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East Africa

'Just Women’ Is Not Enough: Towards a Gender-Relational Approach to Water and Peacebuilding

Citation:

Schilling, Janpeter, Rebecca Froese, and Jana Naujoks. 2018. “‘Just Women’ Is Not Enough: Towards a Gender-Relational Approach to Water and Peacebuilding.” In Water Security Across the Gender Divide, edited by Christiane Fröhlich, Giovanna Gioli, Roger Cremades, and Henri Myrttinen, 173–96. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Authors: Janpeter Schilling, Rebecca Froese, Jana Naujoks

Abstract:

Gender is a topic that every large development and peacebuilding organisation mainstreams in its programming. However, often “gender” implies a focus on women. We argue that this is not enough to utilise the full potential of a meaningful and effective integration of gender in specific projects, particularly in the peacebuilding and the water sector. The aim of this chapter is therefore to develop a first gender-relational approach to water and peacebuilding that will help researchers, practitioners and policy makers to better understand and integrate the multiple dimensions of gender. To achieve this aim, we first explore the main trends in and connections between gender on the one side and peacebuilding and the water sector on the other side, before we identify key gaps and crosscutting themes. Against this background, we develop a gender-relational approach based on questions to guide the integration of gender into water and peacebuilding. Our main method is a comprehensive review of the relevant academic literature and reports by key donors, and international development and peacebuilding organisations. Further, we draw on examples from Kenya and Nepal to conclude that a gender-relational approach to water and peacebuilding needs to go beyond a focus on “just women”. There is a need to incorporate heterosexual women and men, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex persons (LGBTI), explore the relations within and between these groups and include other identity markers in the analysis in order to generate a nuanced understanding of complex situations, and to develop effective programming in peacebuilding and the water sector.

Keywords: gender, water, peacebuilding, approach, Kenya, Nepal

Topics: Gender, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, LGBTQ, Peacebuilding Regions: Africa, East Africa, Asia, South Asia Countries: Kenya, Nepal

Year: 2018

Ensuring Women Follow the Money: Gender Barriers in Extractive Industry Revenue Accountability in the Dominican Republic and Zambia

Citation:

Jayasinghe, Namalie, and Maria Ezpeleta. 2019. "Ensuring Women Follow the Money: Gender Barriers in Extractive Industry Revenue Accountability in the Dominican Republic and Zambia." The Extractive Industries and Society, April 15, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2019.04.003

Authors: Namalie Jasyasinghe, Maria Ezpeleta

Abstract:

Social accountability initiatives (SAIs) can be important to help push for oil, gas, and mining revenues to go to communities impacted by extractive industries (EI). Local investments in targeted services and programs can improve development outcomes and address negative impacts caused by EI. Ensuring that women and women’s rights organizations (WROs) are part of SAIs is likewise crucial, without which investments financed by EI revenues may not reflect the needs and interests of women, missing an opportunity to advance women’s rights and gender equality. This article shares preliminary results from a project that involves: (1) research exploring a women’s rights approach to SAIs on EI revenue transparency; and (2) program activities intended to foster joint agenda-setting between WROs and EI revenue transparency civil society organizations (EITCSOs) that distinctly focus on advancing women’s rights. Initial findings suggest that addressing structural barriers to women’s participation, such as socio-cultural norms, women’s lack of ownership of land and resources, gender-insensitive consultation processes, inaccessibility of information, and women’s lack of awareness of their rights, in SAIs related to EI revenue transparency could improve women’s agency. Through this project, WROs and EITCSOs are building advocacy agendas that respond to these barriers to promote women’s rights.

Keywords: gender, women's rights organizations, social accountability, revenue, extractive industries, Dominican Republic, Zambia, transparency

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gendered Discourses, International Organizations, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries Countries: Dominican Republic, Zambia

Year: 2019

'I Know How Stressful It Is to Lack Water!' Exploring the Lived Experiences of Household Water Insecurity among Pregnant and Postpartum Women in Western Kenya

Citation:

Collins, Shalean M., Patrick Mbullo Owuor, Joshua D. Miller, Godfred O. Boateng, Pauline Wekesa, Maricianah Onono, and Sera L. Young. 2019. “‘I Know How Stressful It Is to Lack Water!’ Exploring the Lived Experiences of Household Water Insecurity among Pregnant and Postpartum Women in Western Kenya.” Global Public Health 14 (5): 649-62.

Authors: Shalean M. Collins, Patrick Mbullo Owuor, Joshua D. Miller, Godfred O. Boateng, Pauline Wekesa, Maricianah Onono, Sera L. Young

Abstract:

There is rapidly evolving literature on water insecurity in the general adult population, but the role of water insecurity during the vulnerable periods of pregnancy and postpartum, or in the context of HIV, has been largely overlooked. Therefore, we conducted an exploratory study, using Go Along interviews, photo-elicitation interviews, and pile sorts with 40 pregnant and postpartum Kenyan women living in an area of high HIV prevalence. We sought to (1) describe their lived experiences of water acquisition, prioritisation, and use and (2) explore the consequences of water insecurity. The results suggest that water insecurity is particularly acute in this period, and impacts women in far-reaching and unexpected ways. We propose a broader conceptualisation of water insecurity to include consideration of the consequences of water insecurity for maternal and infant psychosocial and physical health, nutrition, and economic well-being.

