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Nordic states

Becoming an International Man: Top Manager Masculinities in the Making of a Multinational Corporation

Citation:

Tienari, Janne, Eero Vaara, and Susan Merilainen. 2010. “Becoming an International Man: Top Manager Masculinities in the Making of a Multinational Corporation.” Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal 29 (1): 38–52.

Authors: Janne Tienari, Eero Vaara, Susan Merilainen

Abstract:

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to address gender and management in contemporary globalization by focusing on the ways in which male top managers in a multinational corporation (MNC) construct their identities in interviews with researchers.

Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative analysis based on interviews with virtually all top managers in the Nordic financial services company Nordea (53 men and two women).

Findings – It is found that becoming international induces a particular masculine identity for the top managers. In becoming international, however, their national identification persists. The instability of the MNC as a political constellation leaves room for questioning the transnational identity offered.

Originality/value - This paper's findings suggest that in the global world of business, national identity can also be interpreted as something positive and productive, contrary to how it has been previously treated in feminist and men's studies literature.

Topics: Economies, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Globalization, Multi-National Corporations, Nationalism Regions: Europe, Nordic states

Year: 2010

‘‘Women Home and Away’’: Transnational Managerial Work and Gender Relations

Citation:

Hearn, Jeff, Marjut Jyrkinen, Rebecca Piekkari, and Eeva Oinonen. 2008. “‘Women Home and Away’: Transnational Managerial Work and Gender Relations.” Journal of Business Ethics 83 (1): 41–54.

Authors: Jeff Hearn, Marjut Jyrkinen, Rebecca Piekkari, Eeva Oinonen

Abstract:

This article addresses the intersections, even blurrings, of two “homes” and two “aways” – the personal, 'private’ home and the corporate 'public’ 'away’, and the national home country and corporate base and the transnational work away. Drawing on 40 semi-structured interviews with women and men top and middle managers in seven multinational corporations located in Finland, we examine the complex relations among transnational managerial work, corporate careers and personal, marriage and family-type relations, and their differences for women and men managers. This shows the very different personal and social worlds inhabited by senior women and men managers, and how transnational processes can make those differences even greater.

Keywords: family, Finland, gender, home, management, managers, men, transnational, transnationalization, women

Annotation:

 

 

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Multi-National Corporations Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Finland

Year: 2008

Gender Mainstreaming: A Five‐Country Examination

Citation:

Hankivsky, Olena. 2013. “Gender Mainstreaming: A Five‐Country Examination.” Politics & Policy 41 (5): 629-55.

 

Author: Olena Hankivsky

Abstract:

Although gender mainstreaming (GM) has been the international norm for working toward gender equality in policies and practices since the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing 1995, its impact has been uneven. The lack of substantive results has led to debate surrounding GM’s capacity for engendering meaningful policy change. This article synthesizes the input of key GM stakeholders (within government, academia, and nongovernmental organizations) across Canada, Australia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and Ukraine. It discusses national approaches to mainstreaming gender, identifies key factors inhibiting and/or promoting GM, and proposes how current strategies can be modified, strengthened and/or replaced by alternative approaches. Central to the analysis is the question as to whether GM in current or expanded versions has the potential to addresses the wide variety of diversities among nation state populations.

Keywords: gender equality, women and politics, gender mainstreaming, national approaches, diversity, comparative policy, Canada, Australia, intersectionality

Topics: Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Americas, North America, Europe, Eastern Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe, Oceania Countries: Australia, Canada, Sweden, Ukraine, United Kingdom

Year: 2013

Women, Peace, Security, and the National Action Plans

Citation:

Fritz, Jan Marie, Sharon Doering, and F. Belgin Gumru. 2011. “‘Women, Peace, Security, and the National Action Plans.” Journal of Applied Social Science 5 (1): 1-23.

