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South America

Mercury Pollution and Artisanal Gold Mining in Alto Cauca, Colombia: Woman's Perception of Health and Environmental Impacts

Citation:

Vélez-Torres, Irene, Diana C. Vanegas, Eric S. McLamore, and Diana Hurtado. 2018. "Mercury Pollution and Artisanal Gold Mining in Alto Cauca, Colombia: Woman's Perception of Health and Environmental Impacts." The Journal of Environment and Development 27 (4): 415-44.

Authors: Irene Vélez-Torres, Diana C. Vanegas, Eric S. McLamore, Diana Hurtado

Abstract:

This article discusses the results of a pilot research strategy for monitoring environmental hazards derived from the use of mercury in artisanal gold mining in the Alto Cauca region, Colombia. During 2016 and 2017, a transdisciplinary approach was established to inquire on the health, environment, and territorial problems originated from artisanal mining. In this article, we specifically focus on how this particular issue affects women in the area. We establish a closed-loop approach for integrating social action research with analytical sciences/engineering to understand risks associated with Hg2+ levels in artisanal and small-scale gold mining in the Cauca department. We develop a platform known as closed-loop integration of social action and analytical chemistry research.

Keywords: contamination, Afro-descendants, sensors, cartography, CLISAR, artisanal gold mining (AGM)

Topics: Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Health Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2018

Transformed Territories of Gendered Care Work in Ecuador’s Petroleum Circuit

Citation:

Cielo, Cristina, and Nancy Carrión Sarzosa. 2018. "Transformed Territories of Gendered Care Work in Ecuador's Petroleum Circuit." Conservation and Society 16 (1): 8-20.

Authors: Cristina Cielo, Nancy Carrión Sarzosa

Abstract:

This article explores the transformation of indigenous women’s care work in the Ecuadorian Amazon, as their communities are increasingly integrated into petroleum industry activities. Care work activities–not only for social reproduction, but also to sustain cycles of fertility, growth and waste interdependent with nature–constitute affective ecologies. In development sites of Ecuador’s petroleum circuit, such activities are domesticated and devalued, and the territories produced by women’s care work are progressively delimited. Once aimed at social and natural reproduction, their care practices now focus on household and familial reproduction. This article is based on two years of ethnographic and qualitative research in indigenous communities of the Amazonian provinces of Sucumbíos and Pastaza. We bring feminist economic approaches to the study of affective ecologies to show how fundamental changes in inhabitants’ historically shaped relationships to, and conservation of, nature both depend on and produce gendered ecological and socioeconomic relations.

Keywords: care work, petroleum, gender, territories, indigenous communities, Ecuador, Amazon

Topics: Economies, Environment, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador

Year: 2018

Gendered Waters: The Participation of Women in the ‘One Million Cisterns’ Rainwater Harvesting Program in the Brazilian Semi-Arid Region

Citation:

de Moraes, Andrea Ferreira Jacques, and Cecilia Rocha. 2013. “Gendered Waters: The Participation of Women in the ‘One Million Cisterns’ Rainwater Harvesting Program in the Brazilian Semi-Arid Region.” Journal of Cleaner Production 60 (December): 163–9.

Authors: Andrea Ferreira Jacques de Moraes, Cecilia Rocha

Abstract:

Women, especially in developing countries, are often responsible for managing water at the household level. However, they are rarely represented in bodies that decide on water management, and they hardly play a role in the implementation of projects to increase water access. While the need for enhanced gender equity in water management is acknowledged in the international development discourse, the complexities of implementing it are poorly understood. This article presents a qualitative case study of women participation in the Program ‘One Million Cisterns’ in the Brazilian Semi-Arid region, to illustrate the promise and the challenges of bringing about women's participation and empowering. The case study shows that women not only derived significant material benefits from the program (access to water), they also acquired roles and responsibilities - as cistern builders and as members of local water commissions - that traditionally had been reserved for men. Key for this transformational process, we argue, was the role played by local feminist NGOs and social movements who helped rural women create new spaces for social inclusion in water development.

Keywords: water management, gender and development, Latin America, Brazil, Women and water, gender inequality, Rainwater harvesting

Topics: Development, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Governance, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods, NGOs Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2013

Transport Systems and Their Impact con Gender Equity

Citation:

Lecompte, María Carolina, and Juan Pablo Bocarejo S. 2017. "Transport Systems and their Impact con Gender Equity". Transportation Research Procedia 25: 4245-57.

Authors: María Carolina Lecompte, Juan Pablo Bocarejo S.

