East Asia

Gender Difference in the Health Risk Perception of Radiation from Fukushima in Japan: The Role of Hegemonic Masculinity


Morioka, Rika. 2014. “Gender Difference in the Health Risk Perception of Radiation from Fukushima in Japan: The Role of Hegemonic Masculinity.” Social Science & Medicine 107 (April): 105–12. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.02.014.

Author: Rika Morioka


This paper presents the preliminary findings of gender difference in the perception of radiation risk in the aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan. In-depth interviews were conducted with the residents of Fukushima and other parts of Japan in November 2011 and July 2012. Compared to mothers, fathers in general expressed less concern for radiation. Fathers prioritized their responsibilities as the breadwinner for their families and saw radiation risk as a threat to economic stability and masculine identity. As a result, mothers' health concerns were dismissed, and they were prevented from taking preventive actions. The social norms in the dominant institutions such as corporations and the government influenced men's perception of radiation risk. The findings illustrate the importance of sociocultural context in which meanings of health risk are constructed.

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Health Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: Japan

Year: 2014

Popular Geopolitics of Chinese Nanjing Massacre Films: A Feminist Approach


An, Ning, Chen Liu, and Hong Zhu. 2016. “Popular Geopolitics of Chinese Nanjing Massacre Films: A Feminist Approach.” Gender, Place & Culture 23 (6): 786–800. doi:10.1080/0966369X.2015.1058762.


Authors: Ning An, Chen Liu, Hong Zhu


This article attempts to deconstruct the masculinised contract among the war narrative, popular culture, and Chinese nationalism by exploring the roles of women in Nanjing Massacre films with war narratives and Chinese audiences' emotional ‘readings’ of these women. Based on the analysis of City of Life and Death (2009) and The Flowers of War (2011) and audiences' comments on these two films from Douban Movie, this article has mapped a popular geopolitics of these two films through a feminist approach. The main argument of this research points out that, through the production and consumption of these two films, the women of the Nanjing Massacre can be territorialised as Nanjing/China and used to represent China's attitudes towards both the historical and current Sino–Japanese relationship. In this way, the women of these films can be considered an articulation of popular culture and politics, and they are empowered to establish Chinese nationalism and construct anti-Japanese identities in Chinese society. To a wider extent, this article can be read as a contribution to the literature on gender, nationalism and popular geopolitics.

Keywords: popular geopolitics, feminist approach, nationalism, Sino – Japanese relationship, Nanjing massacre, China

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Nationalism Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: China, Japan

Year: 2016

The Securtiy Threat of Asia's Sex Ratios


den Boer, Andrea, and Valerie Hudson. 2004. “The Securtiy Threat of Asia’s Sex Ratios.” SAIS Review of International Affairs 24 (2): 27–43. doi:10.1353/sais.2004.0028.


“Security demographics" has become a new subfield of security studies in recent years as scholars envision the security implications of long-term demographic change. This subfield provides important new insight into the problem of population, social stability and conflict, but our research suggests that an additional demographic factor must be taken into account when assessing social stability and security of a state - that of sex ratios. What are the security implications for a population whose males, particularly those of the young adult population, significantly outnumber females? China and India, as well as several other Asian states, are currently undergoing various demographic transitions, one of the most important being the increasingly high sex ratios of young segments of these populations. We argue that internal instability is heightened in nations displaying the high level of exaggerated gender inequality indicated by high sex ratios, leading to an altered security calculus for the state. Possibilities of meaningful democracy and peaceful foreign policy are diminished as a result. The high sex ratios in China and India in particular have implications for the long-term security of these nations and the Asian region more broadly. 

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Security Regions: Asia, East Asia, South Asia Countries: China, India

Year: 2004

Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All? Cross-Country Evidence on the Effect of Gender Inequality in Education on Economic Development


Klasen, Stephen. 2002. “Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All? Cross-Country Evidence on the Effect of Gender Inequality in Education on Economic Development.” The World Bank Economic Review 16 (3): 345–73.

