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Caribbean countries

Gender, Environment and the Sustainability of Development


Rico, Maria Nieves. 1998. Gender, the Environment and the Sustainability of Development. Santiago: United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean.

Author: Maria Nieves Rico


In view of the close relationship that exists between environmental problems and those of economic and social origin, it is impossible to separate the human and environmental dimensions of development, which are linked both by the aggregate effect of social relations and actions as they influence the natural ecology and by the impact of environmental changes on society.

There is a perception that, as the century draws to a close, global society is witnessing the exhaustion of a development style that is harmful to natural systems and fosters inequality among people. It is becoming increasingly clear that humanity must move towards a new style and a new concept of development based on the criteria of sustainability and equity.

The notion of sustainability has gradually broadened; it was originally applied in the biological and physical context, but has now come to imply the balance that must be struck between environmental, economic, political, social and cultural processes under a systemic, multidimensional view of development that incorporates intergenerational solidarity, social equity and long-term considerations as essential elements. The present document examines the evolution of the concept and the areas of agreement reached concerning it; the study also analyses the discrepancies between the views of different social actors and interest groups, primarily with regard to the actions and decisions that should be taken to achieve sustainable development.

Increasing knowledge about the ways in which women in different groups and sectors of society participate in development has highlighted the interconnection between gender, the environment and sustainability. In the transition towards the goal of sustainability, women have emerged as a force, not only in support of proper environmental management, but also in demands for better quality of life and greater social equity. Recognition of this contribution is reflected in the documents, declarations and plans of action that have emanated from international conferences held in recent years.

Although the women/gender/environment interconnection is a relatively new topic of interest and analysis, it is already possible to identify different theoretical approaches to the subject. Chapter III presents a critical review of the main tenets of “ecofeminism" and the "women and the environment" model and concludes with a discussion of a line of thought that can be termed "gender, the environment and sustainable development", a model which could serve as the starting point for a new approach in the formulation of public policies aimed at sustainability.

In order to design public strategies and policies and adopt instruments that reverse and prevent environmental degradation while at the same time fostering greater equity among the sectors of society, more information is needed about the situation of men and women and how it relates to the state of the environment. The study therefore concludes by outlining a conceptual and methodological proposal from a systemic, cross-disciplinary perspective, with the aim of improving diagnostic analysis and research on the interconnection between the gender system, environmental change and its impact, in the light of the countries' differing local and regional conditions.

Topics: Development, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, South America

Year: 1998

Data and Research on Human Trafficking: A Global Survey


Gozdziak, Elzbieta, and Frank Laczko, eds. 2005. Data and Research on Human Trafficking: A Global Survey. Offprint of the Special Issues of International Migration 43 (1/2). Geneva: International Organization for Migration.

Authors: Elzbieta Gozdziak, Frank Laczko


Human trafficking has become a global business, reaping huge profits for traffickers and organized crime syndicates, generating massive human rights violations, and causing serious problems for governments. Despite the magnitude of the problem, however, it has only recently seized policy makers’ attention.

During the last decade there has been a considerable increase in the number of studies about human trafficking. This review of research and data on trafficking shows that despite the growing literature on trafficking around the world, relatively few studies are based on extensive or empirical research, and information on the actual numbers of people trafficked remains very sketchy. The book, which includes 9 regional chapters, and 3 chapters dealing with methodological issues, suggests a number of ways in which to enhance research and data on human trafficking.

The study includes papers from more than a dozen experts. These papers were first discussed at an international conference sponsored by the Italian government which was held in Rome in May 2004. The volume is edited by Dr. Frank Laczko, Head of Research, IOM Geneva, and Dr. Elzbieta Gozdziak, Research Director, Institute for the Study of International Migration, Washington.

Topics: Gender, Health, International Law, International Human Rights, International Organizations, NGOs, Rights, Human Rights, Sexual Violence, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Africa, MENA, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, Asia, Middle East, Southeast Asia, Europe, Oceania

Year: 2005

Opposing Currents: The Politics of Water and Gender in Latin America


Bennett, Vivienne, Sonia Dávila-Poblete, and María Nieves Rico. 2005. Opposing Currents: The Politics of Water and Gender in Latin America. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Authors: Vivienne Bennett, Sonia Dávila-Poblete, María Nieves Rico


