East Africa

Toilet Not Taxes: Gender Inequity in Dar es Salaam’s City Markets


Siebert, Marius and Anna Mbise. 2018. “Toilet Not Taxes: Gender Inequity in Dar es Salaam’s City Markets.” ICTD Working Paper 89, ICTD (The International Center for Tax and Development), Brighton. 

Authors: Marius Siebert, Anna Mbise


In this paper we examine market taxation in Dar es Salaam from a gender perspective. We do not find any evidence of gender bias in the way market traders are taxed, but we do find a major gender issue that we did not expect – toilet fees. Female traders pay up to 18 times more for their daily use of the market toilets than they pay as market tax. High toilet fees have a differential and adverse impact on women, who require toilets more frequently than men, and have fewer alternatives. This shows that a focus on formal taxation systems does not reveal all complex linkages between gender and taxation in the informal sector of developing countries. A gender-aware perspective on market taxation requires us to look wholistically at gender-differentiated patterns of use and funding of collective goods and services. 


Keywords: tax, gender, toilets, informal sector, service provision, hygiene, local authorities, Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, gender and tax, informal taxation, market traders

Topics: Economies, Informal Economies, Public Finance, Gender Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2018

Hawks and Doves in Sudan's Armed Conflict: Al-Hakkamat Baggara Women of Darfur


Musa, Suad M. E. 2018. Hawks and Doves in Sudan's Armed Conflict: Al-Hakkamat Baggara Women of Darfur. Boydell & Brewer.

Author: Suad M. E. Musa

Keywords: Eastern Africa series, African studies, politics & economics, women's & gender studies


Al-Hakkamat Baggara women hold an instrumental position in rural Sudan, wielding agency, social and political power. This book uncovers their significant, but widely overlooked, role during the war in Darfur from the 1970s to today's continuing conflict. The author examines the influence they exercised through composing and reciting poems and songs, informal speech and other symbolic acts, and analyses their impact in the social and political domains. Challenging the pervasive portrayal of women as natural peacebuilders and their roles as passive and submissive, the author highlights how Sudan's state government co-opted al-Hakkamat Baggara women to lobby on its behalf, to rally for war and to advocate for peace. Understanding how they can contribute to the resolution and resettlement processes is vital to sustainable reconciliation and post-conflict transformation of the unstable state. (Summary from Boydell & Brewer)
Table of Contents:
Preface: Conflict in Darfur and the role of Darfuri Rural Women
Ethnicity and Administration in Darfur
Conflict in Darfur: Causes and Implications
Al-Hakkamat Women
Local Inter-Ethnic Conflicts
Government and Racial Assimilation of Ethnic Groups
Liaising with Government
New Duties and Obligations
Roles in Peace and Reconciliation
Urban Identity and Social Change
Appendix: Chronology of Darfur 1445-2017

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Sudan

Year: 2018

Ensuring Gender-Equity in Compensation and Resettlement Schemes Related to Commercial Land Investments in Tanzania and Mozambique


Salcedo-La Viña, Celine, and Laura Notess. 2017. “Ensuring Gender-Equity in Compensation and Resettlement Schemes Related to Commercial Land Investments in Tanzania and Mozambique.” Paper presented at the 18th Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty, Washington, DC, March 20-24.

Authors: Celine Salcedo-La Viña, Laura Notess


Large-scale land transfers have a disproportionate impact on women’s land rights. Prior research has shown that women in many countries have limited participation in the decision-making process preceding alienation of land from their communities. This research extends this analysis into the context of compensation and resettlement processes, which are crucial to protecting the rights of local communities impacted by development projects. It does this by examining the relevant law and practice in Tanzania and Mozambique. Both countries have experienced periods of intense investor interest in land acquisition, and have developed some legal protections for the rights of communities to compensation and/or resettlement following land transfers. However, gender-blindness in these provisions permits the perpetuation of practices which negatively impact women’s access to land and overall well-being.

The paper begins by surveying the relevant legal framework for each country, followed by a discussion of compensation and resettlement in practice, informed by a combination of a literature review and field research conducted by in-country partners. It then identifies key regulatory gaps, and proposes specific regulatory reforms to 1) improve women’s participation and representation, 2) ensure women’s inclusion in compensation, and 3) address loss of communal resources and infrastructure in a gender-sensitive manner. 

Keywords: gender, women, land acquisitions, resettlement, compensation

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Development, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Land Grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Mozambique, Tanzania

Year: 2017

Making Women’s Voices Count in Community Decision-Making on Land Investments


Salcedo-La Viña, Celine, and Maitri Morarji. 2016. “Making Women’s Voices Count in Community Decision-Making on Land Investments.” Working Paper, World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C.

