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East Asia

Making Space for Women: Civil Society Organizations, Gender and Hydropower Development in the Mekong Region

Citation:

Lebel, Phimphakan, Louis Lebel, Darunee Singphonphrai, Chatta Duangsuwan, and Yishu Zhou. 2019. “Making Space for Women: Civil Society Organizations, Gender and Hydropower Development in the Mekong Region.” International Journal of Water Resources Development 35 (2): 305-25.

Authors: Phimphakan Lebel, Louis Lebel, Darunee Singphonphrai, Chatta Duangsuwan, Yishu Zhou

Abstract:

Large-scale hydropower development disrupts local livelihoods and resource access. Adverse impacts are often greater for women than men, but also large for children, the elderly, poorer households and ethnic minorities. Burdens of resettlement often fall disproportionately on already disadvantaged individuals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how international, national and local civil society organizations (CSOs) have addressed gender in hydropower development in the Mekong Region. Four CSO orientations are distinguished: communitarian, environmentalist, knowledge-based and feminist. Common activities of CSOs were to share information, to expand participation and to mobilize development. The extent to which these activities were promoted and appear to be making space for women depended on the types of CSOs and women and men targeted or otherwise involved. 

Keywords: civil society organizations, gender, hydropower, Mekong

Topics: Age, Youth, Civil Society, Displacement & Migration, Development, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam

Year: 2019

Gender in Development Discourses of Civil Society Organisations and Mekong Hydropower Dams

Citation:

Lebel, Louis, Phimphakan Lebel, Kanokwan Manorom, and Zhou Yishu. 2019. “Gender in Development Discourses of Civil Society Organisations and Mekong Hydropower Dams.” Water Alternatives 12 (1): 192–220.

Authors: Louis Lebel, Phimphakan Lebel, Kanokwan Manorom, Zhou Yishu

Abstract:

'Gender in development' discourses are used to justify interventions into, or opposition to, projects and policies; they may also influence perceptions, practices, or key decisions. Four discursive threads are globally prominent: livelihoods and poverty; natural resources and the environment; rights-based; and managerial. Civil society organisations (CSOs) have been vocal in raising awareness about the adverse impacts of large-scale hydropower developments on the environment, on local livelihoods, and on vulnerable groups including women. This discourse analysis first examines how CSOs engaging in hydropower processes in the Mekong Region frame and use gender in development discourses, and then evaluates the potential of these discourses to empower both women and men. Documents authored by CSOs are examined in detail for how gender is represented, as are media reports on CSO activities, interview transcripts, and images. The findings underline how CSOs depend on discursive legitimacy for influence. Their discursive strategies depend on three factors: the organizations’ goals with respect to development, gender, and the environment; whether the situation is pre- or post-construction; and, on their relationships with the state, project developers and dam-affected communities. The implications of these strategies for empowerment are often not straightforward; inadvertent and indirect effects, positive and negative, are common. The findings of this study are of practical value to CSOs wishing to be more reflexive in their work and more responsive to how it is talked about, as it shows the ways that language and images may enhance or inadvertently work against efforts to empower women.

Keywords: civil society organisations, gender in development, discourse, representation, hydropower

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Environment, Gender, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam

Year: 2019

Gender and Renewable Energy Study in Tibetan Pastoral Areas of China

Citation:

Ding, Wenguang, Li He, Dinka Zewudie, Huilin Zhang, Tanjia Binte Zafar, and Xinde Liu. 2019. “Gender and Renewable Energy Study in Tibetan Pastoral Areas of China.” Renewable Energy 133 (April): 901–13.

Authors: Wenguang Ding, Li He, Dinka Zewudie, Huilin Zhang, Tanjia Binte Zafar, Xinde Liu

Abstract:

As interdisciplinary research, this Gender and Energy study innovatively revealed the crucial role of Tibetan women in using, saving and developing energy. We chose a typical Tibetan area named Gannan Prefecture in northwestern China, we chose three total grassland counties in Gannan; all three communities still have a nomadic lifestyle and do not have sufficient energy. After we concluded the close relationship between gender and energy in this area, we compared our research area with other Tibetan area those are located in Sichuan, Qinghai and Tibet. This comparison helped to figure out the relationship between Tibetan women and energy in China. The results showed a significant increase of total household energy consumption and the energy efficiency and the decrease of the disease rate because of using renewable energy and clean devices. It also improved women's empowerment in household energy management and promoted cultural change. However, a Tibetan woman's daily working time increased by 1 h from 15 h/day to 16 h/day. The reasons behind gender inequity include Religion influence, Social change and Industrial structure. This paper conclude the changes and attempts to analyze the internal factors, and tries to bring about some policy advice to benefit the Tibetan women.

