Caribbean countries

Food Security in Small Island States

Citation:

Connell, John, and Kristen Lowitt, eds. 2020. Food Security in Small Island States. Singapore: Springer Singapore. doi:10.1007/978-981-13-8256-7.

Authors: John Connell , Kristen Lowitt

Annotation:

Summary:
This book provides a contemporary overview of the social-ecological and economic vulnerabilities that produce food and nutrition insecurity in various small island contexts, including both high islands and atolls, from the Pacific to the Caribbean. It examines the historical and contemporary circumstances that have accompanied the shift from subsistence production to the consumption of imported, processed foods and drinks, and the impact of this transition on nutrition and the rise of non-communicable diseases. It also assesses the challenges involved in reversing this trend, and how more effective social and economic policies, agricultural and fisheries strategies, and governance arrangements could promote more resilient and sustainable small island food systems. It offers both theoretical and practical perspectives, and brings together a broad range of policy areas, e.g. agriculture, food, commerce, health, planning and socio-economic policy.

Given its scope, the book offers a valuable resource for a range of disciplines in a number of regional contexts, and for the growing number of scholars and practitioners working on and in small island states. It will be of particular value as the first book to examine the diversity and commonalities of island states around the globe as they confront issues of food security. (Abstract from original source)

 

Table of Contents:
1.Food Security and Sovereignty in Small Island Developing States: Contemporary Crises and Challenges

John Connell, Kristen Lowitt, Arlette Saint Wille, Gordon M. Hickey

2.Climate Change and Food Security in the Pacific Islands
Jon Barnett

3.Development, Global Change and Food Security in Pacific Island Countries
John R. Campbell

4.Lost Roots? Fading Food Security in Micronesia
John Connell

5.Modernisation, Traditional Food Resource Management and Food Security on Eauripik Atoll, Federated States of Micronesia
Andrew Scourse and Corinne Wilkins

6.Framing Food Security in the Pacific Islands: Resilience in Malo, Vanuatu
Matthew G. Allen

7.Postharvest Loss in Fruit and Vegetable Markets in Samoa
Steven J. R. Underhill, Shukrullah Sherzad, Yuchan Zhou, Seeseei Molimau-Samasoni, Semua Militini Tagoai

8.Can the Tropical Western and Central Pacific Tuna Purse Seine Fishery Contribute to Pacific Island Population Food Security?
Graham M. Pilling, Shelton J. Harley, Simon Nicol, Peter Williams, John Hampton

9.Addressing Food and Nutrition Insecurity in the Caribbean Through Domestic Smallholder Farming System Innovation
Arlette Saint Ville, Leroy E. Phillip, Gordon M. Hickey

10.Knowledge, Markets and Finance: Factors Affecting the Innovation Potential of Smallholder Farmers in the Caribbean Community
Kristen Lowitt, Gordon M. Hickey, Arlette Saint Ville, Kaywana Raeburn, Theresa Thompson-Colón, Sonia Laszlo et al.

11.Fisheries Governance and Food Security in the Eastern Caribbean
Patrick McConney, Shelly-Ann Cox, Kemraj Pasram

12.Food Security and Livelihood Vulnerability to Climate Change in Trinidad and Tobago
Kalim U. Shah, Hari Bansha Dulal, Mohammed T. Awojobi

13.The Role of Social Capital in Influencing Knowledge Flows and Innovation in St. Lucia
Arlette Saint Ville, Gordon M. Hickey, Uli Locher, Leroy E. Phillip

14.Eating Meat or Eating Money? Factors Influencing Animal-Source Food Consumption in Timor-Leste
Johanna T. Wong, Brigitte Bagnol, Heather Grieve, Joanita Bendita da Costa Jong, Mu Li, Robyn G. Alders

15.Wild Foods and Food Security: The Case of Timor-Leste
William Erskine, Anita Ximenes, Diana Glazebrook, Marcelino da Costa, Modesto Lopes, Luc Spyckerelle et al.

Topics: Security, Food Security Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries

Year: 2020

Globalization, Agriculture and Food in the Caribbean: Climate Change, Gender and Geography

Citation:

Beckford, Clinton L., and Kevin Rhiney, eds. 2016. Globalization, Agriculture and Food in the Caribbean: Climate Change, Gender and Geography. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Authors: Clinton L. Beckford, Kevon Rhiney

Annotation:

