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Central Europe

Women and the Military in Europe: Comparing Public Cultures


Eulriet, Irène. 2012. Women and the Military in Europe: Comparing Public Cultures. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK. t

Author: Irène Eulriet


This book explores how public cultures shape women's military participation within the European Union. It analyzes the way in which different policy options have been elaborated in the United Kingdom, France and Germany and examines patterns of women's military participation across societies.
(Palgrave Macmillan)

Keywords: international relations, gender studies, social policy, sociology of work, organizational studies, economic sociology, military and defence studies

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Livelihoods, Militarized Livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries Regions: Europe, Central Europe, Western Europe Countries: France, Germany, United Kingdom

Year: 2012

The Present Tense of Afghanistan: Accounting for Space, Time and Gender in Processes of Militarisation


Hyde, Alexandra. 2016. “The Present Tense of Afghanistan: Accounting for Space, Time and Gender in Processes of Militarisation.” Gender, Place & Culture 23 (6): 857–68. doi:10.1080/0966369X.2015.1058759.


Author: Alexandra Hyde


Based on ethnographic research among women married to servicemen, this article explores the diffusion of militarisation across time as well as social space. The study setting is a garrison town in Germany during the deployment of women's husbands to Afghanistan. Rather than prioritising the grand narratives of linear time prevalent in IR and military history, however, this article takes into account cyclical and everyday modes of temporality that have traditionally been associated (and undervalued) as feminised ‘zones’, including reproduction, the domestic sphere and local social space. The article explores the temporal register of an operational tour and demonstrates the material, discursive and emotional labour undertaken by military wives in smoothing and converting this rupture into stability through everyday practices. Accounting for the diffusion of militarisation over time as well as space in this way provides further evidence that its causes and effects are intricately gendered.

Keywords: militarisation, temporality, contingency, war, home

Topics: Gender, Women, Femininity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarization Regions: Asia, South Asia, Europe, Central Europe Countries: Afghanistan, Germany

Year: 2016

Interlinking Gender Responsiveness and Participation in Public Budgeting Processes


Frey, Regina. 2015. “Interlinking Gender Responsiveness and Participation in Public Budgeting Processes.” In Gender Responsive and Participatory Budgeting, edited by Cecilia Ng, 18–31. SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace 22. Springer International Publishing. 

Author: Regina Frey


This chapter examines the links between participatory budgeting and gender budgeting discourses, analysing similarities, differences and tensions. What can actors involved in participatory processes learn from a gender discourse, and what can actors working to achieve gender equality learn from discourses on participation? Assuming the main objectives of gender responsive budgeting are gender equality, greater transparency, empowerment of disempowered social groups and more effective budgeting, this chapter discusses the challenges and opportunities for social change in these processes in light of the German experience.

Keywords: GRB, Germany, PB, gender equality, participation, Budget cycle

Topics: Gender, Gender Roles, Gender Budgeting, Governance Regions: Europe, Central Europe Countries: Germany

Year: 2015

Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: a Cross-National Study


Shandra, John M., Carrie L. Shandra, and Bruce London. 2008. “Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: A Cross-National Study.” Population and Environment 30 (1-2): 48–72.

Authors: John M. Shandra, Carrie L. Shandra, Bruce London


There have been several cross-national studies published in the world polity theoretical tradition that find a strong correlation between nations with high levels of environmental nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and low levels of various forms of environmental degradation. However, these studies neglect the role that women’s NGOs potentially play in this process. We seek to address this gap by conducting a cross-national study of the association between women’s NGOs and deforestation. We examine this relationship because deforestation often translates into increased household labor, loss of income, and impaired health for women and, as a result, women’s non-governmental organizations have become increasingly involved in dealing with these problems often by protecting forests. We use data from a sample of 61 nations for the period of 1990–2005. We find substantial support for world polity theory that both high levels of women’s and environmental NGOs per capita are associated with lower rates of deforestation. We also find that high levels of debt service and structural adjustment are correlated with higher rates of forest loss. We conclude with a discussion of findings, policy implications, and possible future research directions.