Authors: Jan Marie Fritz, Sharon Doering, F. Belgin Gumru

Abstract:

Twenty criteria are used to analyze sixteen national action plans that focus on women, peace, and security. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, a base for the national plans, highlights the terrible consequences of violent conflict on women and girls as well as the important role of women in all peacebuilding processes. Suggestions are made for those developing or revising plans and include addressing the relevant points from four UN Security Council resolutions (1325, 1820, 1888, and 1889); specifying all processes and timelines; and including civil society participation in all phases of a plan's development; implementation, and assessment.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Gender, Women, Peacebuilding, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, UNSCR 1888, UNSCR 1889 Regions: Africa, West Africa, Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Côte D'Ivoire, Denmark, Finland, Liberia, United Kingdom

Year: 2011

Nordic Exceptionalism and Gendered Peacekeeping: The Case of Iceland

Citation:

Loftsdóttir, Kristín, and Helga Björnsdóttir. 2015. “Nordic Exceptionalism and Gendered Peacekeeping: The Case of Iceland.” European Journal of Women’s Studies 22 (2): 208–22. doi:10.1177/1350506814543839.

Authors: Kristín Loftsdóttir, Helga Björnsdóttir

Abstract:

The Nordic countries have been major contributors to peacekeeping, often seen as particularly well suited due to their lack of ties to colonialism and supposedly peaceful nature. The article critically addresses this idea in relation to how gender equality has been conceptualized in peacekeeping taking as an example Icelandic peacekeeping. Iceland’s recent engagement in peacekeeping has strongly emphasized gender issues but has lacked an engagement with issues of power and domination and thus reflects a particular idea of ‘Nordic exceptionalism’. The authors emphasize in their discussion the need to maintain critical feminist perspectives that take diverse relations of power into account.

Keywords: exceptionalism, gender, Iceland, peacekeeping, racism

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peacekeeping, Race Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Iceland

Year: 2015

Trafficking — a Demand Led Problem?

Citation:

Anderson, Bridget, and Julia O’Connell Davidson. 2003. Trafficking — a Demand Led Problem?. 15. IOM Migration Research Series. Geneva: International Organization for Migration.

Authors: Bridget Anderson, Julia O’Connell Davidson

Abstract:

The 2001 ASEM Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children stressed the need to encourage research on the demand for the most common forms of exploitation of trafficked women and children, in particular for commercial sex services, and recommended a multi-country study into the demand side of trafficking as one of its follow-up actions.

In response to this recommendation, the Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, SLDA and Save the Children Sweden, commissioned this pilot research study on the demand underlying two sectors where labour/services of trafficked persons are known to be subject to exploitation: prostitution and domestic work. This report sets out some of the findings of the pilot study and ongoing research concerning employer demand for domestic workers in private households, and consumer demand for commercial sexual services in selected European and Asian countries.

Topics: Gender, Women, Girls, Boys, Households, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe, Southern Europe Countries: India, Italy, Sweden, Thailand

Year: 2003

Military Women in the NATO Armed Forces

Citation:

García, Sarah.1999. “Military Women in the NATO Armed Forces.” Minerva: Quarterly Report on Women and the Military 17 (2): 33-82.

Author: Sarah García

Abstract:

