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South America

Las Farianas: Reintegration of Former Female FARC Fighters as a Driver for Peace in Colombia

Citation:

Barrios Sabogal, Laura Camila, and Solveig Richter. 2019. Las Farianas: Reintegration of Former Female FARC Fighters as a Driver for Peace in Colombia. 78. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. 

Authors: Barrios Sabogal, Laura Camila, Solveig Richter

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
The 2016 peace agreement includes comprehensive prescriptions for the so-called "reincorporation" of former combatants into the social, economic, and political life of Colombia. However, the literature is somewhat skeptical regarding the reintegration of female fighters, since they are usually either neglected or are facing intense stigmatization by the society. Nevertheless, based on empirical data from field research in 2018, we argue that both former FARC ex-combatants and conflict-affected communities largely support the reintegration process. This acceptance offers not only prospects for peace but a unique opportunity to promote peace in the traditional Colombian society. 

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
El acuerdo de paz de 2016 incluye disposiciones integrales para la llamada "reincorporación" de excombatientes en la vida social, económica y política de Colombia. Sin embargo, la literatura es bastante escéptica con respecto a la reintegración de las excombatientes, pues generalmente son excluidas o enfrentan una fuerte estigmatización por parte de la sociedad. Ahora bien, con base en datos empíricos de la investigación de campo realizada en 2018, encontramos que tanto los excombatientes de las FARC como las comunidades afectadas por el conflicto apoyan en gran medida el proceso de reintegración. Esto ofrece no solo perspectivas de paz, sino también una oportunidad única para promover la igualdad de género en la sociedad tradicional colombiana.

Keywords: Colombia, FARC, DDR, reintegration, gender, former female FARC combatants, Acuerdo de paz, reintegración, gênero, mujeres excombatientes de las FARC, peace agreement

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Women, Governance, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Peace Processes Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2019

Between Fatigue and Silence: The Challenges of Conducting Research on Sexual Violence in Conflict

Citation:

Boesten, Jelke, and Marsha Henry. 2018. "Between Fatigue and Silence: The Challenges of Conducting Research on Sexual Violence in Conflict." Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society 25 (4): 568-88.

Authors: Jelke Boesten, Marsha Henry

Abstract:

This paper discusses the meanings of research fatigue and silences in conflict-related sexual violence research. Drawing on field experiences in Liberia, Tanzania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Peru, we discuss some of the unintended consequences of persistent focus on victim-survivors’ narratives and argue for a reflexive feminist perspective that allows us to question the need and context of interviewing survivors and the associated insistence on disclosure.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Conflict, Feminisms, Sexual Violence Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Americas, South America, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Liberia, Peru, Tanzania

Year: 2018

Insurgent Women: Female Combatants in Civil Wars

Citation:

Darden, Jessica Trisko, Alexis Henshaw, and Ora Szekely. 2019. Insurgent Women: Female Combatants in Civil Wars. Washington, D.C: Georgetown University Press.

Authors: Jessica Trisko Darden, Alexis Henshaw, Ora Szekely

Annotation:

Summary:
Why do women go to war? Despite the reality that female combatants exist the world over, we still know relatively little about who these women are, what motivates them to take up arms, how they are utilized by armed groups, and what happens to them when war ends. This book uses three case studies to explore variation in women's participation in nonstate armed groups in a range of contemporary political and social contexts: the civil war in Ukraine, the conflicts involving Kurdish groups in the Middle East, and the civil war in Colombia. In particular, the authors examine three important aspects of women's participation in armed groups: mobilization, participation in combat, and conflict cessation. In doing so, they shed light on women's pathways into and out of nonstate armed groups. They also address the implications of women's participation in these conflicts for policy, including postconflict programming. This is an accessible and timely work that will be a useful introduction to another side of contemporary conflict.

