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Prevalence and Risk Factors of Major Depressive Disorder Among Women at Public Antenatal Clinics from Refugee, Conflict-Affected, and Australian-Born Backgrounds


Rees, Susan J., Jane R. Fisher, Zachary Steel, Mohammed Mohsin, Nawal Nadar, Batool Moussa, Fatima Hassoun, Mariam Yousif, Yalini Krishna, Batoul Khalil, Jok Mugo, Alvin Kuowei, Louis Klein, and Derrick Silove. 2019. "Prevalence and Risk Factors of Major Depressive Disorder Among Women at Public Antenatal Clinics from Refugee, Conflict-Affected, and Australian-Born Backgrounds." JAMA Network Open 2 (5).

Authors: Susan J. Rees, Jane R. Fisher, Zachary Steel, Mohammed Mohsin, Nawal Nadar, Batool Moussa, Fatima Hassoun, Mariam Yousif, Yalini Krishna, Batoul Khalil, Jok Mugo, Alvin Kouwei Tay, Louis Klein, Derrick Silove


Importance: Pregnancy may increase the risk of depression among women who self-identify as refugees and have resettled in high-income countries. To our knowledge, no large systematic studies among women with refugee backgrounds in the antenatal period have been conducted.

Objectives: To compare the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), trauma exposure, and other psychosocial risk factors among women who identify as refugees, women from the same conflict-affected countries, and women from the host nation and to test whether self-identification as a refugee indicates greater likelihood of prevalence and risk.

Design, Setting and Participants: This cross-sectional study was undertaken in 3 public antenatal clinics in Sydney and Melbourne, Australia, between January 2015 and December 2016. Overall, 1335 women (685 consecutively enrolled from conflict-affected backgrounds and 650 randomly selected from the host nation) participated. Data analysis was undertaken between June and September 2018.

Exposures: One-hour interviews covering mental health, intimate partner violence, and other social measures.

Main Outcome and Measures: World Health Organization measure for intimate partner violence and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) for MDD. To make a diagnosis, 1 of 2 items relating to being consistently depressed for 2 weeks and 3 further symptoms that cause personal distress or psychosocial dysfunction were endorsed.

Results: Overall, 1335 women (84.8% overall response rate), comprising 685 (51.3%) from conflictaffected countries (women self-identifying as refugees: 289 [42.2%]) and 650 (48.7%) from the host nation, participated. The mean (SD) age was 29.7 (5.4) years among women from conflictaffected backgrounds and 29.0 (5.5) years among women born in the host nation. Conflict-affected countries included Iraq (260 [38.0%]), Lebanon (125 [18.2%]), Sri Lanka (71 [10.4%]), and Sudan (66 [9.6%]). Women who identified as refugees reported higher exposure to 2 to 3 (67 [23.2%]) and 4 or more (19 [6.6%]) general traumatic events compared with women from the host nation (103 [15.8%] and 21 [3.2%], respectively). Women who identified as refugees also reported higher exposure to 1 (147 [50.9%]) and 2 or more (97 [33.6%]) refugee-related traumatic events compared with women from the host nation (86 [13.2%] and 20 [3.1%], respectively). Women who identified as refugees reported higher rates of psychological intimate partner violence than women born in the host nation (124 [42.9%] vs 133 [20.5%]; P < .001). Women who identified as refugees were less likely to identify 5 or more supportive family or friends compared with women born in the host nation (36 [12.5%] vs 297 [45.7%]; P < .001). A greater proportion of women who identified as refugees reported experiencing 3 or more financial stressors compared with women born in the host nation (65 [22.5%] vs 41 [6.3%]; P < .001). Women who identified as refugees had the highest prevalence of MDD (94 [32.5%]), followed by women from other conflict-affected backgrounds (78 [19.7%]), and women born in the host nation (94 [14.5%]).

