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Peacebuilding, Gender and Policing in Solomon Islands


Greener, B.K., W.J. Fish, and K. Tekulu. 2011. “Peacebuilding, Gender and Policing in Solomon Islands.” Asia Pacific Viewpoint 52 (1): 17–28. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8373.2011.01439.x.

Authors: B.K. Greener, W.J. Fish, K. Tekulu


UN Security Council Resolution 1325 calls for a gender perspective to be integrated into the resolution of conflicts. This responsibility manifests itself in a number of more specific proposals, some easily assessable, others less so. In this paper, we begin by considering the success of the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands (RAMSI) – the poster child for peacebuilding efforts – at meeting these specific proposals. In light of this, we then go on to suggest ways in which RAMSI might meet greater success in fully integrating gender considerations in Solomon Islands by blending sensitivity to gender-based considerations together with a deeper sensitivity to cultural considerations, including cultural understandings of core notions such as ‘policing’ and ‘justice’.

Keywords: gender, international policing, peacebuilding, RAMSI, Solomon Islands, UNSCR 1325

Topics: Gender, Gender Analysis, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Justice, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Oceania Countries: Solomon Islands

Year: 2011

Small Arms, Violence and Gender in Papua New Guinea: Towards a Research Agenda


Capie, David. 2011. "Small Arms, Violence and Gender in Papua New Guinea: Towards a Research Agenda." Asia Pacific Viewpoint 52 (1): 42-55.

Author: David Capie


Among Pacific states, Papua New Guinea (PNG) has attracted the most attention from researchers looking at problems caused by small arms and light weapons. There is now a substantive body of work cataloguing different aspects of the country's problems with firearms and gun violence. This research sits alongside a large scholarly literature on violence in PNG and the connection between violence, gender and masculine identities. There has, however, been strikingly little research bringing these literatures together and looking directly at the gendered dimensions of PNG's gun violence. This paper explores some connections between small arms, violence and gender in PNG. After providing a general overview of small arms issues in PNG, it examines the misuse of firearms in urban crime and inter-communal fighting in the Highlands, specifically noting the limited evidence that is available about the differently gendered consequences of gun violence. It identifies three potential areas for further research: exploring the relationship between changing notions of masculinity and demand for firearms; gender and PNG's growing private security industry; and fragile signs of change in the role of women in the PNG Defence Force.


Keywords: gender, Papua New Guinea, small arms, violence

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Violence, Weapons /Arms Regions: Oceania Countries: Papua New Guinea

Year: 2011

Land Policy in Post-Conflict Circumstances: Some Lessons from East Timor


Fitzpatrick, Daniel. 2012. “Land Policy in Post-Conflict Circumstances: Some Lessons from East Timor.” Journal of Humanitarian Assistance, Forthcoming, online

Author: Daniel Fitzpatrick


In the wake of adverse assessments of UN peace-building missions in Kosovo and Sierra Leone, the Report of the Panel on UN Peace Operations ("the Brahimi Report") was commissioned to consider UN peacekeeping and related field operations. Its recommendations range widely from the structure and role of various UN agencies, including the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, to the importance of "clear, credible and achievable" mandates. Most relevantly, for our purposes, the Brahimi Report recommends development of "peace-building strategies" (para. 2 (c)), including pre-selecting collegiate "rule of law" teams consisting inter alia of judicial and human rights specialists (para. 10).

Although little further detail is given, the assumption underlying these last recommendations is that, despite the variety of circumstances in which there will be UN peace-building missions, it is possible to develop in advance certain strategies, and pre-select specialist rule of law teams, so that future peace-building efforts may be facilitated. This article considers this assumption in relation to land policy in post-conflict circumstances. It does so by analysing UNTAET’s land policy in the immediate aftermath of the conflict in East Timor; and it argues, in particular, that lessons from the successes and failures of this policy may be applied to generate certain recommendations for template land strategies in other peace-building and post-conflict environments.

Keywords: land, title, East Timor, post-conflict, land policy

Topics: Development, Humanitarian Assistance, International Organizations, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rights, Human Rights, Land Rights Regions: Oceania Countries: Timor-Leste

Year: 2012

The Impact of Mining on Women: Lessons from the Coal Mining Bowen Basin of Queensland, Australia


Sharma, Sanjay. 2010. “The Impact of Mining on Women: Lessons from the Coal Mining Bowen Basin of Queensland, Australia.” Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal 28 (3): 201–15.

