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Caribbean countries

Haiti: Putting Gender and Peacekeeping into Practice

Citation:

Puechguirbal, Nadine. 2007. “Haiti: Putting Gender and Peacekeeping into Practice.” Focal Point 6 (9): 1,3.

Author: Nadine Puechguirbal

Topics: Gender, Peacekeeping Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries Countries: Haiti

Year: 2007

Militant Heroines and the Consecration of the Patriarchal State: The Glorification of Loyalty, Combat, and National Suicide in the Making of Cuban National Identity

Citation:

Stoner, K. Lynn. 2003. “Militant Heroines and the Consecration of the Patriarchal State: The Glorification of Loyalty, Combat, and National Suicide in the Making of Cuban National Identity.” Cuban Studies 34 (1): 71-96. doi:10.1353/cub.2004.0028.

Author: K. Lynn Stoner

Abstract:

The female combatant, a common icon of Cuban nationalism, is found in every historical period from independence through the post-Soviet period. Unlike most other nations, Cubans have eulogized women who have defended their nation with their own lives and with those of their husbands and children. Yet, for all the fanfare these heroines have received in the nationalist discourse, few scholarly treatments of their lives exist. Instead, their heroism has been used to exalt male leaders and to uphold a patriarchal state. Their martyrdom has served as a model of sacrifice unto death for all citizens to follow. This article examines the nature of Cuban combatant iconography that followed the Cuban wars of independence, the Early Republic, and the Cuban Revolution, and connects that iconography to the purposes of state building in each era.

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Nationalism Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries Countries: Cuba

Year: 2003

The Incorporation of Women in Peace Operations: A Regional Perspective for Latin America and the Caribbean

Citation:

Donadio, Marcela. 2008. "The Incorporation of Women in Peace Operations: A Regional Perspective for Latin America and the Caribbean." The Pearson Papers 11 (2): 42-61. 

Author: Marcela Donadio

Abstract:

The participation of Latin American and Caribbean countries in peace operations has increased by 756 percent since the year 2000. However, peace operations continue to be seen as a military matter only. In Latin America and the Caribbean the participation of women in peace operations is directly linked to their incorporation into the military forces and the police and little has been done regionally to promote a discussion on the incorporation of women into these institutions. Given this context, this article examines the challenges to and opportunities for incorporating women in peace operations in general and within Latin American and Caribbean countries more specifically. The article argues that there exists a clear disposition among actors to address the challenges and to improve practices in all areas referring to peace operations, including the participation of women. The incorporation of women not only represents a sign of openness and democratisation ofLatin American and Caribbean institutions, but also suggests a much larger change in how Latin American and Caribbean countries view and understand peace operations. The incorporation of actors other than the military, including civilians, police and women, is emerging as the cultural and political undertaking of the future.

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Justice, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Peacekeeping, Security Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, South America

Year: 2008

New Roles for Sandino's Daughters

Citation:

Kampwirth, Karen. 2002. “New Roles for Sandino’s Daughters.” In Women and Guerrilla Movements, 21–44. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Author: Karen Kampwirth

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Non-State Armed Groups Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America Countries: Cuba, El Salvador, Nicaragua

Year: 2002

Rethinking Women and Guerrilla Movements: Back to Cuba

Citation:

Kampwirth, Karen. 2002. “Rethinking Women and Guerrilla Movements: Back to Cuba.” In Women and Guerrilla Movements, 117–36. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Author: Karen Kampwirth

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Non-State Armed Groups Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America Countries: Cuba, El Salvador, Nicaragua

Year: 2002

The Politics of Integrating Gender to State Development Processes: Trends, Opportunities, and Constraints in Bangladesh, Chile, Jamaica, Mali, Morocco, and Uganda

Citation:

Goetz, Anne-Marie. 1995. The Politics of Integrating Gender to State Development Processes: Trends, Opportunities, and Constraints in Bangladesh, Chile, Jamaica, Mali, Morocco, and Uganda. Geneva: UNRISD.

Author: Anne-Marie Goetz

Abstract:

This paper provides an assessment of efforts in six of the seven countries to improve public accountability to women in the development process. The paper begins with a brief theoretical discussion of feminist perspectives on the developmentalist state (Part I). It then goes on to provide an overview of some of the more prominent political, economic and social trends of the past two decades, against which efforts have been made to institutionalize gender in state development processes (Part II). In the main body of the paper (Part III), the author provides a historical and comparative analysis of efforts in the six case study countries to institutionalize gender concerns. The picture that emerges is one of extraordinarily fractured trajectories of institutionalization within the public administration. Most of the gender units within government bureaucracy that are studied here have a mandate to pursue their agenda across other government departments — a project that is sometimes called “mainstreaming”. For this they have devised a range of policy instruments (e.g. gender guidelines, gender training) intended to bring about gender-sensitive institutional, policy and operational changes across the public sector in order to make responsiveness to women’s interests a routine part of each sector’s activities. Despite significant efforts, the attempts to routinize gender concerns have for the most part been ineffective because gender units have been unable to provide the necessary incentives to encourage a positive reception in other departments. Some of the critical areas for gender mainstreaming considered in the paper include the national development plan and budget which constitute important public statements expressing politically selected priorities for change and progress, and are based on a macro-economic framework designed to create the conditions under which this national vision can be realized. Efforts so far in the countries studied have failed to ensure a systematic connection between national policy commitments to the integration of gender in development and the budgetary allocations that are necessary to realize those commitments. The chronic short-staffing of gender administrative units, compounded by their weak analytical skills, has tended to contribute to this failure. Equally important, however, has been the political weakness of gender constituents outside the state. In the politics of policy-making a critical point of leverage on decision makers is popular pressure and public opinion — the presence of an active constituency.