Summary:
The last decade has seen a growing body of research about globalization and climate change in the Caribbean. This collection is a significant addition to the literature on a topic that is of critical importance to the region. It explores research from a number of Caribbean islands dealing with a range of issues related to agriculture and food in the context of globalization and climate change. Using a broad livelihoods perspective, the impacts on rural livelihoods are explored as well as issues related to community level resilience, adaptability and adaptations. The volume is strengthened by gendered analyses of issues and discussions informed by a diverse range of research methods and methodologies. Scholars of Caribbean studies and studies pertaining to social, cultural, economic and environmental issues facing Small Island Developing States (SIDS) will greatly benefit from this book. (Summary from Palgrave Macmillan)

Table of Contents:
1.Geographies of Globalization, Climate Change and Food and Agriculture in the Caribbean

Clinton L. Beckford and Kevon Rhiney

2.From Plantations to Services: A Historical and Theoretical Assessment of the Transition from Agrarian to Service-Based Industries in the Caribbean

Kevon Rhiney

3.Securing the Female Future and Reframing Livelihoods in Post-Sugar St Kitts

Joyelle Clarke

4.Globalisation and Fairtrade Bananas in St Lucia: A Solution to Building Resilience?

Chanelle Fingal-Robinson

5.The Decline of Preferential Markets and the Sugar Industry: A Case Study of Trade Liberalization in Central Jamaica

Dorlan Burrell

6.The Jamaican Coffee Industry: Challenges and Responses to Increased Global Competition

Mario Mighty

7.Multiple Stresses in a Globalized World: Livelihood Vulnerability Amongst Carib Communities in Northeastern St Vincent

Rose-Ann J. Smith

8.Climate Change and Quality of Planting Materials for Domestic Food Production: Tissue Culture and Protected Agriculture

Clinton L. Beckford and Anthony Norman

9.Observations, Perceptions, and Responses to Climate Change and Variability Among Small Farmers in Sherwood Content, Trelawny, Jamaica

Ayesha Constable

10.Factors Influencing Perceptions of Climate Change Among Caribbean Coastal Artisanal Fishers: Case Study of Old Harbour Bay, Jamaica

April Karen Baptiste

11.Future of Food and Agriculture in the Caribbean in the Context of Climate Change and Globalization: Where do We Go from Here?

Clinton L. Beckford and Kevon Rhiney

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Globalization, Security, Food Security Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries

Year: 2016

The Impacts of Large-Scale Biofuel Production in Rural Communities

Citation:

Clancy, Joy, and Jon C. Lovett. 2012. "The Impacts of Large-Scale Biofuel Production In Rural Communities." In Biofuels and Rural Poverty, 50-68. Abingdon: Routledge.

Authors: Joy Clancy , Jon C. Lovett

Annotation:

Summary: 

Large-scale biofuel production offers the prospect of product diversification based on either traditional or new crops. Selling a crop to a new market can help spread the risk of price fluctuation on commodity markets and it can provide an outlet for surpluses. These opportunities are seen as particularly important for many of the traditional sugar-producing countries of the Caribbean and Africa since they offer a means to compensate for the lost revenue due to the loss of preferential quotas and a 36 per cent reduction in guaranteed prices under EU sugar reform. There is also the prospect of refining the biofuels in rural areas, hence the value added by converting the raw material into the final product remains local. The delivery path for large-scale production can be on the basis of agri- business plantation grown crops using wage labour or a central processing plant based on outgrowers or a mixture of the two. Refining first generation biofuel crops needs to take place close to the growing sites since the biomass material generally begins to deteriorate rapidly after harvest. This chapter looks at the socio-economic impacts that large-scale biofuel production is bringing to rural areas, in particular impacts on the assets of small-scale farmers and landless people in rural areas who rely on selling their labour, as well as the distribution of benefits in respect of gender. The focus is on biofuels for export markets, while Chapter 6 looks at the possibilities for serving local markets. One of the major criticisms directed at biofuels has been the vulnerability of the poor to rapid expansion by large-scale biofuel programmes, in particular how this expansion affects their access to land. This chapter, therefore, examines the institutional issues related to biofuels and land tenure. (Summary from Original Source)

Topics: Agriculture, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, North America, Europe

Year: 2012

The Nature of Property Rights in Haiti: Mode of Land Acquisition, Gender, and Investment

Citation:

Kelly, Liam D., B. James Deaton, and J. Atsu Amegashie. 2019. “The Nature of Property Rights in Haiti: Mode of Land Acquisition, Gender, and Investment.” Journal of Economic Issues 53 (3): 726–47.

Authors: Liam D. Kelly, B. James Deaton, J. Atsu Amegashie

Abstract:

In Haiti, two primary pathways to land ownership are through the purchase of land and through inheritance. In terms of inheritance, intestate law treats daughters and sons equally with respect to real property. Despite the formal law, we find that women are relatively less tenure secure on their inherited land than men. In contrast, men and women share similar perceptions of tenure security on purchased land. These differences become manifest in conservation investment activities: tree planting, fallowing, and terracing. We find evidence that these activities are less likely to occur by female respondents on their inherited land.