Keywords: gender equity, renewable energy, policy

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Health, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, Religion Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: China

Year: 2019

Toward Everyday Practices of Gender: Implications of Feminist Political Ecology for Gender Mainstreaming in Korean ODA

Citation:

Nam, Souyeon. 2018. “Toward Everyday Practices of Gender: Implications of Feminist Political Ecology for Gender Mainstreaming in Korean ODA.” Asian Journal of Women’s Studies 24 (4): 463-88.

Author: Souyeon Nam

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: 

This paper suggests feminist political ecology (FPE) as a knowledge resource for policy makers, practitioners, and researchers involved in Korean gender equality-focused ODA (Official Development Assistance) programs. Since Korea joined the OECD in 2010, its government has endeavored to incorporate gender mainstreaming into Korean ODA programs. This has generally taken the "topdown approach," (i.e., shifting the practice of official institutions in ODA agencies of the donor country to recipient countries). However, social and cultural contexts of recipient countries have received little attention in assessing what the outcomes would be in these. This paper reviews feminist political ecology, which has examined multi-scalar gender politics and considers the importance of social and cultural contexts of developing countries, in order for Korean ODA programs to embrace things in a nuanced way regarding gender politics. This paper argues for the potential of FPE as an effective tool for these programs that relate to gender. It proceeds as follows: first, it critically examines characteristics of Korean gender equality focused ODA. Then it reviews what FPE is about, including four themes of feminist political ecology: property rights, gender division of labor, women knowledge resource for policy makers, practition on its review, the paper discusses ways in which feminist political ecology can generate insights for researchers and practitioners involved in the ODA programs of Korea.

KOREAN ABSTRACT: 

연구는 한국 젠더 관련 ODA 정책실무자 연구자들에게 페미니스트 정치생태학을 유용한 연구분야로 제안한다. 2010 한국이 OECD 가입한 이래, 한국 정부는 ODA 프로그램의 젠더 주류화를 향상시키기 위해 노력해왔다. 이에 있어 공여국과 수여국의 ODA 관련기관 제도적 환경을 변화시키는 상향식 접근이 주를 이루었다. 그러나 수여국의 사회문화적 맥락을 고려한 평가에 대한 관심은 상대적으로 제한적이었다. 이에 따라 연구는 개발도상국 특정 지역들의 사회문화적 맥락을 고려한 다중스케일적 젠더 정치를 다루는 페미니스트 정치생태학을 고찰한다. 이를 통해 맥락성이 상대적으로 결여된 젠더 관련 한국 ODA 프로그램을 보완함에 있어 페미니스트 정치생태학이 통찰력을 제공할 있음을 제안하고 있다. 이를 위해 먼저 페미니스트 정치생태학을 재산권, 성역할분담, 여성 권한강화, 여성의 주관성 가지 주제를 중심으로 살펴본다. 다음으로 페미니스트 정치생태학이 폭넓은 민족지학적 현장연구를 기반으로 개발도상국 사례연구를 중심으로 구축된 분야인 만큼, 이러한 기반이 부족한 한국 젠더 ODA 정책수립 연구에 기여할 있음을 보인다. 또한, 국제사회에서 한국이 지니는 특수한 위치로 인해 한국의 젠더 ODA 관련 연구 역시 페미니스트 정치생태학에 기여할 있는 잠재력을 지님을 연구는 지적하고 있다.

Keywords: feminist political ecology, Korean ODA, gender mainstreaming, gender politics, social and cultural contexts

Topics: Development, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods, Rights, Property Rights Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: South Korea

Year: 2018

The Effects of Japanese Income Tax Provisions on Women’s Labour Force Participation

Citation:

Shibata, Aiko. 1992. “The Effects of Japanese Income Tax Provisions on Women’s Labour Force Participation.” In Women's Work in the World Economy, edited by Nancy Folbre, B. Bergmann, B. Agarwal, and M. Floro, 169-79. London: Palgrave Macmillan London.