Topics: Development, Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Governance, Political Participation Regions: Africa, MENA, East Africa, North Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, South America, Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh, Chile, Jamaica, Mali, Morocco, Uganda

Year: 1995

Women and Democratization Conceptualizing Gender Relations in Transition Politics

Citation:

Waylen, Georgina. 1994. “Women and Democratization Conceptualizing Gender Relations in Transition Politics.” World Politics 46 (3): 327–54. doi:10.2307/2950685.

Author: Georgina Waylen

Abstract:

This article examines the impact of gender relations on democratization. It considers a number of key questions: what role do women's movements play in the transition to democratic rule and what impact does a return to competitive electoral politics have on women and women's movements. The starting point is a critique of the existing literature on democratization. That literature cannot provide a satisfactory analysis of the role of women in transition politics because of the narrow definitions of democracy used and the top-down focus of much of it. The article then develops a gendered analysis through a comparison of the different processes of transition in Latin America and Central and Eastern Europe. It highlights the significance of the relationship between civil society and the state and the existence of “political space.”

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Elections, Political Participation Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, South America, Europe, Central Europe, Eastern Europe

Year: 1994

Gendered, Racialized and Sexualized Torture at Abu-Ghraib

Citation:

Nusair, Isis. 2008. “Gendered, Racialized And Sexualized Torture At Abu-Ghraib,” In Feminism and Wars: Confronting US Imperialism, edited by Mohanty and Riley, 179-93. London: Zed Books.

Author: Isis Nusair

Abstract:

This chapter examines the gendered, racialized and sexualized torture at Abu-Ghraib within the larger context of the 2003 U.S. invasion and occupation of Iraq, and torture and mistreatment of detainees in other parts of Iraq; Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; and Afghanistan. [Nusair] argue[s] that what took place at Abu-Ghraib is not an exceptional and isolated case perpetrated by few bad apples but part of an Orientalist representation that aims to shame and sexually humiliate detainees and reinforce their difference as racially inferior Others. Within this phallocentric binary logic of opposition where the East is represented as backward and barbarian and the West as civilizing and modernizing the naturalness and for-granted authority to dominate the Other is established. It is within this framework that [Nusair] analyze[s] the connection between militarist hyper-sexuality, feminization, and racialization at Abu-Ghraib. In addition, [Nusair] analyze[s] the silence around the rape of women at Abu-Ghraib, and the unveiling and stripping naked of detainees as they relate to the larger system of domination currently at play in Iraq. [Nusair] conclude[s] by analyzing current modes of feminist resistance in Iraq and the strategies used by activists to shape their lives within this highly masculinized and militarized system of control. 

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarism, Militarization, Race, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexuality, Torture, Sexual Torture Regions: MENA, Americas, Caribbean countries, North America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Cuba, Iraq, United States of America

Year: 2008

Human Trafficking: The Unintended Effects of United Nations Intervention

Citation:

Smith, Heather, and Charles Anthony Smith.  2011. "Human Trafficking: The Unintended Effects of United Nations Intervention." International Political Science Review 32 (2): 125-45.

Authors: Heather Smith, Charles Anthony Smith

Abstract:

International relations literature is replete with work on the effects of United Nations intervention on global crises, generally concluding that UN intervention either intensifies or ameliorates the crisis. Yet, the global human rights community has attempted to expose the more subtle and unintended effects of UN intervention, namely, substantial increases in the human sex trafficking trade into crisis areas. In this paper we attempt to bridge these two literatures. We evaluate increases in human trafficking in light of UN involvement in Kosovo, Haiti, and Sierra Leone. We argue that UN involvement has the unfortunate and unintended effect of increasing the rates of human trafficking in these crisis areas. We consider Nepal, where the UN did not intervene, as a control case. Our work concludes that the UN should proceed with caution into crisis areas and have plans in place to avoid the potentially devastating externalities of otherwise well-intentioned efforts.

Keywords: United Nations, military sexual assault, intervention, human rights, human trafficking

Topics: Economies, Humanitarian Assistance, International Organizations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Peacekeeping, Rights, Human Rights, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Asia, South Asia, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Haiti, Kosovo, Nepal, Sierra Leone

Year: 2011

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