Author: Sanjay Sharma


The select indicators of gender equity from the Australian Bureau of Statistics Census 2006 reveal that women of the mining towns of the Bowen Basin region of central Queensland are at a substantial social and economic disadvantage to men. Through a review of select social science literature on mining communities the paper examines work, family and community structures and processes that promote and sustain patriarchy in mining communities and within households that could negatively influence mental health and relationship wellbeing of women in mining towns. This is a relatively neglected field of inquiry in the social impact assessment processes of large-scale mining in Australia. The paper suggests areas of research and policy initiatives to enhance women’s economic self-sufficiency, gender equality and wellbeing.

Keywords: SIA, mining towns, status of women, Bowen Basin, patriarchy, role overload

Topics: Development, Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Governance, Health, Mental Health, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2010

Women’s Absence, Women’s Power: Indigenous Women and Negotiations with Mining Companies in Australia and Canada


O’Faircheallaigh, Ciaran. 2013. “Women’s Absence, Women’s Power: Indigenous Women and Negotiations with Mining Companies in Australia and Canada.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 36 (11): 1789–807. doi:10.1080/01419870.2012.655752.

Author: Ciaran O'Faircheallaigh


This article documents the agency of indigenous women in negotiations surrounding major resource projects on indigenous lands. The dominant view in the academic and activist literature is that indigenous women are excluded from negotiations, which helps explain their failure to share in project benefits. The author’s experience as a negotiator for indigenous communities in Australia and his research in Canada reveals a different picture, indicating that indigenous women often play a central role in negotiations. The article seeks to explain the inconsistency between the findings reported here and much of the literature, in terms of a broader tendency in the latter to downplay the agency of women in relation to mining; and its failure to adequately recognize the multiple and complex ways in which indigenous women can influence negotiations, and the role of specific cultural, institutional and political contexts in shaping women’s participation.

Keywords: indigenous peoples, aboriginal, power, land rights, mining

Topics: Economies, Ethnicity, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Livelihoods, Multi-national Corporations, Political Economies, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, North America, Oceania Countries: Australia, Canada

Year: 2013

The Gender of the Gold: An Ethnographic and Historical Account of Women’s Involvement in Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in Mount Kaindi, Papua New Guinea


Moretti, Daniele. 2006. “The Gender of the Gold: An Ethnographic and Historical Account of Women’s Involvement in Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in Mount Kaindi, Papua New Guinea.” Oceania 76 (2): 133–49. doi:10.2307/40332019.

Author: Daniele Moretti


The Kaindi area of Papua New Guinea is home to a large community of Anga small-scale miners. While they constitute nearly half of the local population, women do not participate in mining to the same extent as the men. Drawing on ethnographic data this paper shows that this is not just due to personal choice but also to a series of limiting factors that include pollution beliefs, land tenure practices, the unequal control of household resources, and the gendered division of labour. Far from being simply intrinsic to Anga culture, these impediments also relate to the gendered history of the colonial goldfields and to contemporary national law and company practice in the extractive sector. Similarly, they are neither unambiguous nor resistant to change. Indeed, since the Anga first entered the mines their women have engaged in resource extraction in ever increasing numbers, both independently and alongside male relatives and partners. Through an analysis of this historical trend, my paper will show that historically conscious ethnography can help specify not only the main obstacles women face in entering artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM), but also the conditions that lead to their strengthening or weakening through time, thus identifying factors to be stimulated or countered in policies and strategies for equitable development within the sector.

Topics: Development, Economies, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Households, Livelihoods, Multi-national Corporations Regions: Oceania Countries: Papua New Guinea

Year: 2006

On Australia’s Doorstep: Gold, Rape, and Injustice


Knuckey, Sarah. 2013. “On Australia’s Doorstep: Gold, Rape, and Injustice.” The Medical Journal of Australia 199 (3): 1.

Author: Sarah Knuckey



"Many Australians, like others in Western countries that are home to the world’s largest mining companies, benefit economically from extractive industries. We want mine operations to be socially and environmentally responsible, and we expect our governments to fairly regulate corporate activity to prevent or mitigate harm.