Abstract:

This paper summarizes recent research on unequal access to transport systems. It focuses on how gender and socioeconomic inequalities may be aggravated by differences in transport accessibility. The investigation evaluated three hypothesis; first, transport accessibility is different between men and women with similar socioeconomic background; second due to these differences, women have less transport accessibility to jobs; and third, that these differences are stronger in lower income socioeconomic areas. Four zones in Bogotá were studied in more detail. The data used consisted of Bogota's 2005 mobility survey, and two stated and revealed preference surveys developed by the University of the Andes to study socioeconomic and gender accessibility. This data helped establish differences in daily practices of men and women from different socioeconomic strata, as well as the access characteristics to different transport systems. The data was also used to estimate the real accessibility of the four zones, and this was gender disaggregated. In conclusion, it was found that women generally travel less than men and they spend more than men in transport, even though their trips may be shorter. This did result in lower transport accessibility to job locations. Also, it was found that gender differences were stronger in lower socioeconomic areas. With these results, the investigation states the differences and several possible policies that could be considered to diminish the inequity.

Keywords: transport accessibility, gender, Inequalities

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2017

Joint Titling in Rural Peru: Impact on Women’s Participation in Household Decision-Making

Citation:

Wiig, Henrik. 2013. “Joint Titling in Rural Peru: Impact on Women’s Participation in Household Decision-Making.” World Development 52: 104-19.

Author: Henrik Wiig

Keywords: land titling, gender, empowerment, intra-household decisions, Peru, Latin America

Annotation:

Summary: 
Peru has implemented joint property rights between spouses and cohabitants on 57% of 1.5 million formalized agricultural plots. Bargaining theory indicates such redistribution of assets should empower women. This project measures influence on decision-making in 1,280 rural households, interviewing men and women separately. A historical coincidence during the land reform of the 1960–70s made only some communities eligible for plot titling. The process was exogenous and independent of both household and community characteristics. The significantly positive impact on female empowerment in simple mean comparison and econometric models including pre-titling historic variables is hence unbiased. (Summary from original source) 


Topics: Gender, Rights, Human Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Peru

Year: 2013

Property Rights and the Gender Distribution of Wealth in Ecuador, Ghana and India

Citation:

Deere, Carmen Diana, Abena D. Oduro, Hema Swaminathan, and Cheryl Doss. 2013. “Property Rights and the Gender Distribution of Wealth in Ecuador, Ghana and India.” Journal of Economic Inequality 11 (2): 249–65.

Authors: Cheryl Doss, Carmen Diana Deere, Abena D. Oduro, Hema Swaminathan

Abstract:

Women’s ability to accumulate wealth is often attributed to whether they have property rights; i.e., a legal personality to own and manage property. In this paper we argue that basic property rights are insufficient; whether women are able to accumulate wealth also depends upon the marital and inheritance regimes in particular contexts. Drawing upon surveys which collected individual level ownership data in Ecuador, Ghana and the state of Karnataka in India, we estimate married women’s share of couple wealth and relate it to how assets are owned within marriage as well as to different inheritance regimes and practices. In Ecuador, married women own 44 %, in Ghana, 19 %, and in Karnataka, 9 % of couple wealth. Ecuador is characterized by the partial community property regime in marriage while inheritance laws provide for all children, irrespective of sex, to be treated equally, norms that are largely followed in practice. In contrast, Ghana and India are characterized by the separation of property regime which does not recognize wives’ contribution to the formation of marital property, and by inheritance practices that are strongly male biased. Reforming marital and inheritance regimes must remain a top priority if gender economic equality is to be attained.

Keywords: inheritance regimes, marital regimes, women's property rights, asset ownership, wealth in developing countries

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Rights, Human Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia Countries: Ecuador, Ghana, India

Year: 2013

Land Tenure and Forest Rights of Rural and Indigenous Women in Latin America: Empirical Evidence

Citation:

Bose, Purabi. 2017. "Land Tenure and Forest Rights of Rural and Indigenous Women in Latin America: Empirical Evidence." Women's Studies International Forum 65: 1-8.

Author: Purabi Bose

Abstract:

Latin America's land-use and communal forests needs a better understanding through a lens of women. This research article aims to examine Latin America's secured individual land tenure legal reforms and communal rights in indigenous territories. Two empirical case studies are presented to assess the current dynamics of rural women's land title rights in coffee agroforestry under Colombia's new Formalización Propiedad Rural program, and indigenous Quechua women's communal forest land rights for indigenous foods like kañawa and quinoa farming in highland Bolivia. In doing so, it also gives an introduction to the five empirical research papers that are part of this Special Section edited by the author. The specific case studies are from the Brazilian Amazon, Bolivia's Gran Chaco area, Nicaragua's indigenous territories and two studies from Mexico – one from Oaxaca's central valley and the other is based on smallholder farming in Calakmul rural area. In conclusion, the author discusses the need to prioritise women's role in individual land rights and communal forest tenure in Latin American countries. 

