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Northern Europe

New Labour, New Leaders? Gendering Transformational Leadership


Lambert, Cath. 2007. “New Labour, New Leaders? Gendering Transformational Leadership.” British Journal of Sociology of Education 28 (2): 149-163. 

Author: Cath Lambert


Transformational leadership is widely recognised as being central to the implementation of educational reform. In this paper I draw on selected educational speeches made by New Labour politicians in order to locate shifting discourses of leadership within the broader accountability framework through which the terms of the relationship between central government and head teachers have been re/configured in the United Kingdom. The gendered politics of transformation are examined, highlighting new and renewed forms of masculinity embedded within new leadership ideals. It is suggested that a gendered critique of transformational leadership offers an important contribution to critical analyses of the neo-liberal and managerialist educational project.

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Political Participation Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2007

Reconsidering Politics as a Man's World: Images of Male Political Leaders in France and Norway


Krogstad, Anne and Aagoth E. Storvik. 2010. “Reconsidering Politics as a Man’s World: Images of Male Political Leaders in France and Norway.” Historical Reflections 36 (19): 19-38. 

Authors: Anne Krogstad, Aagoth E. Storvik


Researchers have often pointed to the masculine norms that are integrated into politics. This article explores these norms by studying male images of politics and power in France and Norway from 1945 to 2009. Both dress codes and more general leadership styles are discussed. The article shows changes in political aesthetics in both countries since the Second World War. The most radical break is seen in the way Norwegian male politicians present themselves. The traditional Norwegian leadership ethos of piety, moderation, and inward orientation is still important, but it is not as self-effacing and inelegant as it used to be. However, compared to the leaders in French politics, who still live up to a heroic leadership ideal marked by effortless superiority and seduction, the Norwegian leaders look modest. To explain the differences in political self-presentation and evaluation we argue that cultural repertoires are not only national constructions but also gendered constructions

Topics: Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Nationalism, Political Participation Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe, Western Europe Countries: France, Norway

Year: 2010

Doing Gender, Practising Politics: Workplace Cultures in Local and Developed Government


Charles, Nickie. 2014. "Doing Gender, Practising Politics: Workplace Cultures in Local and Developed Government." Gender, Work, & Organization 21 (4): 368-80. 

Author: Nickie Charles


This paper takes a workplace perspective to explore the ways in which institutional arrangements influence the doing of gender and the practising of politics. It compares the workplace culture of the National Assembly for Wales (NAfW) with that of local government in Wales, showing that the culture of the NAfW is experienced as less masculinized than local government and that women, and men, are less constrained to perform an aggressive, confrontational masculinity. This suggests that, in new political institutions, practising politics may be less closely tied to a particular way of doing gender and as a result may challenge the gendering of politics. Theoretically the paper engages with debates about doing, redoing and undoing gender, arguing that in order to understand how change can be brought about, attention needs to be paid to the structural context within which gender is done as well as the interactional level of doing gender.

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Governance Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2014

Troubling Masculinities: Changing Patterns of Violent Masculinities in a Society Emerging from Political Conflict


Ashe, Fidelma, and Ken Harland. 2014. "Troubling Masculinities: Changing Patterns of Violent Masculinities in a Society Emerging from Political Conflict." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 37 (9): 747-762. 

Authors: Fidelma Ashe, Ken Harland


Men's dominance of the political and military dimensions of the Northern Ireland conflict has meant that the story of the conflict has generally been a story about men. Ethno-nationalist antagonism reinforced men's roles as protectors and defenders of ethno-national groups and shaped violent expressions of masculinities. Due to the primacy of ethno-nationalist frameworks of analysis in research on the conflict, the relationships between gender and men's violence have been under-theorized. This article employs the framework of Critical Studies of Men and Masculinities to examine these relationships and also explores the changing patterns of men's violence in Northern Ireland. 

Topics: Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Nationalism, Post-Conflict Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: Ireland

Year: 2014

‘‘Women Home and Away’’: Transnational Managerial Work and Gender Relations


Hearn, Jeff, Marjut Jyrkinen, Rebecca Piekkari, and Eeva Oinonen. 2008. “‘Women Home and Away’: Transnational Managerial Work and Gender Relations.” Journal of Business Ethics 83 (1): 41–54.

