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Northern Europe

Women, Peace, Security, and the National Action Plans

Citation:

Fritz, Jan Marie, Sharon Doering, and F. Belgin Gumru. 2011. “‘Women, Peace, Security, and the National Action Plans.” Journal of Applied Social Science 5 (1): 1-23.

Authors: Jan Marie Fritz, Sharon Doering, F. Belgin Gumru

Abstract:

Twenty criteria are used to analyze sixteen national action plans that focus on women, peace, and security. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, a base for the national plans, highlights the terrible consequences of violent conflict on women and girls as well as the important role of women in all peacebuilding processes. Suggestions are made for those developing or revising plans and include addressing the relevant points from four UN Security Council resolutions (1325, 1820, 1888, and 1889); specifying all processes and timelines; and including civil society participation in all phases of a plan's development; implementation, and assessment.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Gender, Women, Peacebuilding, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, UNSCR 1888, UNSCR 1889 Regions: Africa, West Africa, Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Côte D'Ivoire, Denmark, Finland, Liberia, United Kingdom

Year: 2011

Nordic Exceptionalism and Gendered Peacekeeping: The Case of Iceland

Citation:

Loftsdóttir, Kristín, and Helga Björnsdóttir. 2015. “Nordic Exceptionalism and Gendered Peacekeeping: The Case of Iceland.” European Journal of Women’s Studies 22 (2): 208–22. doi:10.1177/1350506814543839.

Authors: Kristín Loftsdóttir, Helga Björnsdóttir

Abstract:

The Nordic countries have been major contributors to peacekeeping, often seen as particularly well suited due to their lack of ties to colonialism and supposedly peaceful nature. The article critically addresses this idea in relation to how gender equality has been conceptualized in peacekeeping taking as an example Icelandic peacekeeping. Iceland’s recent engagement in peacekeeping has strongly emphasized gender issues but has lacked an engagement with issues of power and domination and thus reflects a particular idea of ‘Nordic exceptionalism’. The authors emphasize in their discussion the need to maintain critical feminist perspectives that take diverse relations of power into account.

Keywords: exceptionalism, gender, Iceland, peacekeeping, racism

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peacekeeping, Race Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Iceland

Year: 2015

Between Manliness and Masculinity: The “War Generation” and the Psychology of Fear in Britain, 1914-1950

Citation:

Roper, Michael. 2005. “Between Manliness and Masculinity: The “War Generation” and the Psychology of Fear in Britain, 1914-1950.” Journal of British Studies 44 (2): 343-62.

Author: Michael Roper

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Health, Mental Health, PTSD Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2005

Challenging Imperial Feminism

Citation:

Amos, Valerie and Pratibha Parmar. 2005. “Challenging Imperial Feminism.” Feminist Review 80: 44-63.

Authors: Valerie Amos, Pratibha Parmar

Keywords: gender, feminism, imperialism, sexuality

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Race, Sexuality Regions: Americas, North America, Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom, United States of America

Year: 2005

Trafficking — a Demand Led Problem?

Citation:

Anderson, Bridget, and Julia O’Connell Davidson. 2003. Trafficking — a Demand Led Problem?. 15. IOM Migration Research Series. Geneva: International Organization for Migration.

Authors: Bridget Anderson, Julia O’Connell Davidson

Abstract:

The 2001 ASEM Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children stressed the need to encourage research on the demand for the most common forms of exploitation of trafficked women and children, in particular for commercial sex services, and recommended a multi-country study into the demand side of trafficking as one of its follow-up actions.

In response to this recommendation, the Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, SLDA and Save the Children Sweden, commissioned this pilot research study on the demand underlying two sectors where labour/services of trafficked persons are known to be subject to exploitation: prostitution and domestic work. This report sets out some of the findings of the pilot study and ongoing research concerning employer demand for domestic workers in private households, and consumer demand for commercial sexual services in selected European and Asian countries.

Topics: Gender, Women, Girls, Boys, Households, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe, Southern Europe Countries: India, Italy, Sweden, Thailand

Year: 2003

Forced Marriage as a Harm in Domestic and International Law

Citation:

Dauvergne, Catherine, and Jenni Millbank. 2010. “Forced Marriage as a Harm in Domestic and International Law.” The Modern Law Review 73 (1): 57–88.

