the formation of black women-led social movements. How have black women shaped the politics of urban redevelopment, Perry asks, and what does this kind of political intervention tell us about black women's agency? Her work uncovers the ways in which political labor at the neighborhood level is central to the mass mobilization of black people against institutional racism and for citizenship rights and resources in Brazil. Highlighting the political life of black communities, specifically those in urban contexts often represented as socially pathological and politically bankrupt, Black Women against the Land Grab offers a valuable corrective to how we think about politics and about black women, particularly poor black women, as a political force.

Topics: Gender, Women, Land grabbing, Political Participation, Race Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2013

Care and Punishment in Latin America: The Gendered Neoliberalization of the Chilean State


Schild, Veronica. 2013. “Care and Punishment in Latin America: The Gendered Neoliberalization of the Chilean State.” In Neoliberalism, Interrupted: Social Change and Contested Governance in Contemporary Latin America. Stanford. CA: Stanford University Press. 

Author: Veronica Schild

Topics: Gender, Women, Governance, Post-conflict Governance Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Chile

Year: 2013

Selecting Women, Electing Women: Political Representation and Candidate Selection in Latin America


Hinojosa, Magda. 2012. Selecting Women, Electing Women: Political Representation and Candidate Selection in Latin America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Author: Magda Hinojosa


Offers an analytic framework to show how the process of candidate selection often limits the participation of women in various Latin American countries (Summary from WorldCat)

Table of Contents

1. Electing women: female political representation in Latin America

2. Why selection matters: explaining women's representation in politics

3. How selection matters: a theoretical framework

4. The paradox of primaries: inclusive-decentralized selection

5. Inclusive-centralized and exclusive-decentralized selection

5. "Less democratic, but more effective": exclusive-centralized selection

6. Selecting candidates closer to home: widows, wives, and daughters

7. Altering candidate selection: the adoption and implementation of gender quotas

8. Candidate selection and women's representation in Latin American politics

Appendix one: Latin American women's representation by party

Appendix two: interviews.

Topics: Gender, Women, Governance, Quotas, Elections, Political Participation Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Chile, Mexico

Year: 2012

Ending Violence against Women in Latin America: Feminist Norm Setting in a Multilevel Context


Roggeband, Conny. 2016. “Ending Violence against Women in Latin America: Feminist Norm Setting in a Multilevel Context.” Politics & Gender 12 (1): 143–67. 

Author: Conny Roggeband


“Much of the literature that deals with international norm development depicts norm diffusion as a rather mechanical process. The central concern is how norms emerge on the international level and how these norms then become adopted and implemented at the national level. More recently, a number of authors argue that we need to develop more complex approaches to transnational norms diffusion processes (Krook and True 2012; Montoya 2013; Zwingel 2012). In this article I attempt to contribute to a more adequate theoretical understanding of norm diffusion building on the case of feminist norm setting on violence against women under conditions of multilevel governance in Latin America. I argue that, in particular, three central assumptions prevalent in the global norm diffusion literature are problematic to understand these complex multilevel processes of norm institutionalization” (Roggeband 2016, 144). 

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Governance, International Law, Post-Conflict, Women's Rights, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America, South America

Year: 2016

Women and Gender Equity in Development Theory and Practice: Institutions, Resources, and Mobilization


Jaquette, Jane, and Gale Summerfield, eds. 2006. Women and Gender Equity in Development Theory and Practice: Institutions, Resources, and Mobilization. Duke University Press.

Author: Jane Jaquette


"Seeking to catalyze innovative thinking and practice within the field of women and gender in development, editors Jane S. Jaquette and Gale Summerfield have brought together scholars, policymakers, and development workers to reflect on where the field is today and where it is headed. The contributors draw from their experiences and research in Latin America, Asia, and Africa to illuminate the connections between women’s well-being and globalization, environmental conservation, land rights, access to information technology, employment, and poverty alleviation. Highlighting key institutional issues, contributors analyze the two approaches that dominate the field: women in development (WID) and gender and development (GAD). They assess the results of gender mainstreaming, the difficulties that development agencies have translating gender rhetoric into equity in practice, and the conflicts between gender and the reassertion of indigenous cultural identities. Focusing on resource allocation, contributors explore the gendered effects of land privatization, the need to challenge cultural traditions that impede women’s ability to assert their legal rights, and women’s access to bureaucratic levers of power. Several essays consider women’s mobilizations, including a project to provide Internet access and communications strategies to African NGOs run by women. In the final essay, Irene Tinker, one of the field’s founders, reflects on the interactions between policy innovation and women’s organizing over the three decades since women became a focus of development work. Together the contributors bridge theory and practice to point toward productive new strategies for women and gender in development" (Duke University Press).