Authors: Jeff Hearn, Marjut Jyrkinen, Rebecca Piekkari, Eeva Oinonen


This article addresses the intersections, even blurrings, of two “homes” and two “aways” – the personal, 'private’ home and the corporate 'public’ 'away’, and the national home country and corporate base and the transnational work away. Drawing on 40 semi-structured interviews with women and men top and middle managers in seven multinational corporations located in Finland, we examine the complex relations among transnational managerial work, corporate careers and personal, marriage and family-type relations, and their differences for women and men managers. This shows the very different personal and social worlds inhabited by senior women and men managers, and how transnational processes can make those differences even greater.

Keywords: family, Finland, gender, home, management, managers, men, transnational, transnationalization, women




Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Multi-national Corporations Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Finland

Year: 2008

Gender Mainstreaming: A Five‐Country Examination


Hankivsky, Olena. 2013. “Gender Mainstreaming: A Five‐Country Examination.” Politics & Policy 41 (5): 629-55.


Author: Olena Hankivsky


Although gender mainstreaming (GM) has been the international norm for working toward gender equality in policies and practices since the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing 1995, its impact has been uneven. The lack of substantive results has led to debate surrounding GM’s capacity for engendering meaningful policy change. This article synthesizes the input of key GM stakeholders (within government, academia, and nongovernmental organizations) across Canada, Australia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and Ukraine. It discusses national approaches to mainstreaming gender, identifies key factors inhibiting and/or promoting GM, and proposes how current strategies can be modified, strengthened and/or replaced by alternative approaches. Central to the analysis is the question as to whether GM in current or expanded versions has the potential to addresses the wide variety of diversities among nation state populations.

Keywords: gender equality, women and politics, gender mainstreaming, national approaches, diversity, comparative policy, Canada, Australia, intersectionality

Topics: Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Americas, North America, Europe, Eastern Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe, Oceania Countries: Australia, Canada, Sweden, Ukraine, United Kingdom

Year: 2013

Gender Budgets: The Experience of the UK Women’s Budget Group


Rake, Katherine. 2002. “Gender Budgets: The Experience of the UK Women’s Budget Group." Paper presented at conference on Gender Balance - Equal Finance, Basle, Switzerland.

Author: Katherine Rake



Drawing on the experience of the UK’s Women’s Budget Group (WBG), this paper starts by defining what a gender budget is, outlines the imperatives to conduct a gender budget and then proceeds to detail how such a budget may be constructed. It reflects upon the political, institutional and ideological transformations that are needed for such a process to be successful. Before embarking on the main body of the paper, however, some background on the work of the WBG is necessary.

The Women’s Budget Group has lobbied successive Governments on gender and economic policy since 1989. It is an independent organisation that brings together academics and people from non-governmental organisations and trades unions to promote gender equality through appropriate economic policy. The WBG has gained extensive access to policy-makers and now works most closely with Her Majesty’s Treasury (the UK’s Ministry of Finance). The annual Budget, and now the Pre-Budget Report, provide opportunities for the WBG to lobby Treasury on a range of social and economic issues. We also have a series of meetings throughout the year which may be focused on particular policy reforms, on issues of analysis and on ways that Treasury might use gender analysis to improve its economic policy making. For example, we have recently had meetings in which the Treasury’s model of the UK economy was scrutinised for gender blindness and we are currently meeting with Treasury to discuss how a gender perspective might be introduced in the planning of the next three years’ of Government expenditure. It should be noted that our independence from Government makes us rather unique in an international context where most gender budget initiatives are internal to Government. Although there are considerable advantages of having an independent body scrutinise policy for its gender effects, as discussed in section four below, there are limits to how far external organisations can go in conducting gender budgets. There is an irony also in the fact that most gender budget work in the UK is generated by the unpaid labour of feminist economists.

The work of the WBG is focussed at the national level, but it has links with a group that has a similar aim for Scotland, and with both NGOs and intergovernmental organisations that promote gender budgeting internationally. In short, our aims are to:

·         develop analysis and lead debate on the gender implications of economic policy, 
bearing in mind the multiple dimensions of women’s disadvantage;

·         expand understanding among policy makers and opinion formers of the gender 
implications of economic policy and give policy advice;

·         promote gender mainstreaming in economic policy making, presentation and 

·         work with other organisations to raise public awareness of gender equality issues in economic policy and the importance of assessing the effects of economic policy on women.

