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East Africa

Lifetime Prevalence, Correlates and Health Consequences of Gender-Based Violence Victimisation and Perpetration among Men and Women in Somalia

Citation:

Wirtz, Andrea L., Nancy A. Perrin, Amelie Desgroppes, Verena Phipps, Ali A. Abdi, Brendan Ross, Francesco Kaburu, Isatu Kajue, Ezekiel Kutto, Eri Taniguchi, and Nancy Glass. 2018. "Lifetime Prevalence, Correlates and Health Consequences of Gender-Based Violence Victimisation and Perpetration among Men and Women in Somalia." BMJ Global Health 3 (4): 1-12.

Authors: Andrea L. Wirtz, Nancy A. Perrin, Amelie Desgroppes, Verena Phipps, Ali A. Abdi, Brendan Ross, Francesco Kaburu, Isatu Kajue, Ezekiel Kutto, Eri Taniguchi, Nancy Glass

Abstract:

Background Humanitarian emergencies increase the risk of gender-based violence (GBV). We estimated the prevalence of GBV victimisation and perpetration among women and men in urban settings across Somalia, which has faced decades of war and natural disasters that have resulted in massive population displacements.

Methods A population-based survey was conducted in 14 urban areas across Somalia between December 2014 and November 2015.

Results A total of 2376 women and 2257 men participated in the survey. One in five men (22.2%, 95% CI 20.5 to 23.9) and one in seven (15.5%; 95% CI 14.1 to 17.0) women reported physical or sexual violence victimisation during childhood. Among women, 35.6% (95% CI 33.4 to 37.9) reported adult lifetime experiences of physical or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and 16.5% (95% CI 15.1 to 18.1) reported adult lifetime experience of physical or sexual non-partner violence (NPV). Almost one-third of men (31.2%; 95% CI 29.4 to 33.1) reported victimisation as an adult, the majority of which was physical violence. Twenty-two per cent (21.7%; 95% CI 19.5 to 24.1) of men reported lifetime sexual or physical IPV perpetration and 8.1% (95% CI 7.1 to 9.3) reported lifetime sexual or physical NPV perpetration. Minority clan membership, displacement, exposure to parental violence and violence during childhood were common correlates of IPV and NPV victimisation and perpetration among women and men. Victimisation and perpetration were also strongly associated with recent depression and experiences of miscarriage or stillbirth.

Conclusion GBV is prevalent and spans all regions of Somalia. Programmes that support nurturing environments for children and provide health and psychosocial support for women and men are critical to prevent and respond to GBV.

Keywords: community-based survey

Topics: Armed Conflict, Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Urban Displacement, Domestic Violence, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, SV against women Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Somalia

Year: 2018

The Role of Women in Peace-building in South Sudan

Citation:

Mai, Nyathon James Hoth. 2015. The Role of Women in Peace-building in South Sudan. Juba: The Sudd Institute. 

Author: Nyathon James Hoth Mai

Keywords: peacemaking, gender equality, reconciliation, women's rights, affirmative action, Peace Negotiations, funding

Annotation:

Summary:
“Grounded in the prevalent under-representation of women in peace building processes, this brief explores why women’s role in peace building is critical more generally and particularly in South Sudan. Second, the brief examines the opportunities the recent Agreement on the Resolution of Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (ARCISS) offers women in the upcoming peace building efforts. Third, it assesses the challenges that hinder the effective participation of women in peace building. Lastly, it proposes recommendations that may help address this persistent underutilization of women’s vast skills to support durable peace in South Sudan.

"The paper argues that women’s role in peace building is essential. This is because 1) South Sudanese women have played instrumental roles in resolving past conflicts, which give them experiences and skills that are crucial in the current peace building process, 2) women’s activities in peace building support healing and reconciliation efforts for women are known for bridging conflicts related divides, 3) war impacts on women quite differently, and as such, their needs and peace-building priorities are different from those of men, and 4) it is a constitutional right and an international obligation that women participate in peace-building activities.