In every part of the world, looming or full-blown water crises threaten communities from the largest cities to the smallest rural towns. Over the past two decades, there has been increased attention at the global level to the devastating effects of water shortages and pollution, and policies and principles for implementing the sustainable management of water resources have proliferated. But scholars and activists are beginning to understand that top-down environmental policies are doomed to fail if they do not address local cultures and customary uses. As the contributors to Opposing Currents illustrate, that failure is most evident in the inability to recognize that women not only should become central to water management at the local level, but that, in fact, they already are. This volume focuses on women in Latin America as stakeholders in water resources management. It makes their contributions to grassroots efforts more visible, explains why doing so is essential for effective public policy and planning in the water sector, and provides guidelines for future planning and project implementation. After an in-depth review of gender and water management policies and issues in relation to domestic usage, irrigation, and sustainable development, the book provides a series of case studies prepared by an interdisciplinary group of scholars and activists. Covering countries throughout the hemisphere, and moving freely from impoverished neighborhoods to the conference rooms of international agencies, the book explores the various ways in which women are-and are not-involved in local water initiatives across Latin America. Insightful analyses reveal what these case studies imply for the success or failure of various regional efforts to improve water accessibility and usability, and suggest new ways of thinking about gender and the environment in the context of specific policies and practices. (University of Pittsburgh Press)

Topics: Environment, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, South America

Year: 2005

‘Their Coats Were Tied Up like Men’: Women Rebels in Antigua’s 1858 Uprising


Lightfoot, Natasha. 2010. “‘Their Coats Were Tied Up like Men’: Women Rebels in Antigua’s 1858 Uprising.” Slavery & Abolition 31 (4): 527-45.

Author: Natasha Lightfoot


This paper presents the story of the 1858 riot and its primary causes, including Antigua's economic downturn since emancipation in 1834 and the dissatisfaction which black working people had with the post-slavery social order. The disturbance originated between dockworkers from both Antigua and Barbuda competing for jobs in Antigua's capital, but expanded to involve hundreds of working-class Antiguans assailing Barbudans, white planters, Portuguese immigrants, and black and mixed-race policemen. As many Antiguan women formed the forefront of the uprising, the article concentrates on the gendered dimensions of the violence, from the brutal acts Antiguan women perpetrated against Barbudan women to their masculinisation in the press and the trial, being alleged to have dressed and carried themselves 'like men' during the fray. The study raises critical questions about the hardships of Antiguan freedwomen in the post-slavery period seeking to maintain their lives and livelihoods, and how those hardships drove them to the front lines of the conflict. Overall, the essay examines the goals of the Antiguan rioters and investigates the changing targets of their violence during the insurgency, as a way to engage their conceptions, however contradictory, of what freedom was and who should enjoy its privileges.

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Violence Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries Countries: Antigua & Barbuda

Year: 2010

Women’s Organisations and the Politics of Gender in Cuba’s Urban Insurrection (1952–1958)


Chase, Michelle. 2010. “Women’s Organisations and the Politics of Gender in Cuba’s Urban Insurrection (1952–1958).” Bulletin of Latin American Research 29 (4): 440-58.

Author: Michelle Chase


This article sheds new light on Cuba's urban insurrection to oust Fulgencio Batista by focusing on two all-women's anti-Batista groups. It charts the origins and developments of the groups, explores their conceptions about the importance of women's political action and examines the impact that participating in the insurrection had on group members. The article complicates long-standing assumptions about women's low levels of participation in the insurrection and the absence of demands for gender equity among those who did participate by noting that some older women militants had histories with the feminist movement of the 1930s, and that many younger women were forced by the circumstances of the insurrection to confront and challenge contemporary gender norms.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, Feminisms, Gender, Women Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries Countries: Cuba

Year: 2010

The National Implementation of SCR 1325 in Latin America: Key Areas of Concern


Luciak, Ilja. 2009. “The National Implementation of SCR 1325 in Latin America: Key Areas of Concern.” Paper presented at the Annual ISA-ABRI Joint International Meeting, Rio de Janeiro, July 22-24.

Author: Ilja Luciak


It is the premise of this paper that sustainable peace and development require the full implementation of Security Council Resolution 1325. The paper calls attention to the importance of implementing SCR 1325 by highlighting key areas of concern with a primary focus on a small sample of Latin American countries, including Colombia, Guatemala, El Salvador, Haiti, and Nicaragua. The paper discusses several recent and current peace processes in the region. It emphasizes that peace negotiations constitute a crucial entry point for considerations of gender justice. Thus it is essential that the process be inclusive. Yet women'€™s participation in formal peace processes continues to be limited and their contributions to informal peace processes are only starting to be recognized. Peace accords and subsequent constitution-building present important opportunities for countries emerging from conflict to transform their political systems toward greater gender equality. Several Latin American countries have advanced in the political reconstruction of their respective societies by instituting constitutional and electoral reforms in the wake of conflict. On the other hand, a discussion of disarmament and demobilization processes in the region and highlights the current lack of attention to gender considerations. Similarly, the gendered needs of refugees and internally displaced populations also require attention. Further, in addition to dealing with violent acts committed during war, governments need to address the security environment that emerges in the wake of conflict. Post-war violence, whether committed in the public or private sphere, plagues many countries in the region.