Authors: Catherine Dauvergne, Jenni Millbank

Abstract:

This article reports on our analysis of 120 refugee cases from Australia, Canada, and Britain where an actual or threatened forced marriage was part of the claim for protection. We found that forced marriage was rarely considered by refugee decision makers to be a harm in and of itself. This finding contributes to understanding how gender and sexuality are analysed within refugee law, because the harm of forced marriage is experienced differently by lesbians, gay men and heterosexual women. We contrast our findings in the refugee case law with domestic initiatives in Europe aimed at protecting nationals from forced marriages both within Europe and elsewhere. We pay particular attention to British initiatives because they are in many ways the most far-reaching and innovative, and thus the contrast with the response of British refugee law is all the more stark.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, International Law, Sexual Violence, Sexuality Regions: Americas, North America, Europe, Northern Europe, Oceania Countries: Australia, Canada, United Kingdom

Year: 2010

Gendering War and Peace: Militarized Masculinities in Northern Ireland

Citation:

Ashe, Fidelma. 2012. "Gendering War and Peace: Militarized Masculinities in Northern Ireland." Men and Masculinities 15 (3): 1-19. doi:10.1177/1097184X12442636.

Author: Fidelma Ashe

Abstract:

There has been extensive academic analysis of Northern Ireland's ethnonationalist antagonisms. However, academic literature that has explored both the region's ethno-nationalist conflict and its more recent processes of conflict transformation has neglected the concept of masculinities. This article employs the framework of critical studies of men/masculinities to analyze why men's gendered identities have received so little attention in a society that is marked by deep gendered inequalities and also exposes the consequences of this neglect in terms of exploring gendered power relationships in Northern Ireland society. Additionally, the article employs the concept of militarized masculinities to explore the relationships between ethnonationalist conflict, conflict transformation, men's gendered identities, and gender power in the region.

Keywords: demilitarization, masculinities, Northern Ireland, conflict transformation

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Ethnicity, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Paramilitaries, Nationalism Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2012

Forces for Good? Military Masculinities and Peacebuilding in Afghanistan and Iraq

Citation:

Duncanson, Claire. 2013. Forces for Good? Military Masculinities and Peacebuilding in Afghanistan and Iraq. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author: Claire Duncanson

Abstract:

"Forces for Good?” explores British soldier 'herographies' to identify constructions of gender, race, class and nation and their consequences on complex, multi-dimensional operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. This book aims to intervene in the debates within critical feminist scholarship over whether soldiers can ever be agents of peace. Many feminist analyses of military intervention point to the way in which interventions are legitimated by gendered narratives where representatives of civilization are tasked with addressing violent conflict in troubled lands, a story which distracts from the root causes of the violence and enables the furthering of a neoliberal agenda. This book advances this critique by adding the important but hitherto neglected case of the British Army, and challenges its determinism, which Duncanson argues to be normatively, empirically and theoretically problematic. Exploring the impact of identity and gender constructions on the prospects for successful peacebuilding, this book will appeal to a range of scholars in politics, international relations, peace studies, gender and women's studies, sociology and anthropology. (WorldCat)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Class, Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Peacebuilding, Race Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East, South Asia, Europe, Northern Europe Countries: Afghanistan, Iraq, United Kingdom

Year: 2013

Why Examine Men, Masculinities and Religion in Northern Ireland?

Citation:

Brady, Sean. 2013. “Why Examine Men, Masculinities and Religion in Northern Ireland?” In Men, Masculinities and Religious Change in Twentieth-Century Britain, edited by Lucy Delap and Sue Morgan, 218-252. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author: Sean Brady

Abstract:

Northern Ireland and especially the Troubles of 1968–98 have received considerable scholarly attention in recent decades. But in much of the scholarship, the centrality of religion and religious differences are elided. Also, questions of gender and masculinities barely exist in the historiography of Northern Ireland. Historians that claim to focus on ‘gender’ in reality focus on women and women's studies alone. Questions of masculinity and religion have the potential to offer fresh and incisive analyses of male pecking orders, male-only and male-dominated organisations along religious sectarian lines, and the fostering of competing sectarian hegemonies within the Northern Ireland state from its creation in 1921. The article maps out potentials for masculinities and religion as crucial sites of analysis in the troubled history of the province. (Palgrave Connect)

Topics: Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Religion Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2013

The McCartney Sisters’ Search for Justice: Gender and Political Protest in Northern Ireland

Citation:

Ashe, Fidelma. 2006. “The McCartney Sisters’ Search for Justice: Gender and Political Protest in Northern Ireland.” Politics 26 (3): 161–67.

Author: Fidelma Ashe

Abstract:

The murder of Robert McCartney in Belfast in January 2005 sparked a campaign by his sisters and partner to bring his murderer(s), allegedly members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army, to justice. The article examines the gender politics of this campaign. It explores how the campaign simultaneously reflected and contested traditional ideas about women’s subjectivities and roles in ethnically divided societies. Furthermore, the article highlights how the ideologies of masculinity and femininity acted as political resources for the campaigners in their struggle with the Irish republican hierarchy.

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Political Participation Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2006

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