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South America

Introduction: Land Rights, Restitution, Politics, and War in Colombia


Cramer, Christopher, and Elisabeth Jean Wood. 2017. "Introduction: Land Rights, Restitution, Politics, and War in Colombia." Journal of Agrarian Change 17 (4): 733-8.

Authors: Christopher Cramer, Elisabeth Jean Wood


This paper introduces contributions to a symposium that report some of the findings and arguments to emerge from a collaborative research project involving five Colombian universities forming the Observatorio de Restitución y Regulación de Derechos de Propiedad Agraria (Observatory of Restitution and Regulation of Agrarian Property Rights). In a number of ways, the research presented in the symposium advances understanding of the political economy of rural Colombia, and of war in Colombia, and the papers, drawing on the original evidence collected by Observatorio researchers, develop arguments that have a wider relevance too for agrarian political economy and the understanding of violent conflict. In particular, the papers highlight the direct participation of elites in violent conflict; the varieties and nuances of wartime primitive accumulation; the complexities of the state's role in wartime agrarian political economy; the gender dimensions of agrarian conflict; the interaction of war and law; and the significance for service provision of farm size. As Colombia—hopefully—passes from long war to peace, these arguments and this evidence may be valuable in debates about what kind of peace can develop.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Agriculture, Economies, Gender, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Rights, Land Rights, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2017

The Colombian Transitional Process: Comparative Perspectives on Violence against Indigenous Women


Acosta, Monica, Angela Castaneda, Daniela Garcia, Fallon Hernandez, Dunen Muelas, and Angela Santamaria. 2018. "The Colombian Transitional Process: Comparative Perspectives on Violence against Indigenous Women." International Journal of Transitional Justice 12 (1): 108-25.

Authors: Monica Acosta, Angela Castaneda, Daniela Garcia, Fallon Hernandez, Dunen Muelas, Angela Santamaria


Colombia has a comprehensive system of truth, justice and reparation stemming from its history with the justice and peace process and its most recent peace agreement. Although indigenous women are the most affected before, during and after conflict, their participation is marginalized within this political context. This article discusses how Colombian transitional justice can be reconfigured when indigenous women's practices and knowledge travel 'from the margins' to the center. We seek to demonstrate how these practices legitimize gender and other types of violence in the name of tradition and also how indigenous women's experiences go beyond the gendered perspective of violence as a 'weapon of war.' Working within the context of the peace process, we gathered data through learning and teaching techniques with indigenous women in three indigenous contexts (Sierra, Pan-Amazon region and Chocó). Our focus is on the interaction between local transitional justice practices and the violence against indigenous women, their resistance practices and the peacebuilding agendas used to implement transitional justice in Colombia.

Keywords: Colombia, indigenous women, intersectionality, transitional justice 'from below'

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Intersectionality, Justice, Reparations, Transitional Justice, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2018

Frictions in Transitional Justice Processes: Colombia's Victims Law, Integral Reparation and the Temporality of Multiple Victimization in Displaced Women


Rahme, Sophie. 2018. "Frictions in Transitional Justice Processes: Colombia's Victims Law, Integral Reparation and the Temporality of Multiple Victimization in Displaced Women." Gobernar: The Journal of Latin American Public Policy and Governance 2 (1): 33-56.

Author: Sophie Rahme


This article addresses the challenges that integral reparation programs meet when aiming to respond to multiple victimization experienced by displaced women. By adopting the ethnographic concept of “frictions” (Tsing, 2005), I analyze four dimensions of discursive frictions that occur surrounding reparative practice backed by the Law on Victims and Land Restitution and its multiple local encounters and dis-encounters when compensating multiple victimization in the post-conflict of Medellín. Like other studies have identified shortcomings of the idealistic and innovative Colombian reparation program, it becomes evident that the integral reparation efforts fall short in addressing the real complexity of interrelated and multiples victimizations in the urban context. Respectively the paper addresses the question of how experiences of compound victimization are considered within their temporal beginnings, continuities and endings. Derived from field research and problem-centred interviews conducted in 2017 the paper draws on a perspective of compound harm to understand the complexity of multiple victimization experienced by forcibly displaced women.

Keywords: transitional justice, integral reparations, transformative reparations, Colombia's Victims Law, displaced women

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Gender, Women, Justice, Reparations, Post-Conflict Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2018

Gender, Agriculture and Agrarian Transformations: Changing Relations in Africa, Latin America and Asia


Sachs, Carolyn E., ed. 2019. Gender, Agriculture and Agrarian Transformations: Changing Relations in Africa, Latin America and Asia. Abingdon: Routledge.