Topics: Armed Conflict, DDR, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Constitutions, Elections, Post-Conflict Governance, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, Violence Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, South America

Year: 2009

Gender Ironies of Nationalism: Sexing the Nation


Mayer, Tamar, ed. 2000. Gender Ironies of Nationalism: Sexing the Nation. New York: Routlege.

Author: Tamar Mayer


This book provides a unique social science reading on the construction of nation, gender and sexuality and on the interactions among them. It includes international case studies from Indonesia, Ireland, former Yugoslavia, Liberia, Sri Lanka, Australia, the USA, Turkey, China, India and the Caribbean. The contributors offer both the masculine and feminine perspective, exposing how nations are comprised of sexed bodies, and exploring the gender ironies of nationalism and how sexuality plays a key role in nation building and in sustaining national identity.

The contributors conclude that control over access to the benefits of belonging to the nation is invariably gendered; nationalism becomes the language through which sexual control and repression is justified masculine prowess is expressed and exercised. Whilst it is men who claim the prerogatives of nation and nation building it is, for the most part, women who actually accept the obligation of nation and nation building. (Amazon)

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Nationalism, Sexuality Regions: Africa, MENA, West Africa, Caribbean countries, North America, Asia, East Asia, Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Balkans, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Oceania Countries: Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Liberia, Sri Lanka, Turkey, United States of America, Yugoslavia (former)

Year: 2000

Enhancing Gender Visibility in Disaster Risk Management and Climate Change in the Caribbean. CASE STUDY: Water and Sanitation in Rural Communities in Jamaica


Vassell, Linnette. 2009. Enhancing Gender Visibility in Disaster Risk Management and Climate Change in the Caribbean. CASE STUDY: Water and Sanitation in Rural Communities in Jamaica. Barbados: United Nations Development Programme.

Author: Linnette Vassell

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries Countries: Jamaica

Year: 2009

Guerrilleras in Latin America: Domestic and International Roles


Gonzalez-Perez, Margaret. 2006. “Guerrilleras in Latin America: Domestic and International Roles.” Journal of Peace Research 43 (3): 313–29.

Author: Margaret Gonzalez-Perez


This analysis identifies two different categories of guerrilla organizations and the roles of women within each. Guerrilla movements with ‘international’ agendas typically oppose US imperialism, capitalist expansion, or Western culture in general. ‘Domestic’ guerrilla organizations usually take action against perceived forces of oppression within their own nation. These different agendas have a direct impact on the role of women within them. Internationally oriented guerrilla groups assign traditional, limited gender roles to their female members, while domestic guerrilla organizations challenge domestic prohibitions, including those imposed on women, and encourage full and active participation of female members at all levels of guerrilla activity. This hypothesis is supported by comparative case studies of the groups in question. The study of women’s roles within guerrilla movements provides insight into modern political issues, such as insurgencies and other non-traditional methods of warfare. The support of half a population can enable a guerrilla organization to further its objectives considerably, and as female participation increases, the group itself gains power. Thus, an in-depth understanding of women and their relationship to guerrilla movements contributes substantially to peace and conflict studies as well as studies of non-traditional warfare.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Non-State Armed Groups Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, South America Countries: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, El Salvador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay

Year: 2006

Gender and ICTs for Development: A Global Sourcebook


Odame, Helen Hambly, Guihuan Li, Minori Terada, Blythe McKay, Mercy Wambui, and Nancy Muturi. 2005. Gender and ICTs for Development: A Global Sourcebook. Amsterdam: KIT (Royal Tropical Institute); Oxfam GB.

Authors: Helen Hambly Odame, Guihuan Li, Minori Terada, Blythe McKay, Mercy Wambui, Nancy Muturi


Around the world information and communication technologies (ICTs) have changed the lives of individuals, organizations and indeed, entire nations. This book is a collection of case studies about women and their communities in developing countries, and how they have been influenced by ICTs. ICTs can have profound implications for women and men in terms of employment, education, health, environmental sustainability and community development.

Women want information and engage in communication that will improve their livelihoods and help them achieve their human rights. This represents a formidable challenge to all societies in today's world, and especially to developing countries. Due to systemic gender biases in ICTs and their applications, women are far more likely than men to experience discrimination in the information society. Women are not giving up on ICTs. On the contrary, even resource-poor and non-literate women and their organizations are aware of the power of information technologies and communication processes and, if given the opportunity to do so, will use them to advance their basic needs and strategic interests.

Five case studies illustrate the different contexts facing gender and ICTs for development, including e-commerce in Bhutan, entrepreneurship by women workers in China, post-war communication using radio and ICTs in Sierra Leone, sustainable fisheries production in Ghana, and information exchange related to HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean. An extensive annotated bibliography of the international literature on Gender and ICTs for development, rural development in particular, and relevant web resources, complement the papers.

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Asia, East Asia, South Asia Countries: Barbados, Bhutan, China, Ghana, Jamaica, Sierra Leone, Trinidad & Tobago

Year: 2005


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