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Caribbean countries

Human Trafficking in Conflict Zones: The Role of Peacekeepers in the Formation of Networks


Smith, Charles A., and Brandon Miller-de la Cuesta. 2011. "Human Trafficking in Conflict Zones: The Role of Peacekeepers in the Formation of Networks." Human Rights Review 12 (3): 287-99.

Authors: Charles A. Smith, Brandon Miller-de la Cuesta


While the effect of humanitarian intervention on the recurrence and intensity of armed conflict in a crisis zone has received significant scholarly attention, there has been comparatively less work on the negative externalities of introducing peacekeeping forces into conflict regions. This article demonstrates that large foreign forces create one such externality, namely a previously non-existent demand for human trafficking. Using Kosovo, Haiti, and Sierra Leone as case studies, we suggest that the injection of comparatively wealthy soldiers incentivizes the creation of criminal networks by illicit actors. We theorize further that the magnitude of increase in trafficking should be directly proportional to the size of the foreign force, with larger forces producing larger increases. We find that both hypotheses hold with varying levels of confidence across our three case studies. Despite the benevolent intent of peacekeeping missions, the possibility that they may contribute to human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation runs counter to the spirit of such interventions. This is especially problematic given that trafficking rings, once established, may be adapted to provide weapons and narcotics, thereby planting the seed of further destabilization.

Keywords: military sexual assault, human trafficking, peacekeeping

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Economies, Humanitarian Assistance, Livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Trafficking, Arms Trafficking, Drug Trafficking, Human Trafficking Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Europe, Balkans Countries: Haiti, Kosovo, Sierra Leone

Year: 2011

Engendering Caribbean Security: National Security Reconsidered from a Feminist Perspective


Thorburn, Diana. 1997. "Engendering Caribbean Security: National Security Reconsidered from a Feminist Perspective." Caribbean Quarterly 43 (3): 74-89.

Author: Diana Thorburn

Topics: Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Security, Trafficking, Drug Trafficking Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries

Year: 1997

The Other Half of Gender: Men's Issues in Development


Bannon, Ian, & Maria Correia. 2006. The Other Half of Gender: Men's Issues in Development. Washington, DC: World Bank Group.

Authors: Ian Bannon, Maria Correia


This book is an attempt to bring the gender and development debate full circle-from a much-needed focus on empowering women to a more comprehensive gender framework that considers gender as a system that affects both women and men. The chapters in this book explore definitions of masculinity and male identities in a variety of social contexts, drawing from experiences in Latin America, the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa. It draws on a slowly emerging realization that attaining the vision of gender equality will be difficult, if not impossible, without changing the ways in which masculinities are defined and acted upon. Although changing male gender norms will be a difficult and slow process, we must begin by understanding how versions of masculinities are defined and acted upon. (WorldCat)

Keywords: development, gender norms

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, South America

Year: 2006


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