Keywords: HIV, water insecurity, maternal and child health, first 1000 days

Topics: Gender, Health, HIV/AIDS, Reproductive Health, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2019

Gendered Climate Change Adaptation Practices in Fragmented Farm Fields of Gamo Highlands, Ethiopia

Citation:

Cholo, Tesfaye C., Jack Peerlings, and Luuk Fleskens. 2019. “Gendered Climate Change Adaptation Practices in Fragmented Farm Fields of Gamo Highlands, Ethiopia.” Climate and Development. https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2019.1618234

Authors: Tesfaye C. Cholo, Jack Peerlings, Luuk Fleskens

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to assess the existence of gendered climate change adaptation practices of smallholder farmers in the Gamo Highlands of Ethiopia. We hypothesized that smallholders’ adaptation practices are gendered because of land fragmentation and gendered division of labour. To explore this, we considered sustainable land management practices as a tool for sustainable adaptation and assessed the effect of land management practices deployed and land fragmentation on intra-household time allocation. The results indicate that although land fragmentation increased hours worked by men and women significantly, fragmentation increased the working hours of men more than women. Application of a larger number of sustainable land management practices increases the mean working hours of women, but leaves unaffected the working hours of men, implying that adaptation practices are gender-biased. Therefore, this study can guide land management decisions by pointing out that fragmentation results in long working hours and adaptation practices may disproportionately affect women.

Keywords: land management, fragmentation, sustainable, gendered, work division

Topics: Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Ethiopia

Year: 2019

Gender Differentiated Vulnerability to Climate Change in Eastern Uganda

Citation:

Balikoowa, Kenneth, Gorettie Nabanoga, David Mwesigye Tumusiime, and Michael S. Mbogga. 2019. “Gender Differentiated Vulnerability to Climate Change in Eastern Uganda.” Climate and Development. https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2019.1580555.

Authors: Kenneth Balikoowa, Gorettie Nabanoga, David Mwesigye Tumusiime, Michael S. Mbogga

Abstract:

Climate change literature is rife with the assertion that women are more vulnerable to climate change, which state is expected to reflect on female-headed households. However, this assertion has however not been empirically proven aside from the general poverty-gender linkages. This study used primary data collected in 2016 from 735 randomly selected households from four districts in Eastern Uganda to construct a gender vulnerability index to compare and explain the drivers of vulnerability between male and female-headed households. The results show that female-headed households were more vulnerable (GVI-IPCC=−0.134) than male-headed households (GVI-IPCC=−0.176). The results further show that disparity in adaptive capacity mediates vulnerability between male and female-headed households. This underscores the importance of proactive interventions rather than protectionist approaches to reducing vulnerability. The study has extended the analytical utility of the livelihood vulnerability index to create a gender vulnerability index for comparing contextual groups of households in Eastern Uganda.

Keywords: gender, climate change, adaptive capacity, vulnerability

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2019

Local Organisation and Gender in Water Management: A Case Study from the Kenya Highlands

Citation:

Were, Elizabeth, Jessica Roy, and Brent Swallow. 2008. “Local Organisation and Gender in Water Management: A Case Study from the Kenya Highlands.” Journal of International Development 20 (1): 69–81.

Authors: Elizabeth Were, Jessica Roy, Brent Swallow

Abstract:

Provision of safe water supplies is a priority for the global community and for villages in Kenya. An extended case study from the highlands of Western Kenya shows that local communities can be successful in self‐organisation for improved water supply, but only by mobilising considerable amounts of investment resources and local collective action. Gender relations are crucial to success, with women having primary responsibility for water management, but more or less hidden roles in community groups. There are legitimate concerns that Kenya's new water laws and institutions may make it more difficult for local community groups to self‐organise, with additional biases against women.

Keywords: water, springs, women, gender, collective action, Kipsigis, legal pluralism, africa

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Political Participation Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2008

Coping with History and Hydrology: How Kenya's Settlement and Land Tenure Patterns Shape Contemporary Water Rights and Gender Relations in Water

Citation:

Onyango, Leah, Brent Swallow, Jessica L. Roy, and Ruth Meinzen-Dick. 2007. “Coping with History and Hydrology: How Kenya’s Settlement and Land Tenure Patterns Shape Contemporary Water Rights and Gender Relations in Water.” In Community-Based Water Law and Water Resource Management Reform in Developing Countries, edited by Barbara van Koppen, Mark Giordano, and John Butterworth, 173–95. Oxfordshire: CAB International.

