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Northern Europe

Sacrifice and Political Legitimation: The Production of a Gendered Social Order

Citation:

Condren, Mary. 1995. “Sacrifice and Political Legitimation: The Production of a Gendered Social Order.” Journal of Women’s History 7 (1): 160-89. doi:10.1353/jowh.2010.0375.

Author: Mary Condren

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Nationalism, Political Participation, Violence Regions: Europe, Northern Europe, Western Europe Countries: Ireland, United Kingdom

Year: 1995

"Drunken Tans": Representations of Sex and Violence in the Anglo-Irish War

Citation:

Ryan, Louise. 2000. “‘Drunken Tans’: Representations of Sex and Violence in the Anglo-Irish War.” Feminist Review 66 (1): 73–94.

Author: Louise Ryan

Abstract:

War is a highly gendered experience which is both informed by and informs constructions of masculinity and femininity. The dominant depiction of masculine heroes and feminine victims simplifies the complex intersections of militarism, nationalism and gendered roles and identities. Focusing on a case study of the Anglo-Irish War or War of Independence (1919-1921), this paper examines how violence against women, especially sexual violence, was written about and reported in ways which framed representations of Irish and British masculinity and Irish femininity.

In addition, by analysing a range of varied sources including newspapers, autobiographical accounts and recorded testimonies, this paper attempts to assess the extent to which violence against women formed a key aspect of military practice in the war. In conclusion, [Ryan] engage[s] with some of the difficulties faced by researchers today in exploring evidence of gendered violence in specific historical, cultural and militarized contexts.

 

Keywords: sexual violence, militarism, Ireland, nationalism, masculinity, femininity

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Nationalism, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Europe, Northern Europe, Western Europe Countries: Ireland, United Kingdom

Year: 2000

Institutionalizing Gender in UK NGOs

Citation:

Wallace, Tina. 1998. “Institutionalizing Gender in UK NGOs.” Development in Practice 8 (2): 159–72.

Author: Tina Wallace

Abstract:

Drawing on recent research, it has been explored how far and in what ways UK NGOs have tried to incorporate gender into the policies and procedures of their international development work, and how far a formal recognition of gender issues is shaping the way each organization functions. The strengths and weaknesses of different strategies are assessed (such as specialist staff or units, formal gender policies, gender training, equal opportunity recruitment policies, and mainstreaming) for transforming organizational practice.

Topics: Development, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, NGOs Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 1998

Women Divided: Gender, Religion, and Politics in Northern Ireland

Citation:

Sales, Rosemary. 1997. Women Divided: Gender, Religion, and Politics in Northern Ireland. New York: Routledge.

Author: Rosemary Sales

Abstract:

The ongoing Irish peace process has renewed interest in the current social and political problems of Northern Ireland. In bringing together the issues of gender and inequality, Women Divided, a title in the International Studies of Women and Place series, offers new perspectives on women's rights and contemporary political issues. Women Divided argues that religious and political sectarianism in Northern Ireland has subordinated women. A historical review is followed by an analysis of the contemporary scene--state, market (particularly employment patterns), family and church--and the role of women's movements. The book concludes with an in-depth critique of the current peace process and its implications for women's rights in Northern Ireland, arguing that women's rights must be a central element in any agenda for peace and reconciliation. (Amazon)

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peacebuilding, Religion, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 1997

Rethinking Women’s Struggles in Israel-Palestine and in the North of Ireland

Citation:

Sharoni, Simona. 2001. “Rethinking Women’s Struggles in Israel–Palestine and in the North of Ireland.” In Victims, Perpetrators or Actors: Gender, Armed Conflict and Political Violence, edited by Caroline Moser and Fiona Clark, 85-98. London: Zed Books.

Author: Simona Sharoni

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Peace Processes Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Northern Europe Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, United Kingdom

Year: 2001

Gendering Conflict and Peace in Israel/Palestine and the North of Ireland

Citation:

Sharoni, Simona. 1997. “Gendering Conflict and Peace in Israel/Palestine and the North of Ireland.” Millennium: Journal of International Studies 27 (4): 1061-89.

Author: Simona Sharoni

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Peace Processes Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Northern Europe Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, United Kingdom

Year: 1997

Gender, Class, and Patriotism: Women’s Paramilitary Units in First World War Britain

Citation:

Robert, Krisztina. 1997. “Gender, Class, and Patriotism: Women’s Paramilitary Units in First World War Britain.” The International History Review 19 (1): 52-65.