Table of Contents:
1. Ukraine: Defending the Motherland

2. The Kurdish Regions: Fighting as Kurds, Fighting as Women

3. Colombia: Women Waging War and Peace

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Combatants, Female Combatants, Conflict, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding Regions: MENA, Americas, South America, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Colombia, Iraq, Ukraine

Year: 2019

Women's Resistance in Violent Settings: Infrapolitical Strategies in Brazil and Colombia

Citation:

Veillette, Anne-Marie, and Priscyll Anctil Avoine. 2020. "Women’s Resistance in Violent Settings: Infrapolitical Strategies in Brazil and Colombia." In Re-writing Women as Victims: From Theory to Practice, edited by María José Gámez Fuentes, Sonia Núñez Puente, and Emma Gómez Nicolau, 53-67. New York: Routledge. 

Authors: Anne-Marie Veillete, Priscyll Anctil Avoine

Abstract:

The reflections compiled in this chapter emerge from two fieldwork investigations conducted in Brazil (2016) and Colombia (2015) (Anctil Avoine, 2017; Veillette, 2018). The first one, carried out in the favelas of Rio de Janeiro, aims at understanding and analysing the nature and the impacts of police violence, as well as resistances emerging in this context, based on women’s testimonies. The second one has been implemented in collaboration with the Colombian Agency for Reintegration and pursued the objective of analysing the narratives of female ex-combatants in order to propose new strategies for gender perspectives in reintegration. In both cases, women are confronted with high levels of violence, oppression and forms of marginalisation: however, they challenge the traditional view of women as victims in these contexts as they develop their own strategies for survival and political action.

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil, Colombia

Year: 2020

Fostering Solidarity for Gender/Ethnic Reincorporation: the Experience of Female Indigenous Ex-Combatants in Tierra Grata, Cesar

Citation:

Santamaría, Ángela, and Fallon Hernández. 2020. "Fostering Solidarity for Gender/Ethnic Reincorporation: The Experience of Female Indigenous Ex-combatants in Tierra Grata, Cesar." Journal of Gender Studies 29, (2): 117-29.

Authors: Ángela Santamaría, Fallon Hernández

Abstract:

This investigation was developed during the first stage of the implementation of the peace accords in the Transit Normalization Hamlet Zone (TNHZ) of Tierra Grata, Cesar, Colombia in 2017. Through interviews, discussions and ethnographic observation, we reconstructed the trajectories of two indigenous women who contributed to the ethnic reincorporation of female Fuerza Autónoma Revolucionaria del Común (FARC) ex-combatants on a micro-local level. Most ex-combatants are entangled in strong patriarchal ties and have encountered myriad difficulties on their path towards reincorporation. This work seeks to answer the following questions: Who are the main actors of the local reincorporation process? What are their personal trajectories? What are indigenous women's main difficulties with reincorporation from an ethnic and gender perspective in Tierra Grata?

Keywords: reincorporation, FARC, Colombia, indigenous women, ex-combatants

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rights, Indigenous Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2020

What’s to Come Is More Complicated: Feminist Visions of Peace in Colombia

Citation:

Paarlberg-Kvam, Kate. 2019. “What’s to Come Is More Complicated: Feminist Visions of Peace in Colombia.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 21 (2): 194–223.

Author: Kate Paarlberg-Kvam

Abstract:

The years following the Colombian Congress’ 2016 approval of peace accords with the country’s oldest and largest guerrilla army have brought into stark relief Cynthia Enloe’s assertion that “wars don’t simply end, and wars don’t end simply.” As Colombia and the international community grapple with the complexity of constructing a society at peace, it is essential to listen to Colombian feminists’ visions of what a true and lasting peace would look like. While the feminist gains evinced by the accords represent a significant step forward, my research with feminist peace networks during the negotiations points to a still broader vision of peace that has not yet been embodied by the accords or their implementation. I argue that the antimilitarist, antineoliberal and antipatriarchal peace envisioned by feminist activists is more comprehensive, more transformative and more stable than that contained in the accords, and offer predictions of how feminists might pursue their vision in the post-accords reality.

Keywords: Colombia, demilitarization, FARC-EP, feminism, peace negotiation

Topics: Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2019

Transitional Justice in South Africa and Brazil: Introducing a Gendered Approach to Reconciliation

Citation:

Nelaeva, Galina, and Natalia Sidorova. 2019. "Transitional Justice in South Africa and Brazil: Introducing a Gendered Approach to Reconciliation." BRICS Law Journal 6 (2): 82-107.