"The current peace-building phase in South Sudan offers an opportunity for promoting gender equity, advancing the position of women in the society, mainstreaming women’s perspectives in all the pillars of peace-building and increasing their participation in leadership. This could be done through revision of and recommitment to laws and policies to address historical inequalities and root causes of conflict. However, the patriarchal nature of the South Sudanese society and the associated customary laws, the background on which peace-building works are to be executed, has in the past hindered (may still hinder) women’s participation in public life. These factors are exacerbated by the underlying lack of political will, limited funding, ethnic politics, weak institutions, and the high illiteracy rate among women. Further, these factors could be aggravated by the current move to militarize the government, evident by recent appointments of states’ caretaker governors. While some of these issues are associated with the long-term problems of underdevelopment that South Sudan faces, any meaningful change requires immediate progress on all fronts. It remains to be seen what impact the Transitional Government of National Unity (TGNU) will make towards improving gender equity in building sustainable yet inclusive peace.

"There is a need for gender stratified intensification and tailoring of capacity building efforts, provision of more funding to support women’s role in public life, implementation of the 25% affirmative action across the board, and mainstreaming gender perspectives in all sectors of South Sudan. These initiatives may promote women’s greater participation in peace-building processes, hence sustainable peace” (Mai 2015, 1-2).

Topics: Gender, Gender Roles, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Political Participation, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: South Sudan

Year: 2015

Gender and Land Rights in Murang'a District, Kenya

Citation:

Mackenzie, Fiona. 1990. "Gender and Land Rights in Murang'a district, Kenya." The Journal of Peasant Studies 17 (4): 609-643.

Author: Fiona Mackenzie

Abstract:

Conceptualising rights to land in a framework of legal pluralism, this article explores the historical nature of struggles over land by women and men in a situation of increasing land scarcity. It is argued that the manipulation of customary law and state law is instrumental in increasing gender and, more generally, social differentiation.

Topics: Gender, Governance, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 1990

Climate Change, Gender Inequality and Migration in East Africa

Citation:

Abebe, Medhanit A. 2014. "Climate Change, Gender Inequality and Migration in East Africa." Washington Journal of Environmental Law & Policy 4 (1): 104-140.

Author: Medhanit A. Abebe

Abstract:

East Africa, one of the most volatile regions in Africa, has been suffering from enormous problems caused by population growth, weak governance, war, and famine. Recently, the advent of climate change has exacerbated these pre-existing problems. These impacts are not felt equally across populations, and, according to various studies, disproportionately affect women. Despite reforms, rural East African women still struggle to access resources or participate in decision-making processes. As a result, they have a weaker ability to adapt to climate change than men. This weaker adaptive capacity influences migration patterns between the genders, and creates its own set of problems. Indeed, migration influenced by climate change forces women to take greater roles at home and confront increased violence. While not fully understood, there is growing evidence of the connection between climate change, migration, and gender disparities. Addressing these issues in isolation cannot bring a sustainable solution, but this article will explore the legal and policy measures needed to solve the complex societal and ecological problems facing the region. Through international collaboration, East Africa can take action to improve the lives of women, limit violence, and fight back against the rapidly changing climate.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Africa, East Africa

Year: 2014

Sexual Violence in Burundi: Victims, Perpetrators, and the Role of Conflict

Citation:

Dijkman, Nathalie E. J. et al. 2014. “Sexual Violence in Burundi: Victims, Perpetrators, and the Role of Conflict.” HiCN Working Paper 172, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton. http://www.hicn.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/HiCN-WP-172.pdf.