Keywords: deforestation, women, non-governmental organizations, cross-national

Topics: Economies, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, NGOs Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Baltic states, Balkans, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Year: 2008

The Pink Triangle and Political Consciousness: Gays, Lesbians, and the Memory of Nazi Persecution


Jensen, Erik N. 2002. “The Pink Triangle and Political Consciousness: Gays, Lesbians, and the Memory of Nazi Persecution.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 11 (1/2): 319–49.

Author: Erik N. Jensen


The article presents information on gay, lesbians and the memory of Nazi persecution. The gay and lesbians perceived oppression for a long historical pattern that extended from Nazi era to the presents. The article traces the evolution over the past thirty years of collective memories in both the American and German gay communities in order to show what these communities have remembered and why. The article shows how cleavages in the communities have fostered alternate memories and how the American and German memories reflect different national experiences. Furthermore., many gays and lesbians remain altogether unaware of the historical significance of the pink triangle. Nevertheless, a larger memory has emerged that, despite differences, does contain shared symbols, narratives, and referents and has significantly influenced the consciousness of the broader gay and lesbian community. After struggling through the lean years of the 1940s, most gay men and women sought sanctuary in the economic boom of the 1950s; along with other West Germans, they avoided reminders of a painful past during which some had sympathized with the regime, even as others had faced persecution. (EBSCO)

Keywords: LGBT, United States, armed forces

Topics: LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups Regions: Americas, North America, Europe, Central Europe Countries: Germany, United States of America

Year: 2002

The Possibilities and Pitfalls of NGO Feminism: Insights from Postsocialist Eastern Europe


Guenther, Katja M. 2011. "The Possibilities and Pitfalls of NGO Feminism: Insights from Postsocialist Eastern Europe." Signs 36 (4): 863-87.

Author: Katja Guenther


This article identifies the problems and opportunities facing feminist nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Drawing on the cases of feminist organizing in Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and eastern Germany, I discuss the strategic advantages and disadvantages of NGO feminism, or feminism organized largely around service provisioning for women and the receipt of funds from state agencies and private foundations. I synthesize and move beyond existing scholarly and activist critiques of NGO feminism to identify and evaluate four potentially troubling aspects of this model of organizing, namely, formalization as a path to feminist neutralization, the inhibition of feminist countercultures, the loss of movement autonomy to develop agendas and make claims, and the lack of confrontation with existing structures of power. The article demonstrates the consequences of this type of movement development.

Keywords: NGO, systematic feminism, gendered politics, non-governmental organization, power structures, feminist neutralization

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Development, Economies, Feminisms, Gendered Power Relations, NGOs, Peacebuilding, Political Economies, Political Participation, Post-Conflict Regions: Europe, Central Europe Countries: Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland

Year: 2011

Of "Manly Valor" and "German Honor": Nation, War, and Masculinity in the Age of the Prussian Uprising against Napoleon


Hagemann, Karen. 1997. “Of ‘Manly Valor’ and ‘German Honor’: Nation War and Masculinity in the Age of the Prussian Uprising Against Napoleon.” Central European History 30 (2): 187–220.

Author: Karen Hagemann

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Nationalism, Violence Regions: Europe, Central Europe Countries: France, Germany

Year: 1997

Gender Relations in a Refugee Camp: A Case of Chechens Seeking Asylum in the Czech Republic


Szczepanikova, Alice. 2005. “Gender Relations in a Refugee Camp: A Case of Chechens Seeking Asylum in the Czech Republic.” Journal of Refugee Studies 18 (3): 281–98.

Author: Alice Szczepanikova


This article aims to give an account of how refugees’ family relations are constructed in exile. It is based on fieldwork conducted among Chechen asylum seekers living in a refugee camp in the Czech Republic in April 2004. It argues that although traditional norms defining women’s and men’s position in Chechen families have often been transgressed in the actual experiences of men and women in situations of emergency such as war, flight and life in the camp, they remain relatively unchanged at the level of refugees’ ideal notions of femininity and masculinity. It also shows that the environment of the refugee camp provides, on the one hand, some opportunities for the increase of women’s power in the family and men’s involvement in childcare and household duties. But on the other hand, the assistance in the camp is based on an undiversified and gender-blind perception and construction of refugees as passive objects of aid, and latently sustains gendered violence.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Humanitarian Assistance Regions: Asia, Europe, Central Europe Countries: Czech Republic, Russian Federation

Year: 2005

‘Settled in Mobility’: Engendering Post-Wall Migration in Europe


Morokvasic, Mirjana. 2004. “‘Settled in Mobility’: Engendering Post-Wall Migration in Europe.” Feminist Review 77 (1): 7–25.