Author: Aiko Shibata

Abstract:

At a session of the Congress of the International Institute of Public Finance in Istanbul in the summer of 1988, a gentleman from a small oil-producing country in the Middle East asked me: ‘Was there any effective governmental means of keeping wives at home?’ I was taken by surprise and didn’t know how to respond. However, I later realised that Japanese tax laws implicitly do just that. Designed to give a tax break to married taxpayers, they discourage housewives from taking jobs. Further, many private companies have adopted wage structures that also discourage housewives from working out-side their homes.

Keywords: marginal contribution, labour participation rate, spouse earning, high income group

Topics: Economies, Public Finance, Gender, Women, Governance, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: Japan

Year: 1992

Ten Years after the Oil Spill in Taean: The Recovery of the Ecosystem, the Life of Women, and the Community

Citation:

Won, You Joon, Sujung Jang, Nuri Jung, Yejoong Kwon, Sae Yan Moon, Hyejin Nho, and Seung Jick Yoo. 2019. "Ten Years after the Oil Spill in Taean: The Recovery of the Ecosystem, the Life of Women, and the Community." Asian Women 35 (4): 1-22.

Authors: You Joon Won, Sujung Jang, Nuri Jung, Yejoong Kwon, Sae Yan Moon, Hyejin Nho, Seung Jick Yoo

Abstract:

Ten years have passed since the impact of the 2007 oil spill on the ecosystem and life of Taean Peninsula. We have investigated the status of the recovery of the marine environment, local economy, families and community by interviewing the people who have lived in Taean. We especially focused on differentiated impacts of the disaster by gender, and in the local communities. Women showed more severe vulnerability because of the limited job opportunities caused by the implicitly ongoing patriarchy in the society, the job characteristics of haenyeo, and underpayment for their labor during the clean-up operations. We also found that there have been social unrests in the local communities originating from conflicts over compensation and allocation of clean-up works, government emergency grants, and local development funds, in addition to high stress levels. The environmental disaster, the Hebei Spirit oil spill, was found to be responsible for the increased number of family break-ups through occurrences such as divorce, intensifying the negative impacts on women. Through this study on the short- and long-term effects of the Hebei Spirit oil spill, we conclude that environmental disasters have more significant and prolonged impacts for women and the community from physical, mental, and socio-economic perspectives.

Keywords: oil spill, environmental disaster, gender, community, family

Topics: Economies, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: South Korea

Year: 2019

Water Conservation Awareness and Practices in Households Receiving Improved Water Supply: A Gender-Based Analysis

Citation:

Tong, Yan, Liangxin Fan, and Haipeng Niu. 2017. "Water Conservation Awareness and Practices in Households Receiving Improved Water Supply: A Gender-Based Analysis." Journal of Cleaner Production 141: 947-55.

Authors: Yan Tong, Liangxin Fan, Haipeng Niu

Abstract:

Adoption of water conservation practices (WCPs) is essential to save water. However, the factors that affect changes in behaviour related to water consumption remain unclear, particularly those related to gender differences and women's views towards WCPs. These factors often result in ineffective public policies. In this study, we analysed the effects of consciousness, perceptions and individual behaviour control towards WCPs, as well as the influence of gender (i.e. male and female) on residents' WCPs via a detailed survey of 622 residents (female: 318, male: 304) in rural northern China. Data were analysed using a one-way ANOVA and structural equation model. The respondents had a high degree of awareness of WCPs but reported low participation in WCPs, particularly among male users. Female users consumed twice as much water and adopted more WCPs than male users. Saving water bill was the main incentive for female users to practise WCPs, whereas that for male users was to alleviate water supply shortage. Daily routine changes and additional time and physical efforts were the main barriers for WCPs, particularly for male users. In addition, WCPs of male users were highly affected by individual behaviour control and attitude towards conservation, whereas for female users, WCPs were highly affected by expected results and social norms. The significant gender disparities in the results emphasise the need to ensure information transparency and communication across gender, users, and authorities in public policies and community programs to fix gender gaps and to enhance adoption of WCPs by the public.