Authors: Celine Salcedo-La Viña, Morarji Maitri


The adverse impacts of commercialization and large scale land acquisitions in the global South are often disproportionately borne by women. The loss of access to farmland and common areas hit women harder than men in many communities, and women are often excluded from compensation and benefit schemes. Women’s social disadvantages, including their lack of formal land rights and generally subordinate position, make it difficult for them to voice their interests in the management and proposed allocation of community land to investors. While the development community and civil society have pushed for standards and safeguard policies that promote the meaningful involvement of rural communities generally in land acquisitions and investments, strengthening the participation of women as a distinct stakeholder group requires specific attention.

This working paper examines options for strengthening women’s participatory rights in the face of increasing commercial pressures on land in three countries: Mozambique, Tanzania, and the Philippines. It focuses on how regulatory reform—reforms in the rules, regulations, guidelines, and procedures that implement national land acquisition and investment laws—can promote gender equity and allow women to realize the rights afforded by national legal frameworks and international standards. The paper stems from a collaborative project between World Resources Institute and partner organizations in the three countries studied.

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Land Grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Mozambique, Philippines, Tanzania

Year: 2016

Gender and Taxation: Analysis of Personal Income Tax (PIT)


Bategeka, Lawrence, Madina Guloba, and Julius Kiiza. 2009. Gender and Taxation: Analysis of Personal Income Tax (PIT). 58. Kampala: Economic Policy Research Centre.

Authors: Lawrence Bategeka, Madina Guloba, Julius Kiiza


This paper examines the gender dimensions of personal income tax (PIT) in Uganda with an eye on the possible gender biases that may be embedded in the tax system. It further addresses the issue of Uganda’s achievement of substantive gender equality rather than formal equality as regards the impact of taxes from a gender perspective. This is in line with the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). The paper critically examines Uganda’s tax laws that seem to have formal equality, treating all people as if they are the same and synonymous with equality of opportunity. Yet, substantive equality recognizes that people are not the same. Equal treatment may therefore not be equitable. Accordingly, the paper examines the extent to which Uganda’s tax laws and practices are, through affirmative action, geared to the achievement of substantive equality or the attainment of equal outcomes. We find that PIT paid by different household earning types increases gender inequality. We also find that the income tax system only worsens gender gaps and hardly is a useful tool that could be used to close the gender gaps. This is mainly because the tax rates are applied equally to both genders without due consideration of gender inequality and household composition that is rooted in the country’s social norms and history. Furthermore, we find that more women increasingly fall under taxable brackets in real terms because of the income tax brackets that are not indexed to inflation. The paper proposes how PIT could be reformed with a view to using taxation as a tool for the realization of substantive gender equality.

Topics: Economies, Public Finance, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2009

Economically Empowering Women as Sustainable Conflict Resolution: A Case Study on Building Peace in Uganda through Social Enterprise


Maracine, Lisa Liberatore. 2019. "Economically Empowering Women as Sustainable Conflict Resolution: A Case Study on Building Peace in Uganda through Social Enterprise." In Peace, Reconciliation and Social Justice Leadership in the 21st Century: Volume 8, edited by H. Eric Schockman, 117-30. Emerald Publishing Limited.

Author: Lisa Liberatore Maracine


This chapter argues for the role of social enterprise in building sustainable peace by giving women agency and power in their communities. It will look at these phenomena through the lens of a non-governmental organization, 31 Bits, that offers a valuable case study in the post-conflict Northern Uganda town of Gulu where they employ 100 plus women in a five-year program that equips them to become fully self-sustainable through the creation of jewelry handmade from recycled paper. Their holistic approach moves beyond the nonprofit model of charity and survival for giving their beneficiaries the chance to thrive. In this way, it is not relief or rescue work but rather informal sustainable peace development. When women are economically empowered, their communities are closer to reaching gender equality and achieving positive peace.

Keywords: gender, development, peacebuilding, sustainability, social enterprise, Uganda

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods, NGOs, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2019

Intimate Partner Violence in Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Study from Post-Conflict Northern Uganda


Clarke, Susan, Robyn Richmond, Eleanor Black, Helen Fry, James Henry Obol, and Heather Worth. 2019. "Intimate Partner Violence in Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Study from Post-Conflict Northern Uganda." BMJ Open 9 (11).

