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Caribbean countries

Integrating Gender Issues into National Budgetary Policies and Procedures: Some Policy Options


Elson, Diane. 1998. "Integrating Gender Issues into National Budgetary Policies and Procedures: Some Policy Options." Journal of International Development 10 (7): 929-41.

Author: Diane Elson


The national budget generally has different implications for women and men, but it is put together without consideration of gender equality. Tools are being developed to integrate gender analysis into appraisal of delivery of public services, composition of expenditure and revenue, and overall budget strategy. A gender-aware budget statement can indicate the extent to which the budget is gender-balanced, and be used to monitor resource allocations and outcomes. The Commonwealth Secretariat is facilitating a pilot project to explore the practical use of some of these tools in preparation and presentation of the budget in South Africa, Sri Lanka and Barbados.

Topics: Gender, Gender Analysis, Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Asia, South Asia Countries: Barbados, South Africa, Sri Lanka

Year: 1998

Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: a Cross-National Study


Shandra, John M., Carrie L. Shandra, and Bruce London. 2008. “Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: A Cross-National Study.” Population and Environment 30 (1-2): 48–72.

Authors: John M. Shandra, Carrie L. Shandra, Bruce London


There have been several cross-national studies published in the world polity theoretical tradition that find a strong correlation between nations with high levels of environmental nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and low levels of various forms of environmental degradation. However, these studies neglect the role that women’s NGOs potentially play in this process. We seek to address this gap by conducting a cross-national study of the association between women’s NGOs and deforestation. We examine this relationship because deforestation often translates into increased household labor, loss of income, and impaired health for women and, as a result, women’s non-governmental organizations have become increasingly involved in dealing with these problems often by protecting forests. We use data from a sample of 61 nations for the period of 1990–2005. We find substantial support for world polity theory that both high levels of women’s and environmental NGOs per capita are associated with lower rates of deforestation. We also find that high levels of debt service and structural adjustment are correlated with higher rates of forest loss. We conclude with a discussion of findings, policy implications, and possible future research directions.

Keywords: deforestation, women, non-governmental organizations, cross-national

Topics: Economies, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, NGOs Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Baltic states, Balkans, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Year: 2008

Must Boys be Boys? Ending Sexual Exploitation & Abuse in UN Peacekeeping Missions


Martin, Sarah. 2005. Must Boys Be Boys? Ending Sexual Exploitation & Abuse in UN Peacekeeping Missions. Washington DC: Refugees International.

Author: Sarah Martin

Topics: Gender, Men, Boys, Masculinity/ies, Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries Countries: Haiti, Liberia

Year: 2005

UN Peacekeeping Economies and Local Sex Industries: Connections and Implications


Jennings, Kathleen M., and Vesna Nikolić-Ristanović. 2009. “UN Peacekeeping Economies and Local Sex Industries: Connections and Implications.” MICROCON Working Paper 17, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton.

Authors: Kathleen M. Jennings, Vesna Nikolić-Ristanović


“Peacekeeping economies” have not been subject to much analysis of either their economic or socio-cultural and political impacts. This paper uses a gendered lens to explore some ramifications and lasting implications of peacekeeping economies, drawing on examples from four post-conflict countries with past or ongoing United Nations peacekeeping missions: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Liberia, and Haiti. The paper is particularly concerned with the interplay between the peacekeeping economy and the sex industry. It examines some of the characteristics and impacts of peacekeeping economies, arguing that these are highly gendered – but that the “normalization” of peacekeeping economies allows these effects to be overlooked or obscured. It also contends that these gendered characteristics and impacts have (or are likely have) broad and lasting consequences. Finally, the paper considers the initial impacts of UN efforts to tackle negative impacts of peacekeeping economies, particularly the zero-tolerance policy against sexual exploitation and the effort to “mainstream” gender and promote gender equality in and through peacekeeping. The paper suggests that the existence and potential long- term perpetuation of a highly gendered peacekeeping economy threatens to undermine the gender goals and objectives that are a component of most peace operations. 

Topics: Economies, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, International Organizations, Peacekeeping, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Haiti, Kosovo, Liberia

Year: 2009

Beyond Exploitation and Integration: New Scholarship on Women in Latin America


Flora, Cornelia Butler. 1998. “Beyond Exploitation and Integration: New Scholarship on Women in Latin America.” Latin American Research Review 33 (2): 245–57.

Author: Cornelia Butler Flora

Topics: Economies, Gender, Women, Political Economies Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, South America

Year: 1998

After the Earthquake: Gender Inequality and Transformation in Post-Disaster Haiti


Horton, L. 2012. “After the Earthquake: Gender Inequality and Transformation in Post-Disaster Haiti.” Gender and Development 20 (2), 295-308.

Author: L. Horton


This paper explores gender inequalities and transformations following Haiti's devastating 2010 earthquake. Post-disaster experiences of women are located in a wider context of a longer term gender crisis. The paper argues that patterns of gender exclusion occur on multiple levels from the transnational to the local, and identifies gender-specific obstacles in the recovery and reconstruction period. In Haiti, these include meeting family survival needs, violence and exploitation, and class and racially based stigmatisation. The paper concludes with an exploration of the post-disaster organisational and caretaking work of Haitian women. It contends that recognition and support of women's capacities is critical in shifting from short-term relief to longer-term gender transformation.