Author: Carolyn E. Sachs


This book presents research from across the globe on how gender relationships in agriculture are changing.
In many regions of the world, agricultural transformations are occurring through increased commodification, new value-chains, technological innovations introduced by CGIAR and other development interventions, declining viability of small-holder agriculture livelihoods, male out-migration from rural areas, and climate change. This book addresses how these changes involve fluctuations in gendered labour and decision making on farms and in agriculture and, in many places, have resulted in the feminization of agriculture at a time of unprecedented climate change. Chapters uncover both how women successfully innovate and how they remain disadvantaged when compared to men in terms of access to land, labor, capital and markets that would enable them to succeed in agriculture. Building on case studies from Africa, Latin America and Asia, the book interrogates how new agricultural innovations from agricultural research, new technologies and value chains reshape gender relations.
Using new methodological approaches and intersectional analyses, this book will be of great interest to students and scholars of agriculture, gender, sustainable development and environmental studies more generally. (Summary from Routledge)
Table of Contents
1. Gender, Agriculture and Agrarian Transformations
Carolyn Sachs
2. The Implications of Gender Relations for Modern Approaches to Crop Improvement and Plant Breeding
Jacqueline Ashby and Vivian Polar
3. Change in the Making: 1970s and 1980s Building Stones to Gender Integration in CGIAR Agricultural Research
Margreet van der Burg
4. How to Do Gender Research? Feminist Perspectives on Gender Research in Agriculture
Ann R. Tickamyer and Kathleen Sexsmith
5. Intersectionality at the Gender-Agriculture Nexus: Relational Life Histories and Additative Sex-Disaggregated Indices
Stephanie Leder and Carolyn Sachs
6. Diversity of Small-Scale Maize Farmers in the Western Highlands of Guatemala: Integrating Gender into Farm Typologies
Tania Carolina Camacho-Villa, Luis Barba-Escoto, Juan Burgueño-Ferreira, Ann Tickamyer, Leland Glenna, and Santiago López-Ridaura
7. "A Bird Locked in a Cage:" Hmong Young Women’s Lives After Marriage in Northern Vietnam
Nozomi Kawarazuka, Nguyen Thi Van Anh, Vu Xuan Thai and Pham Huu Thuong
8. Defeminizing Effect: How Improved Dairy Technology Adoption Affected Women's and Men's Time Allocation and Milk Income Share in Ethiopia
Birhanu Megersa Lenjiso
9. Implementing "Gender Equity" in Livestock Interventions: Caught between Patriarchy and Paternalism?
Katie Tavenner and Todd A. Crane
10. Implications of Agricultural Innovations on Gender Norms: Gender Approaches in Aquatic Agriculture in Bangladesh
Lemlem Aregu, Afrina Choudhury, Surendran Rajaratnam, Margreet van der Burg, and Cynthia McDougall
11. Permanently Seasonal Workers: Gendered Labor Relations and Working Conditions of Asparagus Agricultural Workers in Ica, Perú
María del Rosario Castro Bernardini
12. Gender Equality and Trees on Farms: Considerations for Implementation of Climate-Smart Agriculture
Tatiana Gumucio, Diksha Arora, Jennifer Twyman, Ann Tickamyer, and Monica Clavijo
13. Kinship Structures, Gender, and Groundnut Productivity in Malawi
Edward Bikketi, Esther Njuguna-Mungai, Leif Jensen, and Edna Johnny
14. Changes in Participation of Women in Rice Value Chains: Implications for Control over Decision-Making
Sujata Ganguly, Leif Jensen, Samarendu Mohanty, Sugandha Munshi, Arindam Samaddar, Swati Nayak, and Prakashan Cehllattan Veettil

Topics: Class, Agriculture, Displacement & Migration, Environment, Climate Change, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, Central America, South America, Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Malawi, Peru, Vietnam

Year: 2019

Securing Participation and Protection in Peace Agreements: The Case of Colombia


Marín Caravajal, Isabela, and Eduardo Álvarez-Vanegas. 2019. "Securing Participation and Protection in Peace Agreements: The Case of Colombia." In The Oxford Handbook of Women, Peace, and Security, edited by Sara E. Davies and Jacqui True, 461-74. New York: Oxford University Press.