Conclusion and Relevance: Women identifying as refugees reported a higher prevalence of MDD and all the indicators of adversity related to that disorder. Even after risk factors were accounted for, refugee status was associated with risk of MDD. Assessing whether women attending an antenatal clinic self-identify as refugees may offer an important indicator of risk of MDD and a range of associated psychosocial adversities.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Conflict, Domestic Violence, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, Reproductive Health, Trauma Regions: Africa, MENA, East Africa, Asia, Middle East, South Asia, Oceania Countries: Australia, Iraq, Lebanon, Sri Lanka, Sudan

Year: 2019

Psychosocial Support during Displacement due to a Natural Disaster: Relationships with Distress in a Lower-Middle Income Country


Zahlawi, Tatiana, Amanda B. Roome, Chim W. Chan, Jacqueline J. Campbell, Bev Tosiro, Max Malanga, Markleen Tagaro, Jimmy Obed, Jerry Iaruel, George Taleo, Len Tarivonda, Kathryn M. Olszowy, and Kelsey N. Dancause. 2019. "Psychosocial Support during Displacement due to a Natural Disaster: Relationships with Distress in a Lower-Middle Income Country." International Health 11 (6): 472-9.

Authors: Tatiana Zahlawi, Amanda B. Roome, Chim W. Chan, Jacqueline J. Campbell, Bev Tosiro, Max Malanga, Markleen Tagaro, Jimmy Obed, Jerry Iaruel, George Taleo, Len Tarivonda, Kathryn M. Olszowy, Kelsey N. Dancause


Background: Past studies show relationships between disaster-related displacement and adverse psychosocial health outcomes. The development of psychosocial interventions following displacement is thus increasingly prioritized. However, data from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are lacking. In October 2017, the population of Ambae Island in Vanuatu, a lower-middle income country, was temporarily displaced due to volcanic activity. We analyzed distress among adults displaced due to the event and differences based on the psychosocial support they received. 
Methods: Data on experiences during displacement, distress and psychosocial support were collected from 443 adults 2–3 wk after repatriation to Ambae Island. Four support categories were identified: Healthcare professional, Traditional/community, Not available and Not wanted. We analyzed differences in distress by sex and group using one-way ANOVA and generalized linear models. 
Results: Mean distress scores were higher among women (1.90, SD=0.97) than men (1.64, SD=0.98) (p<0.004). In multivariate models, psychosocial support group was associated with distress among women (p=0.033), with higher scores among women who reported no available support compared with every other group. Both healthcare professional and traditional support networks were widely used. 
Conclusions: Women might be particularly vulnerable to distress during disaster-related displacement in LMICs, and those who report a lack of support might be at greater risk. Both healthcare professional and traditional networks provide important sources of support that are widely used and might help to ameliorate symptoms.

Keywords: developing country, intervention, mental health, Pacific, Psychological distress, psychosocial health

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Health, Mental Health Regions: Oceania Countries: Vanuatu

Year: 2019

Gender and Climate Change in Rural Australia


Boetto, Heather, and Jennifer McKinnon. 2019. "Gender and Climate Change in Rural Australia." Critical Social Work 14 (1). 

Authors: Heather Boetto, Jennifer McKinnon


This paper outlines the results of a literature review exploring the relationship between gender and climate change in rural Australia. Whilst the climate change debate in Australia has largely focused on environmental and economic implications, little attention has been given to the social implications of climate change. The focus of this study is on the climate change impacts on Australian rural women and men, with particular emphasis on the disadvantage experienced by rural women. A key finding in the review was that rural women and men adapt to climatic events, such as, drought and water shortages, in different ways. Outcomes of the review also highlight the dearth of Australian research that focuses on rural women and climate change. We contend that social workers have an ethical responsibility to be aware of the impact of climate change on disadvantaged groups, such as, rural women. The fact that gender equality has been largely ignored in the Australian climate change debate points to a need for social work involvement in climate change advocacy, research, and policy development, in an effort to redress the imbalance.

