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North Africa

Modernising Women and Democratisation After the Arab Spring

Citation:

Moghadam, Valentine M. 2014. "Modernising Women and Democratisation After the Arab Spring." The Journal of North African Studies 19 (2): 137-42

Author: Valentine M. Moghadam

Abstract:

What has the Arab Spring meant to women, and women's rights, in the region? Three years after the mass social protests of January and February 2011, when and where can we expect the promises of democracy and equality, and the revolutionary spirit of unity and purpose, to be realised? This Foreword offers a stock-taking of events and possible future directions, with a focus on prospects for a women-friendly democratisation.

Keywords: Arab Spring, democratisation, women, women's rights, women's movements

Topics: Armed Conflict, Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Post-Conflict, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Asia, Middle East Countries: Bahrain, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen

Year: 2014

Political Instability, Gender Discrimination, and Population Growth in Development Countries

Citation:

Lehmijoki, Ulla and Tapio Palokangas. 2006. “Political Instability, Gender Discrimination, and Population Growth in Development Countries.” Journal of Population Economics 19 (2): 431-46.

Authors: Ulla Lehmijoki, Tapio Palokangas

Abstract:

This paper introduces gender discrimination and population growth into a model of political economy. The government keeps up the military for the sake of political instability in the country. It is shown that if the risk of internal conflicts is high, then the government needs a bigger military and a larger supply of young men for it. The government is then willing to boost population growth by keeping women outside the production (e.g. neglecting their education or restricting their movement). Some empirical evidence on the interdependence of political instability, population growth, and gender discrimination is provided. 

Keywords: population growth, discrimination, political instability

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Combatants, Male Combatants, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Households, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Political Economies, Religion, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Asia, Middle East

Year: 2006

Rural Household Transport in Africa: Reducing the Burden on Women?

Citation:

Bryceson, Deborah Fahy and John Howe. 1993. “Rural Household Transport in Africa: Reducing the Burden on Women?” World Development 21 (11).

Authors: Deborah Fahy Bryceson, John Howe

Abstract:

Rural household travel patterns have been largely ignored in African transport studies. Over the past 10 years, however, village-level surveys have been undertaken which reveal the predominance of female porterage in rural transport. Donor agencies are now focusing efforts on “appropriate” technology interventions to directly enhance rural mobility and to indirectly improve agricultural productivity. Preliminary evidence, however, suggests that men rather than women are the main beneficiaries of appropriate transport technology. This paper asks why and suggests a number of methodological refinements to future rural transport studies to generate the information necessary for devising programs with a higher likelihood of effective assistance to rural women transporters.

Topics: Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa

Year: 1993

Politics in an Age of Anxiety: Cold War Political Culture and the Crisis in American Masculinity, 1949-1960

Citation:

Cuordileone, K. A. 2000. “Politics in an Age of Anxiety: Cold War Political Culture and the Crisis in American Masculinity, 1949-1960.” Journal of American History 87 (2): 515-45. 

Author: K.A. Cuordileone

Topics: Armed Conflict, Citizenship, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Governance, Political Participation Regions: Africa, North Africa Countries: United States of America

Year: 2000

Gender Responsive Budgeting and Aid Effectiveness Knowledge Briefs

Citation:

United Nations Development Fund for Women. 2010. Gender Responsive Budgeting and Aid Effectiveness Knowledge Briefs. New York: The United Nations Development Fund for Women.

Author: United Nations Development Fund for Women

Abstract:

This series of knowledge briefs available in English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese has been produced on the basis of research carried out under the European Commission-supported programme ‘Integrating Gender Responsive Budgeting into the Aid Effectiveness Agenda’. 

The research, which was carried out in ten countries (Cameroon, Ethiopia, India, Morocco, Nepal, Mozambique, Peru, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda) investigated how gender responsive budgeting (GRB) tools and strategies had been used in the context of aid modalities, such as general budget support (GBS) and sector budget support (SBS).

The research aimed to increase national partners’ and European Union decision-makers’ understanding of the opportunities for using GRB to ensure that aid contributes to the achievement of gender equality goals. The knowledge briefs aim to provide guidance on using GRB tools to integrate a gender dimension into new modalities of aid financing, so that these support the implementation of governments’ gender equality commitments. The target audiences are programmers and policy makers working for national governments, the European Commission, and bilateral donors.

The series consists of 5 separate briefs:

·Introduction to Gender Responsive Budgeting and Aid Effectivenes

· Guidance sheet on ‘How can aid be gender responsive in the context of the new aid modalities? Lessons from gender responsive budgeting initiatives’

· Brief on ‘How do donors collectively address gender issues in their aid management practices at country level?’

· Brief on ‘How do Individual donors address gender Issues in their policy, programming, and financing?’

· Summaries of country reports

 

Topics: Gender, Gender Budgeting Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia Countries: Cameroon, Ethiopia, India, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Peru, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda

Year: 2010

Ten-Country Overview Report: Integrating Gender Responsive Budgeting into the Aid Effectiveness Agenda

Citation:

Budlender, Debbie. 2009. Ten-Country Overview Report: Integrating Gender Responsive Budgeting into the Aid Effectiveness Agenda. New York: The United Nations Development Fund for Women.

Author: Debbie Budlender

Abstract:

The following research reports (1 composite report and 10 country reports) have been generated as part of the UNIFEM programme,  "Integrating gender responsive budgeting into the aid effectiveness agenda”. The three-year programme funded by the European Commission (EC) was launched in 2008 and consists of research and programmatic technical assistance.