Authors: Galina Nelaeva, Natalia Sidorova

Abstract:

The concept of transitional justice has been associated with the periods of political change when a country emerges from a war or turmoil and attempts to address the wrongdoings of the past. Among various instruments of transitional justice, truth commissions stand out as an example of a non-judicial form of addressing the crimes of the past. While their setup and operation can be criticized on different grounds, including excessive politization of hearings and the virtual impossibility of meaningfully assessing their impact, it has been widely acknowledged in the literature that the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa can be regarded as a success story due to its relatively strong mandate and widespread coverage and resonance it had in South African society. We would like to compare this commission from the 1990s with a more recent example, the Brazilian National Truth Commission, so as to be able to address the question of incorporation of gendered aspects in transitional justice (including examination of sexual violence cases, representation of women in truth-telling bodies, etc.), since gender often remains an overlooked and silenced aspect in such initiatives. Gendered narratives of transitional justice often do not fit into the wider narratives of post-war reconciliation. A more general question addressed in this research is whether the lack of formal procedure in truth commissions facilitates or hinders examination of sexual crimes in transitional settings.

Keywords: transitional justice, truth commissions, post-conflict resolution, gender-based violence, reconciliation

Topics: Gender, Justice, Transitional Justice, TRCs, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America Countries: Brazil, South Africa

Year: 2019

The Emerging LGBTI Rights Challenge to Transitional Justice in Latin America

Citation:

Bueno-Hansen, Pascha. 2018. "The Emerging LGBTI Rights Challenge to Transitional Justice in Latin America." The International Journal of Transitional Justice 12 (1): 126-45.

Author: Pascha Bueno-Hansen

Abstract:

Latin American truth commissions have recently expanded their purview to include cases of violence against gender and sexual minorities as human rights violations worthy of investigation. This article proposes that grappling with this emerging LGBTI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex) rights challenge requires a queer, intersectional and decolonial analytical lens that underscores the relevance of global LGBTI politics, and critiques transitional justice foundational assumptions regarding temporality and binary logics. In practical terms, this analytical lens enacts a double move by unearthing the deeply tangled and life-extinguishing roots of impunity surrounding violence against gender and sexual minorities while advocating for the realization of LGBTI people’s full citizenship.

Topics: Citizenship, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Justice, Impunity, Transitional Justice, TRCs, LGBTQ, Rights, Human Rights, Sexuality, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America, South America

Year: 2018

Conflicto Armado, Impacto Psicosocial Y Reparación en Colombia: La Voz de Las Mujeres

Citation:

Martinez, Maitane Arnoso, Manuel Cárdenas Castro, Carlos M. Beristain, and Carla Afonso. 2017. "Conflicto Armado, Impacto Psicosocial Y Reparación en Colombia: La Voz de Las Mujeres." Universitas Psychologica 16 (3): 1-12.

Authors: Maitane Arnoso Martinez, Manuel Cardenas Castro, Carlos M. Beristain, Carla Afonso

Abstract:

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
El conflicto armado en Colombia ha durado cincuenta años y ha producido numerosas víctimas. Las mujeres constituyen un colectivo que ha sido especialmente afectado e invisibilizado por la violencia. A partir de 935 entrevistas a mujeres colombianas (17-83 años) pertenecientes a diferentes comunidades étnicas (que se identificaron como mestizas, afroamericanas, indígenas o blancas), el presente estudio explora las violaciones a los derechos humanos que sufrieron, el impacto psicosocial de las mismas, las estrategias utilizadas por las mujeres para hacer frente a la violencia y las medidas que consideran relevantes para reparar los daños que les fueron ocasionados. Utilizando una perspectiva metodológica feminista (Harding, 1987), la recolección de datos fue realizada por mujeres entrevistando a otras mujeres que querían compartir experiencias de violencia a menudo invisibilizadas y, a través de ellas, poder generar un aprendizaje colectivo y proceso de empoderamiento mutuo a partir de una resignificación colectiva de los hechos acontecidos. El instrumento utilizado incluyó una metodología ya contrastada en otros contextos donde se han producidoe violaciones a los derechos humanos (Arnoso et al., 2014; Beristain, 2009). Las respuestas fueron codificadas para un tratamiento adicional cuantitativo y cualitativo. Se encontró una relación entre los diferentes tipos de violencia y las regiones de origen de las participantes, siendo las mujeres indígenas y afroamericanas quienes más negativamente afectadas se mostraron por el conflicto. Los resultados indican que los grupos paramilitares fueron los agentes con mayor frecuencia identificados como autores de la violencia.
 
ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
The armed conflict in Colombia has gone on for fifty years and produced numerous victims. Women make up a collective that has been especially affected and made invisible by the violence. Based on 935 interviews of Colombian women (17-83 years) belonging to different ethnic communities (who had identified themselves as mixed-race, AfroAmericans, indigenous, or white), the present study explores the Human Rights violations they experienced, the psychosocial impact of these violations, the strategies these women used to cope with the violence, and the measures they consider valuable to redress the damage inflicted. Using a feminist methodological perspective (Harding, 1987), data collection was carried out by women interviewing other women who wanted to bring back often invisibilized experiences of violence and thus contribute to their collective learning and empowerment process. They were to do this based on a shared redefinition of the facts. The instrument used included study methods used in other contexts of human rights violations (Arnoso, Beristain & González Hidalgo, 2014; Beristain, 2009) and the answers were coded for further quantitative and qualitative treatment. A relationship was found between the different types of violence and the regions the sample came from, with indigenous and Afro-American women affected more negatively by the conflict. The results indicate that the paramilitary groups were the agents identified most often as the perpetrators of the violence.

Keywords: Colombia, armed conflict, psychosocial consequences, coping strategies, reparation, women, Conflicto Armado, consecuencias psicosociales, estrategias de afrontamiento, reparación, Mujeres

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Justice, Reparations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Paramilitaries, Rights, Human Rights, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2017

Engendering Peacebuilding: The International Gender Nomenclature of Peace Politics and Women’s Participation in the Colombian Peace Process

Citation:

Boutron, Camille. 2018. "Engendering Peacebuilding: The International Gender Nomenclature of Peace Politics and Women's Participation in the Colombian Peace Process." Journal of Peacebuilding & Development 13 (2): 116-21.

Author: Camille Boutron

Keywords: Colombia, gender politics, women's empowerment, liberal peace-building

Annotation:

Summary:
"The peace negotiations held between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) in Habana between 2012 and 2016 represented a historical precedent for the inclusion of a gender approach in conflict resolution. If gender and women’s issues had not been noteworthy topics during the first two years of the negotiations (2012–2014), this configuration changed in a significant way with the establishment in September 2014 of a gender subcommittee at the negotiations table, composed of representatives of the Colombian government and the FARC guerrillas (Bouvier 2016, 21). The gender subcommittee was established thanks to the combined endeavours of women’s organisations and those of the actors from the international community engaged in promoting the gender lens in Colombian peacebuilding. It played a substantial role in the inclusion of a transversal gender perspective in the peace agreement signed by both parties on 26 September 2016. Indeed, no peace agreement had ever gone so far in the inclusion of a gender perspective since the adoption of the UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 of October 2000, which laid the foundations for the subsequent elaboration of the Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) global agenda and represented a starting point for the adoption of many additional UN resolutions ensuring women’s leadership in peacebuilding and preventing sexual violence in armed conflicts (UNSCR 1889, 1820, 1888, 1960, 2106, 2242). These resolutions enabled the constitution of a broader roadmap guiding the inclusion of women in international peace politics. Colombia appears to be an emblematic case when it comes to analysing the various forms of implementation of the WPS agenda" (Boutron 2018, 116).

Topics: Gender, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, UNSCR 1888, UNSCR 1889, UNSCR 1960, UNSCR 2106, UNSCR 2242 Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2018

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