Author: Mirjana Morokvasic


`The end of the bi-polar world and the collapse of communist regimes triggered an unprecedented mobility of people and heralded a new phase in European migrations. Eastern Europeans were not only 'free to leave' to the West but more exactly 'free to leave and to come back'. In this text I will focus on gendered transnational, cross-border practices and capabilities of Central and Eastern Europeans on the move, who use their spatial mobility to adapt to the new context of post-communist transition. We are dealing here with practices that are very different from those which the literature on 'immigrant transnationalism' is mostly about. Rather than relying on transnational networking for improving their condition in the country of their settlement, they tend to 'settle within mobility,' staying mobile 'as long as they can' in order to improve or maintain the quality of life at home. Their experience of migration thus becomes their lifestyle, their leaving home and going away, paradoxically, a strategy of staying at home, and, thus, an alternative to what migration is usually considered to be - emigration / immigration. Access to and management of mobility is gendered and dependent on institutional context. Mobility as a strategy can be empowering, a resource, a tool for social innovation and agency and an important dimension of social capital - if under the migrants' own control. However, mobility may reflect increased dependencies, proliferation of precarious jobs and, as in the case of trafficking in women, lack of mobility and freedom.



“Mobility and the capacity to be mobile play an important part in the strategies of these migrants. Rather than trying to immigrate and settle in the target country, migrants tend to 'settle within mobility,' staying mobile 'as long as they can' in order to improve or maintain the quality of life at home.” (11)

“Thus, although the cross-border trading trips engage both men and women, their functioning relies on unquestioned gender relationships and hierarchies which assign to women and men different expectations and positions, to the point that every younger good-looking woman on the 'Polish market' or in the train is considered as a potential prostitute.” (15)

“Besides enabling women a transnational, double presence, combining life 'here' and 'there', the rotation system yields other opportunities for agency. First, women avoid being captured in an institutionalized form of dependency vis-d vis a single employer, which is the case with live-in maids, for instance… Third, in the sector where upward mobility is impossible, and where most of the East European women are de-classed and de-skilled, the experience in a rotation system can be a stepping stone to setting up a business, that is, one's own rotation group, using established local connections and building up a new network.” (17)

“Trafficked women are coerced into a totally dependent status vis-a-vis the trafficker or their employer who usually confiscates their passports and their return tickets. This makes independent mobility impossible and leaves them at the mercy of a rotation scheme across European borders, being transferred from one city to another at intervals within the limits of their three-month tourist visas. The three- month limit means that women are unable to establish long-term connections with the outside world.” (18)

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Trafficking, Human Trafficking Regions: Europe, Central Europe, Eastern Europe

Year: 2004

Trafficking in Human Beings and the 2006 World Cup in Germany


Hennig, Jana, Sarah Craggs, Frank Laczko, and Fred Larsson. 2007. Trafficking in Human Beings and the 2006 World Cup in Germany. 29. Geneva: International Organization for Migration.

Authors: Jana Hennig, Sarah Craggs, Frank Laczko, Fred Larsson


The trafficking of women for the purpose of sexual exploitation received considerable attention prior to the 2006 World Cup in Germany. It was widely suggested that this sporting event would contribute to an increase in prostitution and a sharp increase in the number of women trafficked to Germany for sexual exploitation.

This report investigates whether there is any evidence to suggest an increase in the number of women trafficked to Germany for the purpose of sexual exploitation during the 2006 World Cup. It further examines the measures taken by the authorities and non-governmental organizations to counter trafficking in Germany during the event.

Recommendations are provided to help combat the trafficking in persons during similar major events and to provide a tool for future event organizers, policymakers and relevant authorities and NGOS.

Topics: Gender, Women, Governance, Health, International Organizations, NGOs, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Europe, Central Europe Countries: Germany

Year: 2007


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