Authors: Leah Onyango, Brent Swallow, Jessica L. Roy, Ruth Meinzen-Dick

Abstract:

Like many other African countries described in this volume, Kenya has recently enacted several new policies and public-sector reforms that affect its water sector. This chapter considers those reforms in the context of the country's particular history of land tenure and settlement, a history that continues to have a profound influence on contemporary patterns of land and water management as well as on gender relations in water. The chapter focuses on the particular case of a river basin in Western Kenya, the Nyando river basin (3517 km 2), that has its outlet in Lake Victoria. Over the last century, the Nyando river basin has experienced a history that has shaped spatial patterns of land tenure, settlement and water management. The plural land management systems that exist in the basin today are the product of three distinct periods of historical change: (i) the pre-colonial era that was dominated by customary landholding and land rights systems; (ii) the colonial era in which large areas of land were alienated for specific users and the majority of the Kenyan population confined to native reserve areas; and (iii) the post-colonial era that has encouraged large-scale private ownership of land by men and a small public-sector ownership of irrigation land, all against the backdrop of customary norms and the colonial pattern of settlement and land use. Both colonial and post-colonial institutions have largely disre-garded women's rights to land and water resources. Although customary norms are consistent in ensuring access to water for all members of particular ethnic groups, in practice access and management of water points vary across the basin depending upon the historically defined pattern of landownership and settlement. Customary norms that secure the rights of women to water resources tend to have most impact in former native reserve areas and least impact in ethnically heterogeneous resettlement areas held under leasehold tenure. Recommendations are made on how new policies, legislation and government institutions could be more effec-tive in promoting the water needs of rural communities in Kenya.

Keywords: legal pluralism, land tenure, water tenure, gender roles, integrated natural resource management, Property Rights, policy framework, community participation

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Development, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2007

Community Organized Household Water Increases Not Only Rural Incomes, but Also Men’s Work

Citation:

Crow, Ben, Brent Swallow, and Isabella Asamba. 2012. “Community Organized Household Water Increases Not Only Rural Incomes, but Also Men’s Work.” World Development 40 (3): 528–41.

Authors: Ben Crow, Brent Swallow, Isabella Asamba

Keywords: gender, collective action, water management, impact assessment, Lake Victoria, Kenya

Annotation:

Summary
This paper explores community-organized, household water supply in seven communities in western Kenya. We compare water use, labor use, income and the conditions for collective action in three sets of communities: two have protected springs and piped homestead connections; two have protected springs but no homestead connection; and three draw potentially contaminated water from unprotected springs.
 
We find that piped water reduces the work of women and girls, and facilitates home garden and livestock production. Together these changes lead to increased household incomes. Women recognize clear time-benefits. Men, however, experience extra work.
 
No overall pattern emerges regarding the preconditions for collective action.

Topics: Development, Gender, Gender Roles, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2012

Access to Water in a Nairobi Slum: Women's Work and Institutional Learning

Citation:

Crow, Ben, and Edmond Odaba. 2010. “Access to Water in a Nairobi Slum: Women’s Work and Institutional Learning.” Water International 35 (6): 733–47. 

Authors: Ben Crow, Edmond Odaba

Abstract:

This paper describes the ways that households, and particularly women, experience water scarcity in a large informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya, through heavy expenditures of time and money, considerable investments in water storage and routinized sequences of deferred household tasks. It then delineates three phases of adaptive water and social engineering undertaken in several informal settlements by the Nairobi Water Company in an ongoing attempt to construct effective municipal institutions and infrastructure to improve residential access to water and loosen the grip that informal vendors may have on the market for water in these localities.

Keywords: slums, water supply, water markets, institutions, deliberative democracy, household water storage, Kenya, gender

Topics: Environment, Gender, Women, Governance, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2010

Gender Dimensions of Transport in Developing Countries: Lessons from World Bank Projects

Citation:

Riverson, John, Mika Kunieda, Peter Roberts, Negede Lewi, and Wendy M. Walker. 2006. “Gender Dimensions of Transport in Developing Countries: Lessons from World Bank Projects.” Transportation Research Record 1956 (1): 149-56.

Authors: John Riverson, Mika Kunieda, Peter Roberts, Negede Lewi, Wendy M. Walker

Abstract:

Women in most developing countries have limited access to transport services and technology. This lack of transport imposes severe constraints on their access to health, education, and other social facilities and services, making them and their children more vulnerable to serious injury or death as a result of childbirth or another medical emergency. Understanding and responding to women's transport needs are essential for reducing poverty, as reflected in the United Nations statement of the Millennium Development Goals. Many governments and development agencies have learned much from extensive field research and case studies about women's and men's substantially different patterns of mobility needs. In recent years, the World Bank has integrated these gender concerns and needs into its policies and has encouraged borrowing countries to address the concerns of women in their national, regional, and local projects and programs. The World Bank has developed corresponding guidance for the transport sector and encourages its application as appropriate in all the transport investments that it supports. This paper summarizes examples of good practice and illustrates its application in Ethiopia. However, the World Bank's Transport Sector is concerned that the outcomes for women of the interventions that it supports often continue to fall short of expectations. This paper describes the steps that are being taken to improve the effective meeting of gender needs. The paper also highlights the value of participating in a broad network of development specialist groups to share experience of effective good practices and to strengthen the scope for matching specific cultural and institutional conditions.

Topics: Development, Gender, Infrastructure, Transportation, International Financial Institutions Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Ethiopia

Year: 2006

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