Keywords: gender, Haiti, inherited land, land tenure

Topics: Agriculture, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Land Tenure, Rights, Property Rights Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries Countries: Haiti

Year: 2019

Listening to the Landscapes of Mama Tingo: From the ‘Woman Question’ in Sustainable Development to Feminist Political Ecology in Zambrana-Chacuey, Dominican Republic

Citation:

Rocheleau, Dianne. 2007. “Listening to the Landscapes of Mama Tingo: From the ‘Woman Question’ in Sustainable Development to Feminist Political Ecology in Zambrana-Chacuey, Dominican Republic.” In A Companion to Feminist Geography, edited by Lise Nelson and Joni Seager, 419–33. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.

Author: Dianne Rocheleau

Abstract:

Summary:
“In the rural countryside of the Dominican Republic environmental change has long been tied to livelihoods and landscapes and enmeshed in struggles for social justice and rights to land. In the early 1990s I went with a team of three other researchers to the rolling hills of the Zambrana–Chacuey region in the center of the country to learn about and document the recent community forestry experience of women and men who had been engaged in peasant land struggles against large commercial landowners for decades. Our goal was to see how gender and class had affected their sustainable development and forestry enterprise efforts, and in turn, how these initiatives had changed gendered social relations in the region. We ended up in a dialogue that I call “listening to the landscape,” since every feature in this patchwork of farms, forests, gardens, and homesteads was tied to stories of individual lives, families, communities, and social movements” (Rocheleau, 2007, 419).

Topics: Class, Development, Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries Countries: Dominican Republic

Year: 2007

Maps, Numbers, Text, and Context: Mixing Methods in Feminist Political Ecology

Citation:

Rocheleau, Dianne. 1994. “Maps, Numbers, Text, and Context: Mixing Methods in Feminist Political Ecology.” The Professional Geographer 47 (4): 458-66.

Author: Dianne Rocheleau

Abstract:

Feminist post-structuralist theory, feminist empiricism, and field practice can all contribute to insights on the value of quantitative and qualitative methods in feminist geographical research. A political ecology study of gendered interests in a social forestry program in the Dominican Republic illustrates the methodological dilemmas and potentials of feminist research on environmental change. The study combined qualitative and quantitative data collection and analytical techniques. Examples from the case study address three methodological questions in feminist geography: (1) Should identity or affinity be the basis for situating ourselves and the subjects of our research? (2) How can we reconcile multiple subjectivities and quantitative methods in the quest for objectivity? and (3) Can we combine traditional positivist methods with participatory mapping and oral histories? The paper draws on theoretical literature as well as field experience to answer these questions.

Keywords: feminist, gender, qualitative methods, political ecology

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries Countries: Dominican Republic

Year: 1994

Fanm Ayisyen Pap Kase: Respecting the Right to Health of Haitian Women and Girls

Citation:

Davis, Lisa, and Blaine Bookey. 2011. "Fanm Ayisyen Pap Kase: Respecting the Right to Health of Haitian Women and Girls." Health and Human Rights 13 (1): 50-61.

 

Authors: Lisa Davis, Blaine Bookey

Abstract:

Only in recent years has violence against women begun to receive international attention as both a public health and human rights concern. This article argues that the right to be free from sexual violence is a fundamental component of the right to health, and the need is particularly acute in post-disaster contexts. This article uses post-earthquake Haiti as a case study to illustrate conditions for women and girls who suffer daily threats of physical, emotional, economic, and social harm in ways that have no direct parallels for their male counterparts. In addition, this article discusses the reasons that the humanitarian response in Haiti has not effectively protected women and girls and has instead exacerbated structural inequalities, making women, girls, and their families even more vulnerable to human rights violations including interference in their right to health. The article argues that the failure to guarantee the right of women to be free from sexual violence — an essential component of the right to health — is due in large part to the exclusion of displaced women from meaningful participation in formal humanitarian interventions.

 

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Girls, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Humanitarian Assistance, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries Countries: Haiti

Year: 2011

A Revolution in the Binary? Gender and the Oxymoron of Revolutionary War in Cuba and Nicaragua

Citation:

Volo, Lorraine Bayard de. 2012. “A Revolution in the Binary? Gender and the Oxymoron of Revolutionary War in Cuba and Nicaragua.” Signs 37 (2): 413-39.