Authors: Susan Clarke, Robyn Richmond, Eleanor Black, Helen Fry, James Henry Obol, Heather Worth


Objectives: To determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in pregnancy and to understand associations and determinants. 
Design: Cross-sectional survey. 
Setting: Two rural health clinics in post-conflict northern Uganda. 
Participants: Women attending two rural health clinics for a new service providing cervical cancer screening, who had experienced pregnancy. 
Primary and secondary outcome measures: Data were collected by a questionnaire using validated questions from the demographic health survey women’s questionnaire and the domestic violence module. Data were entered into tablets using Questionnaire Development System software. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed, using experience of IPV in pregnancy as the dependent variable. SPSS V.25 was used for all analysis. 
Results: Of 409 participant women, 26.7% (95% CI 18.6% to 35.9%) reported having been slapped, hit or beaten by a partner while pregnant. For 32.3% (95% CI 20.2% to 37.9%) of the women the violence became worse during pregnancy. Women who had ever experienced IPV in pregnancy were more likely to have experienced violence in the previous 12 months (OR 4.45, 95%CI 2.80 to 7.09). In multivariate logistic regression, the strongest independent associations with IPV in pregnancy were partner’s daily drinking of alcohol (OR 2.02, 95%CI 1.19 to 3.43) and controlling behaviours (OR 1.17, 95%CI 1.03 to 1.33). 
Conclusions: The women in this study had more exposure to IPV in pregnancy than previously reported for this region. Women’s previous experience of intimate partner violence, partner’s daily use of alcohol and his controlling behaviours were strong associations with IPV in pregnancy. This study highlights the uneven distribution of risk and the importance of research among the most vulnerable population in rural and disadvantaged settings. More research is needed in local rural and urban settings to illuminate this result and inform intervention and policy.

Topics: Domestic Violence, Gender, Women, Health, Reproductive Health, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2019

How Formerly Abducted Women in Post-Conflict Situations Are Reasserting Their Humanity in a Hostile Environment: Photovoice Evidence from Northern Uganda


Acan, Grace, Evelyn Amony, John Harris, and Maria del Guadalupe Davidson. 2019. "How Formerly Abducted Women in Post-Conflict Situations Are Reasserting Their Humanity in a Hostile Environment: Photovoice Evidence from Northern Uganda." Gender & Development 27 (2): 273-94.

Authors: Grace Acan, Evelyn Amony, John Harris, Maria del Guadalupe Davidson


Northern Uganda received significant international attention during and immediately after the conflict between the Government of Uganda and the Lord’s Resistance Army, in which over 20,000 women and children were abducted and trafficked. However, globally there has been little investigation into the long-term impacts on formerly abducted women in post-conflict reconstruction, or on their own efforts to improve their conditions. This article presents original photovoice evidence from 13 co-researchers; all members of the Women’s Advocacy Network, a grassroots organisation seeking to improve life in northern Uganda for women. All the co-researchers are from the Acholi ethnic group and were formerly abducted by the Lord’s Resistance Army. They are all engaged in rebuilding their lives in Gulu, northern Uganda. The article seeks to present the work of the co-researchers and explores the long-term needs they identify for formerly abducted women in conflict zones. It also explores how their own experiences with abduction continues to erode the recognition of their humanity, both in terms of how they are perceived by their communities and how they view themselves, and how they are individually and collectively working to reassert their place in the moral universe.
Le nord de l’Ouganda a fait l’objet d’une attention internationale considérable durant et juste après le conflit entre le gouvernement de l’Ouganda et l’Armée de résistance du Seigneur, conflit durant lequel plus de 20 000 femmes et enfants ont été enlevés et ont été victimes de traite. Cependant, à l’échelle mondiale, il n’y a guère eu d’études sur les impacts à long terme sur les femmes rescapées dans les contextes de reconstruction post-conflit, ou sur leurs propres efforts en vue d’améliorer leurs conditions de vie. Cet article présente des données originales recueillies grâce à la méthode Photovoice par 13 co-chercheuses, toutes membres du Women’s Advocacy Network, une organisation de la base populaire qui cherche à améliorer la vie des femmes dans le nord de l’Ouganda. Toutes les co-chercheuses sont issues du groupe ethnique des Acholis et sont des rescapées de l’Armée de résistance du Seigneur. Elles tentent toutes de reconstruire leur vie à Gulu, dans le nord de l’Ouganda. Cet article entend présenter le travail des co-chercheuses et examine les besoins à long terme qu’elles identifient pour les femmes rescapées dans les zones en conflit. Il examine par ailleurs la manière dont leurs propres expériences de l’enlèvement continuent d’éroder la reconnaissance de leur humanité, tant sur le plan de la manière dont elles sont perçues par leurs communautés respectives que sur celui de la manière dont elles se voient elles-mêmes, et comment elles s’efforcent, individuellement et collectivement, de réaffirmer leur place dans l’univers moral.
El norte de Uganda fue objeto de una importante atención internacional durante e inmediatamente después del conflicto entre el gobierno de Uganda y el Ejército de Resistencia del Señor, en el que más de 20 000 mujeres y niños fueron secuestrados y traficados. A pesar de ello, en la reconstrucción posterior al conflicto las investigaciones sobre los impactos experimentados a largo plazo por mujeres que fueron secuestradas o sobre los esfuerzos que realizan para mejorar sus condiciones son escasas a nivel mundial. El presente artículo aporta evidencia inédita, obtenida mediante la aplicación de la metodología de fotovoz; la misma es proporcionada por 13 coinvestigadoras, todas ellas miembros de la Women’s Advocacy Network [Red de Incidencia de las Mujeres], una organización de base cuyo objetivo es mejorar la vida de las mujeres en el norte de Uganda. Todas las coinvestigadoras pertenecen al grupo étnico acholi y fueron secuestradas por el Ejército de Resistencia del Señor. Asimismo, todas están implicadas en la reconstrucción de sus vidas en Gulu, al norte de Uganda. El artículo expone el trabajo que efectúan y examina las necesidades a largo plazo identificadas por ellas como mujeres anteriormente secuestradas en zonas de conflicto. Además, analiza cómo sus vivencias durante el secuestro siguen erosionando el reconocimiento de su humanidad, en términos de cómo son percibidas por sus comunidades, cómo se ven a sí mismas, y cómo están trabajando individual y colectivamente para reafirmar su lugar en un universo moral.