Keywords: Haiti, reconstruction

Topics: Class, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Violence Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries Countries: Haiti

Year: 2012

The Making of a Transnational Community: Migration, Development, and Cultural Change in the Dominican Republic


Georges, Eugena. 1990. The Making of a Transnational Community: Migration, Development, and Cultural Change in the Dominican Republic. New York: Columbia University Press.

Author: Eugena Georges


This book is specifically concerned with the less well-studied sending side of the migration continuum and offers a close-range view from the migrants' communities of origin. It is an anthropological study of how US-bound migration from a village in the Dominican Republic, Los Pinos, and from its surrounding countryside, has been initiated, organized, and articulated with larger social and economic processes through time. It is also an ethnographic account of the various consequences of international migration for those who remain in Los Pinos. Issues central to the study include: the essential characteristics of documented and undocumented migrants to the USA and their reasons for migration; the consequences of intensive migration for the local society in general and its economic development in particular; whether international migration has significantly enhanced social mobility and altered local social structure; whether gender relations and women's status changed as a consequence of migration; and the ideological and cultural impact of migration on those still in the community. The structural-historical perspective provides a valuable framework for identifying the political and economic forces that condition migration at the macro level. However, the concrete process of migration becomes intelligible only when adequate attention is also paid to intermediate processes operating on the ground: the organization of households, the composition of networks, and the local formation of classes and class segments. The study assesses migration from Los Pinos in the context of Dominican state policies and the broader constraints of the world system in which the republic is enmeshed. (EBSCO) 

Topics: Class, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Households Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, North America Countries: Dominican Republic, United States of America

Year: 1990

Exercising Exit, Voice and Loyalty: A Gender Perspective on Transnationalism in Haiti


Gammage, Sarah. 2004. “Exercising Exit, Voice and Loyalty: A Gender Perspective on Transnationalism in Haiti.” Development and Change 35 (4): 743–71.

Author: Sarah Gammage


This article explores gendered patterns of migration and transnationalism in Haiti. A combination of factors has prompted extensive rural-urban migration and emigration over the last three decades: violence, repression, economic collapse and the implementation of neoliberal reforms have left many Haitians with few options other than to seek a new life elsewhere. Although many Haitians abroad naturalize and take citizenship in host countries, emigration does not mean that ties to their homeland are severed. Indeed, a substantial number of Haitians remain intimately connected to Haiti, visiting, sending remittances and gifts, investing in land and exercising political voice in Haiti and in their country of residence. This article focuses on the gender dimension of Haitian migration and transnationalism drawing on Hirschman's typology of exit, voice and loyalty. These options are uniquely gendered. Although most analyses of transnational citizenship focus on men, women and women's movements in Haiti have also benefited from transnational organizing and the transnational links forged over the past three decades. Through migration, women have participated in changing the financial architecture and political landscape of Haiti. Expressions of voice and loyalty by women are challenging traditional gender roles in Haiti and contributing to an emerging transnationalism that has profound effects on Haitians and their communities at home and abroad.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Gender, Gender Roles, Violence Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries Countries: Haiti

Year: 2004

All in the Family: Gender, Transnational Migration, and the Nation-State


Fouron, Georges and Nina Glick Schiller. 2001. “All in the Family: Gender, Transnational Migration, and the Nation-State.” Identities 7 (4): 539-82.

Authors: Georges Fouron, Nina Glick Schiller


Over the years, feminist scholarship has illuminated the ways in which genders are differentiated and gender hierarchies are constituted as part of the way women and men learn to identify with a nation‐state. Much less has been said about the social reproduction of gender in transnational spaces. These spaces are created as people emigrate, settle far from their homelands, and yet develop networks of connection that maintain familial, economic, religious, and political ties to those homelands. The task of this paper is to begin to explore the ways in which gender and nation are mutually constituted within the transnational social fields that link homeland and new land. This paper is exploratory, using a case study of Haitian transnational connections as a catalyst for future investigation.

Keywords: gender, transnational migration, nationalism, Haiti, United States

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Nationalism, Political Participation, Religion Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, North America Countries: Haiti, United States of America

Year: 2001

Gender and Migration


Chant, Sylvia H. 2003. “Gender and Migration.” In Gender in Latin America, edited by Sylvia H. Chant and Nikki Craske, 228-254. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Author: Sylvia H. Chant


Latin America’s highly mobile population is engaged in a vast and complex range of migration flows, most of which are characterized by gender selectivity. One of the main aims of this chapter is to detail the reasons for, and consequences of, the differential involvement of men and women in three of the most prominent migration patterns in the continent: rural-urban, temporary and international movements. The discussion also considers gender dimension of linkages between migrant source and destination areas, and the extent to which different aspects of migration interrelate with and impact upon gender roles, relations and identities. Analysis of these issues is preceded by a brief review of theoretical approaches to migration.

Keywords: rural-urban, temporary labor

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, South America

Year: 2003


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