Keywords: domestic water consumption, water-use behavior, gender disparity, survey, Rural China

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: China

Year: 2017

Drinking Water and Off-Farm Labour Supply: Between-Gender and Within-Gender Bias

Citation:

Zhou, Li, and Calum G. Turvey. 2018. "Drinking Water and Off-Farm Labour Supply: Between-Gender and Within-Gender Bias." Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 62 (1): 103-20.

Authors: Li Zhou, Calum G. Turvey

Abstract:

In this paper, we use the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) panel data to analyse the impact of drinking water on off-farm labour supply. A two-stage least squares (2SLS) multivariate Tobit regression model with random effects was applied. We find that impacts of drinking water conditions on off-farm labour supply may be greater for women than men but depends on the specific family role or family structure. A strong within-gender effect exists in households. For example, daughters are not sensitive to water access nor water quality, but householder's spouses are sensitive to water access, and daughters-in-law are sensitive to water quality. Our findings suggest that infrastructure development in improved access to safe water has contributed positively to reductions in traditional gender biases, evening the playing field between daughters, daughters-in-law, mothers and mothers-in-law. We also find that water the infrastructure program may actually encourage off-farm labour mobility, reducing the supply of agricultural labour and the share of household labour on the farm. Thus, a broader approach to water policy should also include public investment in achieving greater labour efficiency and productivity.

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: China

Year: 2018

Gender in Japan: The Unseen Aspect of Natural Disaster Risks

Citation:

Petraroli, Irene, and Jane Singer. 2020. "Gender in Japan: The Unseen Aspect of Natural Disaster Risks." Paper presented at the 3rd International Conference on Gender Research, University of Reading, April 2-3.

Authors: Irene Petraroli, Jane Singer

Abstract:

During a natural disaster, the role of gender is a sensitive but unexplored topic. Research is needed not only to improve existing policies in disaster risk reduction, but also to inspire new ways to strengthen disaster resilience through gender equality. This project based on disaster preparedness in Japan not only adds to the conference focus on women empowerment in a specific context, but also gives the opportunity to discuss gender beyond the dominant Western paradigms. The focus on disaster prevention is not casual. The scarcity of information and fora of discussion on gender is one of the reasons for Japan’s low level of gender equality. However, since disaster prevention is a universal concern, disaster education is the ideal opportunity to educate the public about gender awareness. In the current Japanese disaster education, gender is under- or mis-represented and the image of disaster differs from a realistic gendered experience. These problems led to the question “what is the public perception of gender-based disaster risk?”, and “does gender impact the perceptions of gender-based risks?”. To answer these questions, a survey based on behavioural-cognitive theory was designed to assess the public interest and the available information on gender during a disaster. Then, the responses were expanded and contextualised through observations, interviews and workshops. The results showed high interest for a gender perspective on disaster, but also significant differences between male and female respondents. The study also suggested a “cultural” understanding of gender in disaster based on the gendered stereotypes and expectations relied upon in case of disaster. 

Keywords: gender disaster risk, disaster risk communication, gender studies in Japan

Topics: Education, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: Japan

Year: 2020

Violence Against Women and Children Following the 2011 Great East Japan Disaster: Making the Invisible Visible Through Research

Citation:

Yoshihama, Mieko, Tomoko Yunomae, Azumi Tsuge, Keiko Ikeda, and Reiko Masai. 2019. "Violence Against Women and Children Following the 2011 Great East Japan Disaster: Making the Invisible Visible Through Research." Violence Against Women 25 (7): 862-81.

Authors: Mieko Yoshihama, Tomoko Yunomae, Azumi Tsuge, Keiko Ikeda, Reiko Masai

Abstract:

This study reports on 82 unduplicated cases of violence against women and children after the Great East Japan Disaster of March 2011. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire from informants who worked with the disaster-affected populations. In addition to domestic violence, reported cases involved sexual assault and unwanted sexual contact, including quid pro quo assault perpetrated by nonintimates. Perpetrators often exploited a sense of fear, helplessness, and powerlessness and used threats to force compliance with sexual demands in exchange for life-sustaining resources. Findings point to the urgent need to develop measures to prevent and respond to postdisaster gender-based violence.

Keywords: domestic and sexual violence, gender-based violence, disaster and humanitarian emergencies

Topics: Domestic Violence, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender-Based Violence, Sexual Violence, Violence Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: Japan

Year: 2019

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