Keywords: post-conflict, human trafficking, photovoice, Uganda, women's groups, Lord's resistance army

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Post-Conflict, Trafficking, Human Trafficking Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2019

Female Labor Outcomes and Large-Scale Agricultural Land Investments: Macro-Micro Evidence from Tanzania


Osabuohien, Evans S., Uchenna R. Efobi, Raoul T. Herrmann, and Ciliaka M. W. Gitau. 2019. “Female Labor Outcomes and Large-Scale Agricultural Land Investments: Macro-Micro Evidence from Tanzania.” Land Use Policy 82: 716–28.

Authors: Evans S. Osabuohien, Uchenna R. Efobi, Raoul T. Herrmann, Ciliaka M. W. Gitau


This paper examined the extent to which Large-scale Agricultural Land Investments (LALIs) has delivered on its promises (e.g. increased productivity, job creation, and rural development, particularly for rural women). We conducted empirical analyses using the Living Standards Measurement Study-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) dataset (macro evidence), which was complemented with two case studies of LALIs in Kilombero district, Morogoro region, Tanzania (micro evidence). The findings from the study revealed that the LALIs have limited effect on agricultural wage. However, the results show that LALIs have a negative association with the welfare of female-headed households located in communities with LALIs. On the micro evidence, we found that female-headed households working in the LALIs earned slightly lower agricultural wage compared to those not working in the LALIs. This implies that the use of LALIs in Tanzania to drive agricultural transformation requires specific targeting of potential beneficiaries.

Keywords: agricultural transformation, labor market participation, large-scale land investments, gender

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2019

Resettlement Post Conflict: Risk and Protective Factors and Resilience among Women in Northern Uganda


Corbin, Joanne N., and J. Camille Hall. 2019. "Resettlement Post Conflict: Risk and Protective Factors and Resilience among Women in Northern Uganda." International Social Work 62 (2): 918-32.

Authors: Joanne N. Corbin, J. Camille Hall


Approximately 1.8 million people were displaced in northern Uganda as a result of the LRA conflict. This paper explores risk and protective factors as well as examples of resilience among women in northern Uganda resettling after armed conflict and internal displacement. The risk and resilience ecological framework is used to identify and understand these factors along the multiple levels of the ecological social system. Risk factors included poor health, loss of instrumental and emotional support networks, and land vulnerability. Protective factors included engagement in livelihood and sociocultural activities with others. Resilience was located in the women’s coping and maintenance of family and social relationships.

Keywords: Africa, ecological framework, economic activities, internal displacement, land vulnerability, qualitative methods

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Health, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2019


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