In June 1998, officers (men and women) assembled in Brussels to discuss means to improve equity and expand the employment of women in the NATO armed forces. About 90 comrades in arms from fourteen allied nations, plus guests from the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland, now new NATO members, as well as from  Sweden, met to discuss the committee's goals and objectives. This first-time participation by Partner nations unequivocally enhanced the committee's work, especially where it involves mentoring, equality, and recruiting programs. The dialogue and cooperation between Allied and Partner nations at the conference was mutually advantageous to NATO's mission readiness capabilities and efforts to ensure the recognition and empowerment of all military personnel. The Committee prepared an "Issue Book" containing recommendations and rationales for the Military Committee and national authorities to consider when determining integration policy/initiative within their armed forces. That was the first time the committee had developed such a comprehensive product geared specifically to focus NATO in this process. In support of NATO's Enhanced Partnership for Peace (PfP) program, which began five years ago and centered on "fostering military co-operation between NATO and non-NATO states to, among other aims, strengthen the ability to undertake peacekeeping and humanitarian missions and developing military forces better able to operate with those of NATO members," 8 the 1998 Brussels Conference sparked the beginning of the Committee on Women's cooperative dialogue with PfP nations. For example, discussions centered on equality, in terms of training and promotion (rank and career opportunities); utilization and development via recruitment, mentoring, and retention; and improving the quality of life for women in uniform by eliminating gender discrimination and sexual harassment. Since then, Partner nations have expressed  interest in the committee, its goals and objectives, and assistance from the Women In the NATO Forces (WINF) office. In the five decades of its existence, the NATO alliance has "evolved from a traditional military alliance for collective defence into a political-military organisation for security cooperation, with an extensive bureaucracy and complex decision-making processes." The alliance is now redefining its mission as a result of the end of the Cold War. In an even briefer span of time, the position of women in the military has undergone meaningful change in many NATO nations, and "As these changes take place, the disparate gender politics among its member governments take on even more importance." The debate over women's participation in the military is far from over. Despite those debates, new threats to NATO's collective security, the reorganization of armies and international staffs, advanced weapons technology, and new peacekeeping operations challenge traditional military structures and functions and make the utilization of all available human resources, men and women, imperative. Integrating women into any military is an evolutionary process, now underway in all NATO member nations. Personnel policies that insure a military establishment of the highest quality possible with the resources available are an essential part of this process.

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Men, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, International Organizations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Peacekeeping Regions: Europe, Central Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe, Western Europe Countries: Belgium, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Sweden

Year: 1999

Gender Ideology and Nationalism in the Culture and Politics of Iceland

Citation:

Koester, David. 1995. “Gender Ideology and Nationalism in the Culture and Politics of Iceland.” American Ethnologist 22 (3): 572-88.

Author: David Koester

Topics: Gender, Women, Nationalism, Political Participation Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Iceland

Year: 1995

The Nordic Area as a `Zone of Peace’

Citation:

Archer, Clive. 1996. “The Nordic Area as a `Zone of Peace’.” Journal of Peace Research 33: 451–67.

Author: Clive Archer

Abstract:

Is the Nordic area a `zone of peace'? This article divides the concept into five elements: (1) intrastate war, (2) interstate war, (3) military intervention by outside forces, (4) military intervention by forces within the region in areas outside and (5) the overall expectations of peace within the region. Each of the elements are examined empirically and the article concludes that the Nordic area is indeed such a zone. The emergence of a zone of peace in an area which historically has seen a great deal of domestic and international war is explained by a combination of outside factors, such as the strategic importance of the area, and internal factors, such as the legitimacy of the government and the homogeneity of the population. Three broad considerations emerge from the study. Firstly, the link between democracy and peace has reinforced the Nordic peace as all the countries concerned have grown into stable democracies. Secondly, higher levels of gender equality within the Nordic countries may have also had a beneficial effect in terms of preventing violent conflict. And lastly, peaceful conflict resolutions has been accepted as the sole legitimate means of solving conflicts within the Nordic area, and this has had a marked effect on the foreign policies of the countries in the region.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Democracy / Democratization, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Nonviolence, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes Regions: Europe, Nordic states

Year: 1996

A Few Kind Women: Gender Essentialism and Nordic Peacekeeping Operations

Citation:

Valenius, Johanna. 2007. “A Few Kind Women: Gender Essentialism and Nordic Peacekeeping Operations.” International Peacekeeping 14 (4): 510–23.

Author: Johanna Valenius

Abstract:

This article examines constructions of gender in UN documents and peace operations. The focus is on gender mainstreaming: the kinds of notion of men and women that are produced in gender mainstreaming and what kind of effect mainstreaming has. Based on an analysis of the key UN documents and the fieldwork among Finnish peacekeepers in Kosovo, the argument is that gender mainstreaming documents and practices tend to rely on essentialized notions of women as victims and inherently peaceful. The consequences of this are twofold. On the one hand the international community is not able to see local women as agents of their own future. On the other, the participation of women in peacekeeping forces is promoted on the basis of an alleged pacifying effect on their male colleagues. As a result traditional gender roles are reinforced and the variations in masculinities and femininities are ignored.

Topics: Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Discourses, International Organizations, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Finland

Year: 2007

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