Author: Krisztina Robert

Topics: Armed Conflict, Class, Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Paramilitaries Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 1997

Dirty Protest: Symbolic Overdetermination and Gender in Northern Ireland Ethnic Violence

Citation:

Aretxaga, Begona. 1995. “Dirty Protest: Symbolic Overdetermination and Gender in Northern Ireland Ethnic Violence.” Ethos 23 (2): 123-48.

Author: Begoña Aretxaga

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Ethnicity, Gender, Violence Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 1995

Trading Aprons for Arms: Republican Feminist Resistance in the North of Ireland

Citation:

O’Keefe, Theresa. 2003. “Trading Aprons for Arms: Republican Feminist Resistance in the North of Ireland.” Resources for Feminist Research 30 (3): 39-64.

Author: Theresa O’Keefe

Abstract:

This article examines women's feminist resistance under the rubric of nationalism. It challenges the commonly held assumption that participation in nationalist movements is not self-serving for women, that fighting in a national liberation movement is detrimental to women's emancipation. It accounts for the rise of feminist-nationalist organizing in the North of Ireland, & its impact on the most radical element of Irish nationalism–republicanism. It argues that women's participation in the armed struggle empowered republican women to develop & advance a progressive, feminist agenda in conjunction with republicanism. This analysis is primarily based on interviews conducted with former female members of the Irish Republican Army.

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Combatants, Female Combatants, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Nationalism Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2003

Military Women in the NATO Armed Forces

Citation:

García, Sarah.1999. “Military Women in the NATO Armed Forces.” Minerva: Quarterly Report on Women and the Military 17 (2): 33-82.

Author: Sarah García

Abstract:

In June 1998, officers (men and women) assembled in Brussels to discuss means to improve equity and expand the employment of women in the NATO armed forces. About 90 comrades in arms from fourteen allied nations, plus guests from the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland, now new NATO members, as well as from  Sweden, met to discuss the committee's goals and objectives. This first-time participation by Partner nations unequivocally enhanced the committee's work, especially where it involves mentoring, equality, and recruiting programs. The dialogue and cooperation between Allied and Partner nations at the conference was mutually advantageous to NATO's mission readiness capabilities and efforts to ensure the recognition and empowerment of all military personnel. The Committee prepared an "Issue Book" containing recommendations and rationales for the Military Committee and national authorities to consider when determining integration policy/initiative within their armed forces. That was the first time the committee had developed such a comprehensive product geared specifically to focus NATO in this process. In support of NATO's Enhanced Partnership for Peace (PfP) program, which began five years ago and centered on "fostering military co-operation between NATO and non-NATO states to, among other aims, strengthen the ability to undertake peacekeeping and humanitarian missions and developing military forces better able to operate with those of NATO members," 8 the 1998 Brussels Conference sparked the beginning of the Committee on Women's cooperative dialogue with PfP nations. For example, discussions centered on equality, in terms of training and promotion (rank and career opportunities); utilization and development via recruitment, mentoring, and retention; and improving the quality of life for women in uniform by eliminating gender discrimination and sexual harassment. Since then, Partner nations have expressed  interest in the committee, its goals and objectives, and assistance from the Women In the NATO Forces (WINF) office. In the five decades of its existence, the NATO alliance has "evolved from a traditional military alliance for collective defence into a political-military organisation for security cooperation, with an extensive bureaucracy and complex decision-making processes." The alliance is now redefining its mission as a result of the end of the Cold War. In an even briefer span of time, the position of women in the military has undergone meaningful change in many NATO nations, and "As these changes take place, the disparate gender politics among its member governments take on even more importance." The debate over women's participation in the military is far from over. Despite those debates, new threats to NATO's collective security, the reorganization of armies and international staffs, advanced weapons technology, and new peacekeeping operations challenge traditional military structures and functions and make the utilization of all available human resources, men and women, imperative. Integrating women into any military is an evolutionary process, now underway in all NATO member nations. Personnel policies that insure a military establishment of the highest quality possible with the resources available are an essential part of this process.

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Men, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, International Organizations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Peacekeeping Regions: Europe, Central Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe, Western Europe Countries: Belgium, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Sweden

Year: 1999

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