Keywords: Latin America, communal forests, indigenous peoples, women, land tenure, food security, joint titling, Brazilian Amazon, Bolivia, Colombia, Mexico and Nicaragua

Topics: Gendered Power Relations, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rights, Human Rights, Indigenous Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Bolivia, Mexico, Nicaragua

Year: 2017

Gender, Land, and Water: From Reform to Counter-Reform in Latin America

Citation:

Deere, Carmen Diana, and Magdalena Leon. 1998. “Gender, Land, and Water: From Reform to Counter-Reform in Latin America.” Agriculture and Human Values 15(4): 375–86.

Authors: Carmen Diana Deere, Magdalena Leon

Abstract:

Rural women did not fare very well in the land reforms carried out during the Latin American “reformist period” of the 1960s and 1970s, with women being under-represented among the beneficiaries. It is argued that women have been excluded from access to and control over water for similar reasons that they were excluded from access to land during these reforms. The paper also investigates the extent to which women have gained or lost access to land during the “counter-reforms” of the 1980s and 1990s. Under the neo-liberal agenda, production cooperatives as well as communal access to land have largely been undermined in favor of privatization and the individual parcelization of collectives. Significant land titling efforts are also being carried out throughout the region to promote the development of a vigorous land market. This latter period has also been characterized by the growth of the feminist movement throughout Latin America and a growing commitment by states to gender equity. The paper reviews the extent to which rural women‘s access to land and, thus, water has potentially been enhanced by recent changes in agrarian and legal codes.
 

Keywords: cooperatives, land markets, land reform, gender and land, Latin American rural women, Neo-liberal restructuring

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Feminisms, Gendered Power Relations, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Privatization, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America

Year: 1998

Recalling Violence: Gender and Memory Work in Contemporary Post-conflict Peru

Citation:

Boesten, Jelke. 2019. "Recalling Violence: Gender and Memory Work in Contemporary Post-conflict Peru." In Rethinking Transitional Gender Justice: Transformative Approaches in Post-Conflict Settings, edited by Rita Shackel and Lucy Fiske, 165-85. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author: Jelke Boesten

Abstract:

Drawing on the memory battles in contemporary Peru, Jelke Boesten explores victimhood, agency and representation across lines of class, race and gender. In particular, she looks at how gendered aspects of violence are recalled in artistic representations of the past, and if and how such representations may provide any form of redress, reparation or consolation for victim-survivors of war. Such a gendered reading of commemorative practices and symbolic reparations highlights what is not said, what is still hidden and whose trauma is at stake—and whose is not. (Abstract from Springer)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Post-Conflict, Race, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Peru

Year: 2019

Gender and the Role of Women in Colombia’s Peace Process

Citation:

Bouvier, Virginia M. 2016. Gender and the Role of Women in Colombia’s Peace Process. New York: UN Women.

Author: Virginia M. Bouvier

Abstract:

The promises and visions articulated in United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 and subsequent UN resolutions and position papers that recognize the connection between gender equity and women’s participation in all aspects of peace processes and peacebuilding on the one hand, and international peace and security on the other, have not been fulfilled. Nonetheless, these resolutions have opened the way for advocacy that has had some successes in specific contexts. Colombia offers one such case.
 
Through desk research, literature review, and personal interviews, this paper provides an overview of the Colombian internal armed conflict and the peace process currently underway to transform it. It begins with an historical overview of the conflict, and then explores some of its gender dimensions. It analyzes the differential impact of the internal armed conflict on the lives of women and men, LBGTI persons, and boys, girls and adolescents, as well as the intersectionality between multiple components of identity, including gender, class, age, ethnicity, and region. The paper then turns to the peace process. It explores the roles of women in preparing the ground for a political solution to Colombia’s internal armed conflict. It considers women’s official, semi-official, and unofficial roles at, around, and outside the peace talks that were launched in late 2012 between the Colombian government and the Colombian Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARC-EP). This paper underscores the essentially gendered nature of both war and peace. It assesses shifting gender roles and ideologies, and the ways that they intersect with a peace process and transitions in a post-Accord period, particularly in relation to issues of transitional justice. Finally, my paper explores how greater consideration of gendered dynamics, as well as increased participation of women in the peace process and all commissions and bodies created to implement peace accords, will better equip Colombia to address the challenges ahead and will help ensure a more sustainable peace. 

Topics: Age, Armed Conflict, Class, Ethnicity, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, peace and security, International Organizations, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2016

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