Topics: Economies, Gender, Gender Budgeting Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2002

Gender Budgets Make More Cents: Country Studies and Good Practice


Budlender, Debbie, and Guy Hewitt. 2002. Gender Budgets Make More Cents: Country Studies and Good Practice. London, UK: Commonwealth Secretariat.

Authors: Debbie Budlender, Guy Hewitt


This Commonwealth Secretariat publication by Debbie Budlender and Guy Hewitt (2002), documents "good practice" in gender budget work from across the globe. Practitioners share their first-hand experiences and in-depth knowledge of the why, where and how of gender responsive budget (GRB) initiatives. They reflect on both the challenges and successes of initiatives in the Andean region, Australia, Korea, Mexico, the Philippines, Rwanda, Scotland, South Africa and the UK. A chapter on the Commonwealth Secretariat's involvement in developing and implementing GRB initiatives is also included to suggest the role that can be played by external agencies at the national, regional and international level.

This book builds on a previous publication, Gender Budgets Make Cents, which was designed to provide a comprehensive understanding of GRB initiatives. It described the conceptual framework, evolution of the work and lessons learned, and provided brief summaries of country initiatives. Together, these titles show the importance of integrating a gender perspective into budgetary policies to promote equality between women and men. 

(Abstract from UN Women)

Topics: Gender, Gender Budgeting Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, North America, Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Northern Europe, Oceania Countries: Australia, Mexico, Philippines, Rwanda, South Africa, South Korea, United Kingdom

Year: 2002

A movement stalled: outcomes of women’s campaign for equalities and inclusion in the Northern Ireland peace process


Cockburn, Cynthia. 2013. “A movement stalled: outcomes of women’s campaign for equalities and inclusion in the Northern Ireland peace process.” Interface 5 (1): 151-82.

Author: Cynthia Cockburn


The Good Friday Agreement signed in Belfast in April 1998, and the post-conflict constitution embodied in the ensuing Northern Ireland Act, differed in one important respect from most other peace accords. Thanks to the input of civil society, and particularly of the women’s voluntary, trade union and community sectors, the Agreement was not limited to a settlement between the belligerent parties. It envisioned a transformed society, rid of the inequities of a colonial past and reshaped according to principles of inclusion and human rights. The persuasiveness of this agenda lay in its promise to address the poverty, disadvantage and exclusion afflicting the working class of both Catholic and Protestant communities. This article draws on a re-interviewing in 2012 of feminist activists with whom the author engaged in a major project in the 1990s. It evaluates the extent to which the principles and policies for which their movement struggled have been enacted in Northern Ireland governance in the intervening decade and a half.

Keywords: post-conflict, civil society, women, human rights, working class, Catholic, Protestant, feminist activists

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Class, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Poverty, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Nonviolence, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Religion, Rights, Human Rights Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: Ireland

Year: 2013

Contested Terrain: Oxfam, Gender, and the Aftermath of War


Williams, Suzanne. 2001. “Contested Terrain: Oxfam, Gender, and the Aftermath of War.” Gender and Development 9 (3): 19-28.

Author: Suzanne Williams


In this paper I explore the terrain of the international NGO (INGO) - in this case Oxfam GB - and some of its difficulties in integrating gender equity goals in the institutional structures and policies which govern its activities in conflict and its aftermath. I look at terrain that is divided into areas that are treated very differently. These are, on one hand, the field of humanitarian interventions in the throes of an emergency, and on the other, the 'non-conflict' field of reconstruction and development. Historically, these two fields of activity have been governed by very different ways of thinking and acting, often in conflict with each other. Gender analysis and gender-sensitive programming are central to these differences, and essential tools in the attempts to overcome them. In Oxfam GB at present, the differences in approaches to gender equity in these two territories are acknowledged, if not routinely addressed; but the importance of addressing gender equity in order to overcome some of these differences, is more complicated and controversial.

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Analysis, Gender Balance, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Health, Humanitarian Assistance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, NGOs Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe Countries: Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia, United Kingdom

Year: 2001


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