But some communities in Papua New Guinea bear the brunt of poorly regulated extractives projects, carried out with insufficient attention to their social impacts. When things go wrong, harms can be compounded by justice and health care systems ill equipped to respond effectively. Australian health professionals have expertise in many of the problems facing those living near PNG mines, and could have much to offer, working in partnership with local communities."

(Knuckey, 2013, p. 1).

Topics: Economies, Extractive Industries, Governance, Health, Justice, Multi-national Corporations, Sexual Violence, Rape Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia, Papua New Guinea

Year: 2013

Gender & Mining: Strategies for Governing the Development of Women in Lihir, PNG


Hemer, Susan R. 2014. “Gender & Mining: Strategies for Governing the Development of Women in Lihir, PNG.” Working Paper, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Author: Susan R. Hemer


The negative impacts of mining on local communities, and particularly women in the Pacific, are well documented. It is acknowledged that mines are notoriously male dominated, and women struggle to be heard in negotiations between communities and mines, as well as to gain the benefits of mine related development. In recent years in attempts to address these issues, there have been calls to examine the interface between gender and mining more fully, and to mainstream gender in all aspects of mining. This paper takes its lead from recent research that aims to move beyond the ‘negative impacts on women’ of mining (Mahy 2011), to instead examine the strategies and resilience of women in mining locations (Rimoldi 2011). In the case of the Lihir Gold mine, there are two key women’s organisations that work for women’s development: the Petztorme Women’s Association which draws its membership from the Catholic and United Churches, and the Tutorme Association which developed from a Sewing Centre. These two organisations, however, have developed very different strategies to advance the position of women. Through an analysis of this case, the paper argues that gender mainstreaming has not been effectual at the local level in Lihir, and that instead women continue to gain their status from their role as guardians of the future through children, youth and health.

Topics: Development, Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Livelihoods, Political Participation Regions: Oceania Countries: Papua New Guinea

Year: 2014

Development on Whose Terms?: CSR Discourse and Social Realities in Papua New Guinea’s Extractive Industries Sector


Gilberthorpe, Emma, and Glenn Banks. 2012. “Development on Whose Terms?: CSR Discourse and Social Realities in Papua New Guinea’s Extractive Industries Sector.” Resources Policy 37 (2): 185–93. doi:10.1016/j.resourpol.2011.09.005.

Authors: Emma Gilberthorpe, Glenn Banks


The emergence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the extractive industries represents a bid to legitimize the sector after decades of environmental disasters and the trampling of indigenous rights. But whilst the rise in CSR has meant safer technologies and better stakeholder engagement, there is little evidence of any real socio-economic development at the grassroots. This paper examines the uneasy relationship existing between the strategic ‘business model’ of CSR and the brand of development it delivers. Using evidence form the two multinational extractive industries in Papua New Guinea, we show how weaknesses in CSR practice come from greater emphasis on meeting global ‘performance standards” than on the specificities of the social contexts in which strategies are implemented. These weaknesses, we argue, lead to ill-conceived and inappropriate development programmes that generate inequality, fragmentation and social and economic insecurity. We conclude that greater engagement with affected communities will facilitate the development of more mutually beneficial and appropriate CSR strategies.

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Multi-national Corporations, Political Economies, Rights Regions: Oceania Countries: Papua New Guinea

Year: 2012

'Walking the Line’: Southern Sudanese Masculinities and Reconciling One's Past with the Present


Marlowe, Jay M. 2012. “‘Walking the Line’: Southern Sudanese Masculinities and Reconciling One's Past with the Present.” Ethnicities 12 (1): 50-66.

Author: Jay M. Marlowe


This paper discusses an ethnographic engagement with Southern Sudanese men and their experiences of resettlement as refugees in Adelaide, Australia. They use the phrase ‘walking the line’ to convey the multiple challenges of reconciling one's past within the present contexts of life in a new host country. This geographic metaphor hints at the contested borderlands of masculinity, social relations and raising children that highlight the dynamic complexities related to gender and institutional power. The participant voices provide helpful perspectives on the endeavour of forging one's identity in forced migration and resettlement contexts.

Keywords: identity, masculinity, refugee, social relations, resettlement, Sudan

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Refugees, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations Regions: Africa, East Africa, Oceania Countries: Australia, South Sudan

Year: 2012


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