Author: Lorraine Bayard de Volo

Annotation:

The urgency posed by the U.S. “War on Terror” prompted a renewed surge in feminist analyses of war and security, with far-reaching implications for gendered approaches to political violence. The primary focus has been on the United States and its allies. Considerably less attention has been given to smaller nations of the global South, including revolutionary states that resist U.S. neoimperialism. Through the cases of Cuba and Nicaragua, this essay addresses this gap in the literature by training a gender lens on the ways in which the revolutions in smaller nations—first as guerrilla armies, then as revolutionary states—hailed a revolutionary public and discursively engaged with other states by means of certain gendered logics. Gendered analysis of such revolutionary logic is a relatively unexamined means to understand a fuller range of wars and security events. In turn, a focus on armed insurrection and security events of revolution also generates insight into gender relations and efforts at gender equality.

Topics: Gender, Gender Analysis, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Non-State Armed Groups, Security Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America Countries: Cuba, Nicaragua

Year: 2012

‘Even Peacekeepers Expect Something in Return’: A Qualitative Analysis of Sexual Interactions between UN Peacekeepers and Female Haitians

Citation:

Vahedi, Luissa, Susan A. Bartels, and Sabine Lee. 2019. “‘Even Peacekeepers Expect Something in Return’: A Qualitative Analysis of Sexual Interactions between UN Peacekeepers and Female Haitians.” Global Public Health: 1–14. doi: 10.1080/17441692.2019.1706758.

Authors: Luissa Vahedi, Susan A. Bartels, Sabine Lee

Abstract:

The UN maintains a zero-tolerance policy on sexual interactions between peacekeepers and beneficiaries of assistance. Our research describes the lived experience of engaging sexually with UN peacekeepers during Mission des Nations Unies pour la Stabilisation en Haiti (MINUSTAH) from the perspectives of Haitian women/girls. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with Haitian women raising children fathered by MINUSTAH peacekeepers. Transcripts were analyzed according to empirical phenomenology. Adverse socio-economic conditions were key contextual factors. Three themes related to the nature of the sexual interactions emerged: sexual violence, transactional sex, and long-term transactional relationships imbedded in perceptions of love. Most sexual interactions were transactional and nuanced since the peacekeeper assumed the role of romantic and material provider. Sexual consent was conceptualised as the ability to weigh the benefits and consequences of engaging sexually with peacekeepers. Sexual violence was identified among minors and in instances of sexual abuse. This study provides empirical evidence to support a nuanced understanding of sexual relationships between women/girls and peacekeepers. In addition to holding peacekeepers accountable, a harm reduction approach that aims to raise awareness for peacekeeping codes of conduct and provide comprehensive reproductive and sexual education should be considered.

Keywords: Haiti, peacekeeping, transactional sex, sexual abuse and exploitation, United Nations

Topics: Gender, Women, Girls, Post-Conflict, Peacekeeping, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, SV against Women Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries Countries: Haiti

Year: 2019

Las violencias contra las mujeres en los textos jurídicos de América Latina y el Caribe

Citation:

Zurbano-Berenguer, Belén, María del Mar García-Gordillo, y Alba Zurbano-Berenguer. 2019. "Las violencias contra las mujeres en los textos jurídicos de América Latina y el Caribe." Estudos Feministas 27 (3): 1-13.

Authors: Belén Zurbano-Berenguer, María del Mar García-Gordillo, Alba Zurbano-Berenguer

Abstract:

SPANISH ABSTRACT:

Este trabajo estudia las diferencias y similitudes que existen en los diferentes textos legales sobre violencias contra las mujeres en el contexto de América Latina y del Caribe. El objetivo de la investigación es contribuir a los análisis jurídicos de las diferentes legislaciones para expandir el conocimiento jurídico y poder realizar apuestas legislativas de calidad. Los resultados de los análisis, que se basan en las terminologías y conceptualizaciones de las violencias por razón de género, muestran una gran heterogeneidad, reflejo de la falta de consenso social sobre este problema. 

PORTUGUESE ABSTRACT:

Este trabalho estuda as diferenças e semelhanças que existem nos diferentes textos legais sobre as violências contra as mulheres no contexto da América Latina e do Caribe. O objetivo da pesquisa é contribuir para a análise jurídica das diferentes legislações para ampliar o conhecimento jurídico e fazer apostas legislativas de qualidade. Os resultados das análises, baseados em terminologias e conceituações de violência de gênero, mostram grande heterogeneidade, reflexo da falta de consenso social sobre esta questão. 

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:

This paper studies the differences and similarities that exist in the different legal texts on violence against women in the context of Latin America and the Caribbean. The objective of the research is to contribute to the legal analysis of the different legislations to expand the legal knowledge and to make quality legislative bets. The results of the analysis, which are based on the terminologies and conceptualizations of gender-based violence, show a great heterogeneity that reflects the lack of social consensus on this problem.

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Rights, Women's Rights, Violence Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, South America

Year: 2019

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