Keywords: gender, rural, climate change

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2019

Engendering Cities: Designing Sustainable Urban Spaces for All


Sánchez de Madariaga, Inés, and Michael Neuman, eds. 2020. Engendering Cities: Designing Sustainable Urban Spaces for All. New York: Routledge.

Authors: Inés Sánchez de Madariaga, Michael Neuman


Engendering Cities examines the contemporary research, policy, and practice of designing for gender in urban spaces. Gender matters in city design, yet despite legislative mandates across the globe to provide equal access to services for men and women alike, these issues are still often overlooked or inadequately addressed. This book looks at critical aspects of contemporary cities regarding gender, including topics such as transport, housing, public health, education, caring, infrastructure, as well as issues which are rarely addressed in planning, design, and policy, such as the importance of toilets for education and clothes washers for freeing-up time. In the first section, a number of chapters in the book assess past, current, and projected conditions in cities vis-à-vis gender issues and needs. In the second section, the book assesses existing policy, planning, and design efforts to improve women’s and men’s concerns in urban living. Finally, the book proposes changes to existing policies and practices in urban planning and design, including its thinking (theory) and norms (ethics).
The book applies the current scholarship on theory and practice related to gender in a planning context, elaborating on some critical community-focused reflections on gender and design. It will be key reading for scholars and students of planning, architecture, design, gender studies, sociology, anthropology, geography, and political science. It will also be of interest to practitioners and policy makers, providing discussion of emerging topics in the field. (Summary from Routledge)

Table of Contents:
1.Planning the Gendered City
Inés Sánchez de Madariaga and Michael Neuman

2.A Gendered View of Mobility and Transport: Next Steps and Future Directions
Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris

3.Gendered Mobility Patterns of Carers in Austria
Bente Knoll and Teresa Schwaninge

4.Violence Against Women in Moving Transportation in Indian Cities: Reconceptualising Gendered Transport Policy
Yamini Narayanan

5.Planning Mobility in Portugal with a Gender Perspective
Margarida Queirós and Nuno Marques da Costa

6.Implementation of Gender and Diversity Perspectives in Transport Development Plans in Germany
Elena von den Driesch, Linda Steuer, Tobias Berg, and Carmen Leicht-Scholten

7.Why Low-Income Women in the U.S. Need Automobiles
Evelyn Blumenberg

8.Public Toilets: The Missing Component in Designing Sustainable Urban Spaces for Women
Clara Greed

9.Are Safe Cities Just Cities? A Perspective from France
Lucile Biarrotte and Claire Hancock

10.Everyday Life Experiences of Afghan Immigrant Women as Representation of their Place of Belonging in Auckland
Roja Tafaroji

11.Gender Mainstreaming in the Regional Discourse over the Future of the Ruhr Metropolitan Area: Implementation of Gender Mainstreaming in Planning Processes
Jeanette Sebrantke, Mechtild Stiewe, Sibylle Kelp-Siekmann, and Gudrun Kemmler-Lehr

12.An Analysis of EU Urban Policy from the Perspective of Gender
Sonia De Gregorio Hurtado

13.Gender Mainstreaming Urban Planning and Design Processes in Greece
Charis Christodoulou

14.Gendering the Design of Cities in Aotearoa New Zealand: Are We There Yet?
Dory Reeves, Julie Fairey, Jade Kake, Emma McInnes, and Eva Zombori

15.Gender Impact Assessments, a Tool for the Implementation of the New Urban Agenda: The Case of Madrid Nuevo Norte
Ines Novella Abril

16.Gender and the Urban in the 21st Century: Paving Way to ‘Another’ Gender Mainstreaming
Camilla Perrone

17.Epilogue: Unifying Difference and Equality Concepts to Buttress Policy
Inés Sánchez de Madariaga

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Urban Displacement, Development, Economies, Care Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gender Mainstreaming, Health, Infrastructure, Transportation, Urban Planning, Water & Sanitation Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, South Asia, Europe, Central Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Oceania Countries: Austria, Germany, Greece, India, New Zealand, Portugal, Spain, United States of America

Year: 2020

Climate Change and Gender in Rich Countries: Work, Public Policy and Action


Cohen, Marjorie Griffin. 2017. Climate Change and Gender in Rich Countries: Work, Public Policy and Action. Abingdon: Routledge.