Authors: Isabela Marín Carvajal, Eduardo Álvarez-Vanegas


Women’s participation in the Colombian peace process constitutes an outstanding case in comparison with other peace negotiations processes, due to the efforts made by unofficial actors. Nevertheless, during the negotiation period, selective violence against social leaders increased, affecting their mobilizations and capacity to meaningful contribute. This chapter critically evaluates developments in scholarship and policymaking that considers the WPS pillars of participation and protection and their inclusion in peace agreements. To do so, the chapter draws upon the case of the Havana peace process, led by the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia (FARC), between 2012 and 2016. The analysis derives from a research experience at the Fundación Ideas para la Paz (Bogotá, Colombia), exploring women’s participation in Columbia’s peace negotiations. Drawing on examples from the Colombian case, the chapter demonstrates the importance of accounting for women’s preexisting forms of participation and knowledge. It also argues that affirmative measures that encourage women’s meaningful participation in peace negotiations will be ineffective if the underlying structural factors that exclude women from decision-making processes more broadly remain unaddressed.

Keywords: Colombia, Peace Negotiations, structural barriers, Knowledge, participation

Topics: Gender, Women, Post-Conflict, Peace Processes, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2019

Justice and Reparation Policies in Peru and Argentina: Toward the Delegitimization of Sexual Violence?


Henriquez, Narda, and Rosario Figari Layus. 2018. "Justice and Reparation Policies in Peru and Argentina: Toward the Delegitimization of Sexual Violence?" In Gender in Human Rights and Transitional Justice, edited by John Idriss Lahai and Khanyisela Moyo, 207-37. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Authors: Narda Henriquez, Rosario Figari Layus


The chapter analyzes the role of trials for crimes against humanity and reparation policies in the treatment of sexualized violence, in which they are systematically used as a disciplinary political resource within political violence scenarios such as the internal armed conflict in Peru and the military dictatorship in Argentina.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Justice, Crimes against Humanity, Reparations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Sexual Violence, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Argentina, Peru

Year: 2018

O Papel da Mulher na Luta pela Terra. uma Questão de Gênero e/ou Classe?


Valenciano, Renata Cristiane, and Antonio Thomaz Júnior. 2002. "O Papel da Mulher na Luta pela Terra. uma Questão de Gênero e/ou Classe?" Scripta Nova, Revista Electrónica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales 6 119 (26). 

Authors: Renata Cristiane Valenciano, Antonio Thomaz Júnior


Pretendemos neste projeto de pesquisa, compreender a inserção e ação da mulher na luta pela terra, e priorizar a especificidade do embate existente entre as três dimensões que a mulher internaliza: enquanto provedora da força de trabalho e da família. Enquanto trabalhadora, no cotidiano da lavra, e na militância política. Mais especificamente põe-se a apreender as manifestações específicas que as mulheres estão apresentando, no raio organizativo do MST, através dos Coletivos de Gênero, das decisões e propostas de trabalho deliberadas, bem como seus desdobramentos, sendo que os Coletivos de Gênero ganham em abrangência e magnitude, tendo em vista privilegiar nas pautas de discussões, não somente a questão da exploração da mulher trabalhadora, os preconceitos, a violência, mas, sobretudo a emancipação de classe.

We intended in this research project, to understand the insert and the woman's action in the fight for the earth, and to prioritize the specific of the existent collision among the three dimensions that the woman internalize: while supplying of the manpower and of the family. While worker, in the daily of the plowing, and in the political militancy. More specifically he/she begins to apprehend the specific manifestations that the women are presenting, in the ray of organization of MST, through the Buses of Gender, of the decisions and work proposals deliberated, as well as your unfoldings, and the Buses of Gender win in inclusion and magnitude, tends in view to privilege in the lines of discussions, not only the subject of the hard-working woman's exploration, the prejudices, the violence, but, above all the class emancipation.

Keywords: trabalhadora rural, luta pela terra, gênero, classe, rural worker, land struggle, gender, class

Topics: Class, Conflict, Resource Conflict, Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2002

Tierra, Derechos y Género. Leyes, Políticas y Prácticas en Contextos de Guerra y Paz


United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM). 2006. Tierra, Derechos y Género. Leyes, Políticas y Prácticas en Contextos de Guerra y Paz. Bogotá: United Nations. 