Authors: Nathalie Dijkman, Catrien Bijleveld, Philip Verwimp

Abstract:

In this paper we shed light on sexual violence in Burundi in the aftermath of its civil war. By presenting the results of a mixed-method research we discuss five topics: prevalence of sexual violence, a profile of victims, a profile of perpetrators, sexual violence’s relation to civil war and its current legal reactions and challenges. By means of multivariate regression analyses we predict women’s vulnerability to sexual- and gender based violence (GBV) in the context of war compared to everyday life. We find that age, schooling, living in an IDP camp and household wealth before the civil war have significantly different effects on GBV in both contexts. Many uniformed and armed men committed sexual violence during the war, and it appears that today ex-combatants and military continue to do so. From qualitative interviews we find several factors that connect Burundi’s past conflict to today’s violence, among which a weakened solidarity in communities and a problematic integration of excombatants in society. Impunity marks life in today’s Burundi, in particular in relation to persisting sexual violence. A thorough reconciliation or adjudication process since the civil war, as well as today’s difficulties to prosecute and pursue perpetrators, are among the main challenges for countering sexual violence in Burundi.

Topics: Age, Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Class, Combatants, Male Combatants, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Education, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Justice, Impunity, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Burundi

Year: 2014

Filling the Legal Void? Impacts of a Community-Based Legal Aid Program on Women’s Land-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices

Citation:

Mueller, Valerie, Lucy Billings, Tewodaj Mogues, Amber Peterman, and Ayala Wineman. 2018. “Filling the Legal Void? Impacts of a Community-Based Legal Aid Program on Women’s Land-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices.” Oxford Development Studies 46 (4): 453–69.

Authors: Valerie Mueller, Lucy Billings , Tewodaj Mogues, Amber Peterman, Ayala Wineman

Abstract:

Securing women’s property rights improves overall welfare. While governments in Africa often make provisions for gender-equal legal rights, the dichotomy between de jure and customary practices remains. Community-based legal aid (CBLA) has been promoted to address this chasm through provision of free legal aid and education. We evaluate a one-year CBLA program in Tanzania using a randomized controlled trial. Results show women in treatment communities had higher exposure to legal services and increased their legal knowledge. Women who had access to a trained voluntary paralegal experienced a 0.31 standard deviation increase in a legal service index, and a 0.20 standard deviation increase in an index documenting their knowledge of land-related regulations. These changes were, however, insufficient to shift women’s attitudes or result in more favorable gendered land practices. Estimates by village size and progressiveness reveal that transaction costs and social context influence program success.

Topics: Education, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2018

Gendered Reporting of Household Dynamics in the Kenyan Dairy Sector: Trends and Implications for Low Emissions Dairy Development

Citation:

Tavenner, Katie, Simon Fraval, Immaculate Omondi, and Todd A. Crane. 2018. “Gendered Reporting of Household Dynamics in the Kenyan Dairy Sector: Trends and Implications for Low Emissions Dairy Development.” Gender, Technology and Development 22 (1): 1-19.

Authors: Katie Tavenner, Simon Fraval, Immaculate Omondi, Todd A. Crane

Abstract:

Within the Kenyan dairy sector, climate change mitigation interventions are striving to sustainably intensify milk production while addressing the gender dynamics that mediate farmers’ ability to effectively participate in, and benefit from, low emissions development. In order to better understand these gender dynamics, household surveys were deployed by the East African Dairy Development (EADD) program to collect information on current practices of decision-making, resources, and labor dynamics within dairy farm households. Using the EADD survey results as secondary data, this study analyzes emergent patterns in these domains among cattle-keeping households in Bomet, Nandi, Uasin Gishu, and Kericho counties in Western Kenya. In analyzing these patterns, paired sample tests revealed statistically significant differences in results based on the gender of the respondent. While there were some categories that women and men reported on similarly, other areas were hotly contested. These results provide important challenges, both methodologically and programmatically, in interpreting gender dynamics across these domains. This paper reflects on the challenges and the opportunities of these data for informing gender-equitable low emissions development in the Kenyan dairy sector.