Author: Marjorie Griffin Cohen


Climate change is at the forefront of ideas about public policy, the economy and labour issues. However, the gendered dimensions of climate change and the public policy issues associated with it in wealthy nations are much less understood.
Climate Change and Gender in Rich Countries covers a wide range of issues dealing with work and working life. The book demonstrates the gendered distinctions in both experiences of climate change and the ways that public policy deals with it. The book draws on case studies from the UK, Sweden, Australia, Canada, Spain and the US to address key issues such as: how gendered distinctions affect the most vulnerable; paid and unpaid work; and activism on climate change. It is argued that including gender as part of the analysis will lead to more equitable and stronger societies as solutions to climate change advance.
This volume will be of great relevance to students, scholars, trade unionists and international organisations with an interest in climate change, gender, public policy and environmental studies. (Summary from Routledge)
Table of Contents:
Part One: Context and Overview
1. Introduction: Why Gender Matters when Dealing with Climate Change Marjorie Griffin Cohen
2. Masculinities of Global Climate Change: Exploring Ecomodern, Industrial and Ecological Masculinity Martin Hultman & Jonas Anshelm
3. It’s Not Just the Numbers: Challenging Masculinist Working Practices in Climate Change Decision-Making in UK Government and Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations Susan Buckingham & Rakibe Kulcur
Part Two: Challenges for Paid and Unpaid Work
4. Women and Low Energy Construction in Europe: A New Opportunity? Linda Clarke
5. Renewable Inequity? Women’s Employment in Clean Energy in Industrialized, Emerging and Developing Economies Bipasha Baruah
6. UK Environmental and Trade Union Groups’ Struggles to Integrate Gender Issues into Climate Change Analysis and Activism Carl Mandy
7. Transporting Difference at Work: Taking Gendered Intersectionality Seriously in Climate Change Agendas Leonora Angeles
8. The US Example of Integrating Gender and Climate Change in Training: Response to the 2008–09 Recession Marjorie Griffin Cohen
Part Three: Vulnerability, Insecurity and Work
9. Gendered Outcomes in Post-Disaster Sites: Public Policy and Resource Distribution Margaret Alston
10. Climate Change, Traditional Roles, and Work– Interactions in the Inuit Nunangat Mike Kim
11. Towards Humane Jobs: Recognizing Gendered, Multispecies Intersections and Possibilities Kendra Coulter
Part Four: Rural and Resource Communities
12. Maybe Tomorrow Will Be Better: Gender and Farm Work in a Changing Climate Amber Fletcher
13. Understanding the Gender Labours of Adaptation to Climate Change in Forest-Based Communities Through Different Models of Analysis Maureen G. Reed
14. The Complex Impacts of Intensive Resource Extraction on Women, Children and Aboriginal Peoples: Towards Contextually-Informed Approaches to Climate Change and Health Maya K Gislason, Chris Buse, Shayna Dolan, Margot W Parkes, Jemma Tosh, Bob Woollard
Part Five: Public Policy and Activism
15. How a Gendered Understanding of Climate Change Can Help Shape Canadian Climate Policy Nathalie Chalifour
16. The Integration of Gender in Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Québec: Silos and Possibilities Annie Rochette
17. A Gendered Analysis of Housing Policies in the Context of Climate Change: A Comparison of Canada and Spain Penny Gurstein & Sara Ortiz Escalante
18. Canadian Indigenous Female Leadership and Political Agency on Climate Change Patricia E. Perkins
19. Using Information about Gender and Climate Change to Inform Green Economic Policies Marjorie Griffin Cohen

Topics: Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, North America, Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Oceania Countries: Australia, Canada, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States of America

Year: 2017

Gender, Politics, and Water in Australia and Bangladesh


Alston, Margaret. 2019. "Gender, Politics, and Water in Australia and Bangladesh." In People and Climate Change: Vulnerability, Adaptation, and Social Justice, edited by Lisa Reyes Mason and Jonathan Rigg, 165-83. New York: Oxford University Press.