Author: Donny Meertens


"Este documento ofrece una primera mirada sobre la problemática de los derechos de las mujeres a la propiedad de la tierra en Colombia, con miras a describir su devenir histórico, visibilizar las dificultades persistentes e identificar los retos tanto para la política pública como para los movimientos de mujeres que buscan ampliar y consolidar su ciudadanía. La preocupación por esta temática se enmarca dentro de los dos objetivos del Programa de Paz y Seguridad de UNIFEM en Colombia: visibilizar el impacto diferenciado del conflicto sobre las mujeres y fortalecer los enfoques de prevención y protección para mujeres afectadas por el conflicto" (Meertens 2006, 4).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Conflict Prevention, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Conflict, Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Paramilitaries, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2006

Peace for Whom? Legacies of Gender-Based Violence in Peru


Boesten, Jelke. 2019. "Peace for Whom? Legacies of Gender-Based Violence in Peru." In Politics after Violence: Legacies of the Shining Path Conflict in Peru, edited by Hillel David Soifer and Alberto Vergara. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Author: Jelke Boesten


"In August 2016, a multitude of women, their families, and their friends took to the streets of Lima to protest the high levels of violence against women in Peru and the impunity routinely accorded to the perpetrators of this violence. Never before had so many Peruvians protested violence against women, even if there had been ample reason to do so. In this chapter, I will explore why this mass mobilization happened at this particular point in time by examining the extent to which the violence against women in 2016 might be interpreted as a legacy of the violence of the Internal Armed Conflict (IAC) or as a result of persistent historical structures of violence and inequity. I also consider whether the contemporary response to such violence from both civil society activists and the state should be seen in light of the continuous battles over truth, justice, and reconciliation. In exploring the hypothesis that the contemporary violence against women is a legacy of a much longer history of violence and inequality, I will focus in particular on what aspects might be seen as a sequel to the Internal Armed Conflict. I will ask if high levels of peacetime violence might be seen as either a wartime mechanism or a post-conflict legacy. To examine this, I draw from my research in the archives of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and other sources for my book Sexual Violence during War and Peace: Gender, Power, and Post-Conflict Justice in Peru (2014). But I am also interested in exploring how the lack of justice and visibility regarding cases of conflict-related violence against women contrasts with the more recent mobilization of hundreds of thousands of people to protests against continuous high levels of violence against women. I argue that perhaps historic cases are too politically and socially divisive to work as examples that promote broader gender justice; instead, it may be that the struggle against the everyday violence women and girls experience across lines of class, ethnicity, geography, and age has finally found its historic momentum, with capable activists to lead the way and a political opportunity to rise to the challenge of demanding justice and social change" (Boesten 2019, 297-98).

Topics: Age, Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Class, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Justice, Impunity, TRCs, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Peru

Year: 2019

Experiences of Pregnancy in Adolescence of Internally Displaced Women in Bogotá: An Ethnographic Approach


Cadena-Camago, Yazmin, Anja Krumeich, Maria Claudia Duque-Páramo, and Klasien Horstman. 2020. "Experiences of Pregnancy in Adolescence of Internally Displaced Women in Bogotá: An Ethnographic Approach." Reproductive Health 17 (1): 31-43.

Authors: Yazmin Cadena-Camago, Anja Krumeich, Maria Claudia Duque-Páramo, Klasien Horstman


Background: Pregnancy in adolescence is higher among internally displaced women in Colombia than nondisplaced women. It is defined as a problem with significant negative outcomes by both biomedical and epidemiological approaches. However, little is known about pregnancy during adolescence from the perspective of women who experienced this in the specific context of armed conflict and displacement.

Aim: This article focuses on how internally displaced women understand their experiences of pregnancy in adolescence in the context of armed conflict through an ethnographic approach in a receptor community of internally displaced women in Bogotá, Colombia.

Methods: Based on 10 years of experience in the community, we conducted 1 year of fieldwork, using an ethnographic approach. We collected life stories of 20 internally displaced women through in-depth interviews and ran 8 workshops with them and other women from the community. We used thematic analysis to analyse the responses of internally-displaced women and understand how they made meaning around their experiences of adolescent pregnancy in the context of displacement.

Results: The main themes that emerged from participants’ experiences include rural violence, early family life (characterized by violence and mistreatment at home), meanings of pregnancy at an early age (including being challenged and feelings of love), and reactions to their pregnancies during adolescence (such as stigmatization) from their families and partners.

Conclusion: Our analysis of the in-depth interviews and the workshops suggests that adolescent pregnancy among women who are internally displaced has complex dynamics, characterized by the violent context of the rural areas, but primarily by the violence experienced during their childhood. The experience of pregnancy during adolescence brings feelings of ownership and also challenges, together with the forced displacement. This understanding will provide insights for policy makers and healthcare providers on how to work with this specific population who have experienced pregnancy in adolescence.

Keywords: adolescent pregnancy, teenage pregnancies, internally displaced persons (IDPs)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Girls, Health, Reproductive Health, Households, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2020


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