Preface and Acknowledgments vii

Introduction - Jane S. Jaquette and Gale Summerfield

Part I Institutional Opportunities and Barriers pg. 15

Women, Gender, and Development - Jane S. Jaquette and Kathleen Staudt pg. 17

Mainstreaming Gender in International Organizations - Elisabeth Prugl and Audrey Lustgarten pg. 53

From “Home Economics” to “Microfianace: Gender Rhetoric and the Bureaucratic Resistance - David Hirschmann pg. 71

Contributions of a Gender Perspective to the Analysis of Poverty - Sylvia Chant pg. 87

What is Justice? Indigenous Women in Andean Development Projects - Maruja Barrig pg. 107

Part II. Livelihood and Control of Resouces pg. 135

Gender Equity and Rural Land Reform In China - Gale Summerfield pg. 137

Unequal Rights: Women and Property - Diana Lee-Smith and Catalina Hinchey Trujillo pg. 159

On Loan from Home: Women’s Participation in Formulating Human Settlements Policies - Faranak Miraftab pg. 173

In Theory and in Practice: Women Creating Better Accounts of the World - Louise Fortmann pg. 191

Women’s Work: The Kitchen Kills More than the Sword - Kirk R. Smith pg. 202

Part III. Women’s Mobilization and Power pg. 217

Women’s Movements in the Globalizing World: The Case of Thailand - Amara Pongsapich pg. 219

T-Shirts to Web Links: Women Connect! Communications Capacity-Building with Women’s NGOs - Doe Mayer, Barbara Pillsbury, and Muadi Mukenge pg. 240

Empowerment Just Happened: The Unexpected Expansion of Women’s Organizations - Irene Tinker pg. 268

Acronyms pg. 303

Bibliography pg. 306

Contributors pg. 352

Index pg. 357

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Justice, Land grabbing, NGOs, Rights Regions: Africa, Americas, Central America, South America, Asia

Year: 2006

Defining Sexual Violence as a Crime Against Humanity in Colombia: Recommendations for Law 1719 of 2014


Fetterhoff, Christina M. 2014. “Defining Sexual Violence as a Crime Against Humanity in Colombia: Recommendations for Law 1719 of 2014.” Eyes on the ICC 10 (1): 123–46.

Author: Christina M. Fetterhoff


This article examines whether changes to Colombia's Criminal Codes, enacted through new legislation to assure access to justice for victims of sexual violence in the context of armed conflict, provide adequate definitions to bring Colombia in line with international legal standards. If Colombia is successful, it will be able to exercise concurrent jurisdiction with the International Criminal Court over these crimes. However, the current definitions of conflict-related crimes of sexual violence fall short of providing Colombia with this option.

Keywords: International Criminal Law, the International Criminal Court, Colombia, complementarity, sexual violence, Crimes against Humanity, war crimes, gender

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, International Criminal Law, Crimes against Humanity, International Tribunals & Special Courts, War Crimes, Sexual Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2014

Women’s Spaces, Gender Mainstreaming, and Development Priorities: Popular Participation as Gendered Work in Rural Bolivia


Hippert, Christine. 2011. “Women’s Spaces, Gender Mainstreaming, and Development Priorities: Popular Participation as Gendered Work in Rural Bolivia.” Women’s Studies International Forum 34 (6): 498–508. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2011.07.004.

Author: Christine Hippert


This paper examines Bolivian popular participation as a gendered process. By comparing and contrasting ethnographic examples of development work in a rural community, this article examines participation in its cultural context and engages indigenous conceptions of participation, gender, and development. Contrary to research and popular assumptions, this study demonstrates that women are extremely visible in development contexts. But poor rural women appeal to more holistic understandings of development that are predicated upon the understanding of women's roles as wives and partners in relationships with poor, indigenous men — another vulnerable, but untargeted, group. In order to foster inclusion, collaboration, and engagement in popular participation, women attempt to both maintain conventional gender norms at the same time that they struggle to transform them. This case study shows that development work is identity work, or the negotiation of varied perceptions of appropriate gendered identities to successfully target groups for development attention or funding. Because of its inattention to the intersectionality of class, ethnicity, and gender and how these positionalities are negotiated in development work, gender mainstreaming has had little effect on rural women's lives except to overburden them.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Mainstreaming Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Bolivia

Year: 2011

Reproductive Governance in Latin America


Morgan, Lynn M., and Elizabeth F.S. Roberts. 2012. “Reproductive Governance in Latin America.” Anthropology & Medicine 19 (2): 241–54. doi:10.1080/13648470.2012.675046.

Authors: Lynn M. Morgan, Elizabeth F.S. Roberts


This paper develops the concept of reproductive governance as an analytic tool for tracing the shifting political rationalities of population and reproduction. As advanced here, the concept of reproductive governance refers to the mechanisms through which different historical configurations of actors – such as state, religious, and international financial institutions, NGOs, and social movements – use legislative controls, economic inducements, moral injunctions, direct coercion, and ethical incitements to produce, monitor, and control reproductive behaviours and population practices. Examples are drawn from Latin America, where reproductive governance is undergoing a dramatic transformation as public policy conversations are coalescing around new moral regimes and rights-based actors through debates about abortion, emergency contraception, sterilisation, migration, and assisted reproductive technologies. Reproductive discourses are increasingly framed through morality and contestations over ‘rights’, where rights-bearing citizens are pitted against each other in claiming reproductive, sexual, indigenous, and natural rights, as well as the ‘right to life’ of the unborn. The concept of reproductive governance can be applied to other settings in order to understand shifting political rationalities within the domain of reproduction.

Keywords: reproduction, governance, human rights, neoliberalism, Latin America

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Health, Reproductive Health, NGOs, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America

Year: 2012


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