Author: Margaret Alston

Keywords: water, gender, women, policy, Australia, Bangladesh


In the wake of climate change, environmental degradation, and increasing global populations, food and water security are under threat throughout the world. This chapter focuses on the impacts of climate change on water security in Australia and Bangladesh, noting in particular the gendered implications and the way policies influence and shape gendered responses. In Bangladesh, for example, following disasters, access to safe, uncontaminated water may involve women walking significant distances. Australian research has examined the impact of water policies on gendered livelihood strategies as farming families readjust to their reduced access to irrigation water. A critical feature of this chapter is an examination of the way water has become “commodified” and reconfigured around new forms of market value. The chapter poses questions about the ongoing impact of water insecurity in the face of predicted and extreme climate events. (Summary from Oxford Scholarship Online)

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Asia, South Asia, Oceania Countries: Australia, Bangladesh

Year: 2019

Women as Recovery Enablers in the Face of Disasters in Vanuatu


Clissold, Rachel, Ross Westoby, and Karen E. McNamara. 2020. "Women as Recovery Enablers in the Face of Disasters in Vanuatu." Geoforum 113: 101-10.

Authors: Rachel Clissold, Ross Westoby, Karen E. McNamara


Women have been framed as both passive victims and resourceful, dynamic actors in the face of acute and gradual disasters. Researchers and practitioners have highlighted the importance of resourcing and strengthening the diverse capacities and roles of women and women’s groups to avoid undermining disaster recovery prospects. Despite this, women’s voices, experiences and skills in disaster recovery, reconstruction and resilience often remain poorly acknowledged, underutilised and largely undocumented in regions like the Pacific. This paper provides insights into the situated and nuanced post-disaster experiences and strategies of ni-Vanuatu women, who are geographically in the most at-risk location globally. Drawing on ten focus groups, we found that, while recovering from the impacts of Cyclone Pam and the severe drought that followed, women demonstrated their critical roles as capital mobilisers, collectivising and leading forces, innovators and entrepreneurs. Despite being central recovery enablers, women continue to operate in, and be burdened by, a gendered and inequitable system. We, therefore, warn that disaster recovery praxis that resources and utilises women’s strengths must include efforts to improve women’s wellbeing, agency, livelihoods and prospects. This must be done through challenging underlying vulnerabilities and gender norms, and avoiding further burdens on women’s workloads.

Keywords: gender, Resilience, disaster recovery, disaster response, Pacific Islands, Cyclone Pam

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Livelihoods Regions: Oceania Countries: Vanuatu

Year: 2020

Investigating the Increase in Domestic Violence Post Disaster: An Australian Case Study


Parkinson, Debra. 2019. "Investigating the Increase in Domestic Violence Post Disaster: An Australian Case Study." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 34 (11): 2333-62.

Author: Debra Parkinson


Interviews with 30 women in two shires in Victoria, Australia, confirmed that domestic violence increased following the catastrophic Black Saturday bushfires on February 7, 2009. As such research is rare, it addresses a gap in the disaster and interpersonal violence literature. The research that exists internationally indicates that increased violence against women is characteristic of a postdisaster recovery in developing countries. The relative lack of published research from primary data in developed countries instead reflects our resistance to investigating or recognizing increased male violence against women after disasters in developed countries. This article begins with an overview of this literature. The primary research was qualitative, using in-depth semistructured interviews to address the research question of whether violence against women increased in the Australian context. The sample of 30 women was aged from 20s to 60s. Recruitment was through flyers and advertisements, and interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and checked by participants. Analysis was inductive, using modified grounded theory. Seventeen women gave accounts of new or increased violence from male partners that they attribute to the disaster. A key finding is that, not only is there both increased and new domestic violence but formal reporting will not increase in communities unwilling to hear of this hidden disaster. Findings are reported within a framework of three broad explanations. In conclusion, although causation is not claimed, it is important to act on the knowledge that increased domestic violence and disasters are linked.