Author: Stephen Klasen


Using cross-country and panel regressions, this article investigates how gender inequality in education affects long-term economic growth. Such inequality is found to have an effect on economic growth that is robust to changes in specifications and controls for potential endogeneities. The results suggest that gender inequality in education directly affects economic growth by lowering the average level of human capital. In addition, growth is indirectly affected through the impact of gender inequality on investment and population growth. Some 0.4-0.9 percentage points of differences in annual per capita growth rates between East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and the Middle East can be accounted for by differences in gender gaps in education between these regions.

Topics: Class, Economies, Economic Inequality, Education, Gender, Women, Girls Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Asia, East Asia, Middle East, South Asia

Year: 2002

Stars and Stripes and Sex: Nationalism and Globalization in the Kijich’on


Moon, Katherine H. S. 2004. “Stars and Stripes and Sex: Nationalism and Globalization in the Kijich’on.” Women’s History in Modern Korea.

Author: Katherine Moon

Topics: Citizenship, Gender, Women, Globalization, Nationalism, Sexuality Regions: Asia, East Asia

Year: 2004

Resurrecting Prostitutes and Overturning Treaties: Gender Politics in the “Anti-American” Movement in South Korea


Moon, Katharine H. S. 2007. “Resurrecting Prostitutes and Overturning Treaties: Gender Politics in the ‘Anti-American’ Movement in South Korea.” The Journal of Asian Studies 66 (01): 129. doi:10.1017/S0021911807000046.

Author: Katherine Moon


Although recent expressions of “anti-Americanism” in South Korea have alarmed policy makers in Seoul and Washington and aroused fears about declining popular support for the bilateral alliance, they are understandable manifestations of civil society activism, which has grown since democratization began during the late 1980s. This paper analyzes anti-Americanism as a dynamic coalition movement accompanied by the all of internal competition, conflicts, and contradictions that characterize such movements. In the process, some actors and issues have become high priorities, whereas others have been marginalized or silenced. Professor Moon examines kijich'on (camptown) prostitution around U.S. military bases in Korea as a case study of how power conflicts within the coalition movement, which are focused on nationalism and gender, have exploited and shut out the very people who served as its initiators and early leaders.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Globalization, Sexual Violence, Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: South Korea

Year: 2007

Anti-Militarism: Political and Gender Dynamics of Peace Movements


Cockburn, Cyntha. 2012. Anti-Militarism: Political and Gender Dynamics of Peace Movements. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author: Cynthia Cockburn

Keywords: peace movements, women and peace, women, militarism, Japan



Acknowledgements                                                                                           x

Glossary of Acronyms                                                                                        xi

Introduction 1

  1. Finding a Voice: Women at Three Moments of British Peace Activism             19
  2. War Resisters and Pacifist Revolution                                                             46
  3. Legitimate Disobedience: An Anti-militarist Movement in Spain                     74                    
  4. Midlands City: Faiths and Philosophies Together for Palestine                        103
  5. Saying No to NATO: Divergent Strategies                                                       126                                        
  6. Seeing the Whole Picture: Anti-militarism in Okinawa and Japan                    152
  7. A State of Peace: Movements to Reunify and Demilitarize Korea                     180
  8. Guns and Bodies: Armed Conflict and Domestic Violence                                211
  9. Towards a Different Common Sense                                                                231


References                                                                                                            264

Index                                                                                                                    277




Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes Regions: MENA, Asia, East Asia, Middle East, Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Japan, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, South Korea, Spain, United Kingdom

Year: 2012

Breaking Ground: Present and Future Perspective for Women in Agriculture


Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2005. Breaking Ground: Present and Future Perspective for Women in Agriculture. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

Author: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

Topics: Agriculture, Civil Society, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights, Security, Violence Regions: Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Europe

Year: 2005


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