Keywords: gender, dairy, household survey, low emissions development, livestock, Kenya

Topics: Development, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2018

Gender Roles in Crop Production and Management Practices: A Case Study of Three Rural Communities in Ambo District, Ethiopia

Citation:

Ogato, G.S., E.K. Boon, and J. Subramani. 2009. “Gender Roles in Crop Production and Management Practices: A Case Study of Three Rural Communities in Ambo District, Ethiopia.” Journal of Human Ecology 27 (1): 1-20.

Authors: G.S. Ogato, E.K. Boon, J. Subramani

Abstract:

A research on gender in agriculture was conducted in Ambo district, Ethiopia, between July and September 2007 to assess gender roles in crop production and management. This article is the first of two papers resulting from this research. The second article is on “Improving Access to Productive Resources and Agricultural Services Through Gender Empowerment: A Case Study of Three Rural Communities in Ambo District, Ethiopia”. A key premise of this first article is that female farmers contribute more significant to crop production and management than their male counterparts. The paper identifies and examines the roles of female and male farmers in crop production and management through a thorough analysis of secondary information and primary data collected in Ambo District with the help of questionnaires, interviews, observations, focus group discussions, participatory rural appraisal, gender analysis and case studies (life histories). Statistical package for social science (SPSS) and excel spreadsheet functions were used to treat and analyze the data. The results of the analysis indicate that female farmers contribute more than their male counterparts in crop production and management. However, despite their significant role in agriculture, the triple roles of female farmers are not well recognized or valued in the district. The promotion of sustainable agricultural development in the district requires that the needs of both rural male and female farmers are addressed in a comprehensive and systemic manner.

Keywords: community development, farming activities, gender roles, non-formal education, productive role, reproductive role, management practices

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Education, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Ethiopia

Year: 2009

Gendered Mobilities and Food Security: Exploring Possibilities for Human Movement within Hunger Prone Rural Tanzania

Citation:

Mason, Ryan, John R. Parkins, and Amy Kaler. 2017. “Gendered Mobilities and Food Security: Exploring Possibilities for Human Movement within Hunger Prone Rural Tanzania.” Agriculture and Human Values 34 (2): 423-34.

Authors: Ryan Mason, John R. Parkins, Amy Kaler

Abstract:

This paper explores the movements, meanings and potential movements of men and women as they seek to secure food resources. Using a gendered mobilities framework, we draw on 66 in-depth interviews in the Kongwa district of rural Tanzania, illustrating how people move, their motivations and understandings of these movements, the taboos, rituals, and cultural characteristics of movement that hold implications for men and women and their food security needs. Results show that male potential mobility and female relative immobility is a critical factor in understanding how mobility affects food security differentially for men and women. We identify the links between mobilities and the development of social capital, particularly amongst men. We also illustrate problems with greater integration of women into the agricultural sector when these women risk stigma and censure from the increased physical movement that this integration requires. Implications from this study are examined in light of gender transformative approaches to agricultural interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. 

Keywords: gender analysis, social norms, poverty alleviation, food production, livelihoods, social capital

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2017

Addressing Women in Climate Change Policies: A Focus on Selected East and Southern African Countries

Citation:

Nhamo, Godwell. 2014. “Addressing Women in Climate Change Policies: A Focus on Selected East and Southern African Countries.” Agenda 28 (3): 156-67.

Author: Godwell Nhamo

Abstract:

This Article responds to claims in the literature that gender mainstreaming is lacking in international and national climate change policy regimes. A scan of climate change policies from selected east and southern African countries was conducted to assess whether climate change policies include gender and women. The focus on women is deliberate given women’s greater vulnerability to climate change impacts than men. The research analysis used a framework modified from the United Nations Environment Programme’s (2011) recommendations on women’s needs in climate change. The main finding is that although the national policies reviewed are in their infancy, with the oldest, the National Policy on Climate Change for Namibia having been put in place only in 2010, the mainstreaming of women’s needs in climate change has gained momentum. However, the empowerment of women by climate change policy varies significantly from country to country.

Keywords: women, gender, mainstreaming, climate change policy, East and Southern Africa

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, International Organizations Regions: Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa

Year: 2014

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