Keywords: domestic violence, gendered violence, disaster, gender

Topics: Domestic Violence, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2019

Anger and Sadness: Gendered Emotional Responses to Climate Threats in Four Island Nations


Du Bray, Margaret, Amber Wutich, Kelli L. Larson, Dave D. White, and Alexandra Brewis. 2019. "Anger and Sadness: Gendered Emotional Responses to Climate Threats in Four Island Nations." Cross-Cultural Research 53 (1): 58-86.

Authors: Margaret du Bray, Amber Wutich, Kelli L. Larson, Dave D. White, Alexandra Brewis


Climate change presents an important threat to community livelihoods and well-being around the world. Biophysical vulnerability to the effects of climate change, such as sea level rise, coastal erosion, changing flora and fauna, and changing precipitation patterns are predicted to affect island nations in particular. Emotional geographies offers a theoretical entry point to understand how changing landscapes, which are often imbued with emotion and personal significance, may result in heightened emotional states and result in different outcomes depending on the severity of these changes and the biophysical vulnerability that produces them. Historically, emotion and gender have been closely linked; we use biophysical vulnerability to climate change, along with emotion and gender, to argue for a differentiated perspective on how men and women in different places may experience different emotional responses to climate change. Using a cross-cultural analysis of qualitative data from four island countries (Fiji, Cyprus, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom; total N = 272), this article explores how different sensitivities to climate change may produce differentiated emotional responses among men versus women across these four sites. Our results indicate that gender does affect the emotional response of respondents in these sites, but that local sensitivity plays an important role in differentiating these emotional responses, and their causes, between the four sites.

Keywords: climate change, gender, emotion, island nations

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Livelihoods Regions: Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Oceania Countries: Cyprus, Fiji, New Zealand, United Kingdom

Year: 2019

Impact of Tropical Cyclone Winston on Women Mud Crab Fishers in Fiji


Thomas, Alyssa S., Sangeeta Mangubhai, Chloe Vandervord, Margaret Fox, and Yashika Nand. 2019. "Impact of Tropical Cyclone Winston on Women Mud Crab Fishers in Fiji." Climate and Development 11 (8): 699-709.

Authors: Alyssa S. Thomas, Sangeeta Mangubhai, Chloe Vandervord, Margaret Fox, Yashika Nand


Communities dependent on natural resources for food and livelihoods are extremely vulnerable to climate change and its impacts. Tropical cyclones are a frequent occurrence in the Pacific and can have devastating impacts on coastal communities, particularly in remote or isolated areas. However, most post-cyclone studies focus on damages and losses to infrastructure and services, and do not quantify the impact on fishers or community fisheries. We conducted a study to assess the social and economic effects of Category 5 Tropical Cyclone Winston on mud crab fishers in Bua Province, Fiji. The study methodology was one-on-one surveys with mud crab fishers, mostly women, in 16 villages who had previously participated in a 2015 value chain analysis survey. Post-cyclone, 52% of the fishers had stopped harvesting crabs because many were focussed on repairing their homes and had difficulties accessing collection sites and markets. Fishers that continued reported less frequent collection, and fewer and smaller crabs. To obtain income for house repairs, 65% of the fishers still harvesting sold the crabs to local traders, rather than consuming them. Understanding mud crab fishers’ vulnerability to natural disasters, the barriers to adaptation and how their livelihoods are affected is key to effective mitigation and adaptation.

Keywords: adaptive capacity, Pacific, mangroves, fisheries, gender, natural disasters, climate change

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Livelihoods Regions: Oceania Countries: Fiji

Year: 2019


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