The programme seeks to demonstrate how gender responsive budgeting (GRB) tools and strategies contribute to enhancing a positive impact on gender equality of aid provided in the form of General Budget Support (GBS).

The first aspect of the programme involved research in ten developing countries to deepen the understanding of national partners and European Union (EU) decision makers of the opportunities for using GRB to enhance accountability to gender equality in the context of the aid effectiveness agenda. Concerned countries were Ethiopia, Peru, Tanzania, Uganda, Morocco, Nepal, India, Rwanda, Mozambique and Cameroon.

The second aspect of the programme will involve the selection of five countries in which targeted and tailored technical support will be provided in 2009 and 2010 to improve country capacity to further institutionalise GRB. (Abstract from UN Women)

Topics: Gender, Gender Budgeting Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia Countries: Cameroon, Ethiopia, India, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Peru, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda

Year: 2009

Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: a Cross-National Study

Citation:

Shandra, John M., Carrie L. Shandra, and Bruce London. 2008. “Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: A Cross-National Study.” Population and Environment 30 (1-2): 48–72.

Authors: John M. Shandra, Carrie L. Shandra, Bruce London

Abstract:

There have been several cross-national studies published in the world polity theoretical tradition that find a strong correlation between nations with high levels of environmental nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and low levels of various forms of environmental degradation. However, these studies neglect the role that women’s NGOs potentially play in this process. We seek to address this gap by conducting a cross-national study of the association between women’s NGOs and deforestation. We examine this relationship because deforestation often translates into increased household labor, loss of income, and impaired health for women and, as a result, women’s non-governmental organizations have become increasingly involved in dealing with these problems often by protecting forests. We use data from a sample of 61 nations for the period of 1990–2005. We find substantial support for world polity theory that both high levels of women’s and environmental NGOs per capita are associated with lower rates of deforestation. We also find that high levels of debt service and structural adjustment are correlated with higher rates of forest loss. We conclude with a discussion of findings, policy implications, and possible future research directions.

Keywords: deforestation, women, non-governmental organizations, cross-national

Topics: Economies, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, NGOs Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Baltic states, Balkans, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Year: 2008

Gender-Responsive Budgeting

Citation:

Khan, Zohra. 2015. “Gender-Responsive Budgeting.” In The Oxford Handbook of Transnational Feminist Movements, edited by Rawwida Baksh and Wendy Harcourt, 485-506. New York: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199943494.013.022. 

Author: Zohra Khan

Abstract:

This chapter situates gender-responsive budgeting, or GRB, within the debates and research in feminist economics and analysis of macroeconomics, poverty and inequality. It traces the origins of GRB back to seminal experiences in Australia and South Africa that laid the foundation for more recent practice in countries including Ecuador, Morocco and Nepal. It looks at the actors, strategic alliances and partnerships that have supported the mushrooming of GRB around the world to show that one of the main strengths of this work is the transitional networking and coming together of feminists, inside and outside bureaucracies, in support of more and better resources for women. Charting the journey of GRB, it illustrates that where it has succeeded, it has resulted in better alignment between policy commitments and financing for gender equality. Some of main critiques of GRB are addressed and important questions about the future of this work are considered.

Keywords: gender-responsive budgeting, GRB, feminist economics, poverty inequality, women's organization, national women's machinery

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gender Budgeting, Gender Mainstreaming Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia, Oceania Countries: Australia, Ecuador, Morocco, Nepal, South Africa

Year: 2015

Social Capital and Dispute Resolution in Informal Areas of Cairo and Istanbul

Citation:

Belge, Ceren, and Lisa Blaydes. 2014. "Social Capital and Dispute Resolution in Informal Areas of Cairo and Istanbul." Studies In Comparative International Development 49 (4): 448-76.

Authors: Ceren Belge, Lisa Blaydes

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Violence, Weapons /Arms Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Egypt, Turkey

Year: 2014

How Sexual Trauma Can Create Obstacles to Transnational Feminism: The Case of Shifra

Citation:

Weinbaum, Batya. 2006. “How Sexual Trauma Can Create Obstacles to Transnational Feminism: The Case of Shifra.” NWSA Journal 18 (3): 71-87.

Author: Batya Weinbaum

Abstract:

Obstacles to organizing peace can sometimes emerge because women have suffered previous sexual violence. Consequently, the frame through which they react to contemporary political situations, including peace demonstrations organized by transnational feminists, might at the core have an internal structure derived from previous violation that women then project to identify, modify, and contain controversy in external events. Therefore, closely examining the border between private and public spheres in women's lives might not always lead to progressive politics for women as a group, as some might hope. Rather, some women might attempt to recover from specifically sexual violence in previous wars, seizing upon discourse bound of national security. They may attempt to regain internal strength by fortifying gender identity that has been thrown into crisis, using nationalistic contours to reaffirm their sense of self. This might lead them to actively protest other women working for peace. Since trauma survivors exhibit modes of recounting life histories that vividly dramatize past events in order to draw attention to private pain in public, the force of such narrators who speak in the streets can upstage peaceworkers' events.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Health, Trauma, Nationalism, Religion, Security, Sexual Violence, Rape, SV against women, Violence Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Western Europe Countries: France, Israel, Morocco, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, Spain

Year: 2006

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