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Asia

Property Rights and the Gender Distribution of Wealth in Ecuador, Ghana and India

Citation:

Deere, Carmen Diana, Abena D. Oduro, Hema Swaminathan, and Cheryl Doss. 2013. “Property Rights and the Gender Distribution of Wealth in Ecuador, Ghana and India.” Journal of Economic Inequality 11 (2): 249–65.

Authors: Cheryl Doss, Carmen Diana Deere, Abena D. Oduro, Hema Swaminathan

Abstract:

Women’s ability to accumulate wealth is often attributed to whether they have property rights; i.e., a legal personality to own and manage property. In this paper we argue that basic property rights are insufficient; whether women are able to accumulate wealth also depends upon the marital and inheritance regimes in particular contexts. Drawing upon surveys which collected individual level ownership data in Ecuador, Ghana and the state of Karnataka in India, we estimate married women’s share of couple wealth and relate it to how assets are owned within marriage as well as to different inheritance regimes and practices. In Ecuador, married women own 44 %, in Ghana, 19 %, and in Karnataka, 9 % of couple wealth. Ecuador is characterized by the partial community property regime in marriage while inheritance laws provide for all children, irrespective of sex, to be treated equally, norms that are largely followed in practice. In contrast, Ghana and India are characterized by the separation of property regime which does not recognize wives’ contribution to the formation of marital property, and by inheritance practices that are strongly male biased. Reforming marital and inheritance regimes must remain a top priority if gender economic equality is to be attained.

Keywords: inheritance regimes, marital regimes, women's property rights, asset ownership, wealth in developing countries

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Rights, Human Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia Countries: Ecuador, Ghana, India

Year: 2013

The Hillary Doctrine: Sex and American Foreign Policy

Citation:

Hudson, Valerie M., and Patricia Leidl. 2015. The Hillary Doctrine: Sex and American Foreign Policy. New York: Columbia University Press. 

Authors: Valerie M. Hudson, Patricia Leidl

Annotation:

Summary:
Hillary Rodham Clinton was the first Secretary of State to declare the subjugation of women worldwide a serious threat to U.S. national security. Known as the Hillary Doctrine, her stance was the impetus behind the 2010 Quadrennial Diplomatic and Development Review of U.S. foreign policy, formally committing America to the proposition that the empowerment of women is a stabilizing force for domestic and international peace.
 
Blending history, fieldwork, theory, and policy analysis while incorporating perspectives from officials and activists on the front lines of implementation, this book is the first to thoroughly investigate the Hillary Doctrine in principle and practice. Does the insecurity of women make nations less secure? How has the doctrine changed the foreign policy of the United States and altered its relationship with other countries such as China and Saudi Arabia? With studies focusing on Guatemala, Afghanistan, and Yemen, this invaluable policy text closes the gap between rhetoric and reality, confronting head-on what the future of fighting such an entrenched enemy entails. The research reports directly on the work being done by U.S. government agencies, including the Office of Global Women's Issues, established by Clinton during her tenure at the State Department, and explores the complexity and pitfalls of attempting to improve the lives of women while safeguarding the national interest. (Summary from Columbia University Press) 
 
Table of Contents:
1. How Sex Came to Matter in U.S. Foreign Policy
2. Should Sex Matter in U.S. Foreign Policy?
3. Guatemala: A Case Study
4. A Conspicuous Silence: U.S. Foreign Policy, Women, and Saudi Arabia
5. The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly of Implementing the Hillary Doctrine
6. Afghanistan: The Litmus Test for the Hillary Doctrine
7. The Future of the Hillary Doctrine: Realpolitik and Fempolitik

Topics: Gender, Governance, Security Regions: MENA, Americas, Central America, North America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Guatemala, Saudi Arabia, United States of America

Year: 2015

Women and Land Rights in Cambodia

Citation:

Kusakabe, Kyoko, Wang Yunxian, and Govind Kelkar. 1995. "Women and Land Rights in Cambodia." Economic and Political Weekly 30 (43): WS87-92

Authors: Kyoko Kusakabe, Wang Yunxian, Govind Kelkar

Abstract:

After the abandonment of the 'krom samaki' system of collective farming in 1989, both women and men of the People's Republic of Kampuchea secured equal titles to land under the liberalisation process adopted by the government. However, with contradictory and unclear legislation and with no checks and balances, the number of land disputes increased dramatically. This article attempts to understand the effect of this phenomenon on women's social position and on gender relations in Cambodia.

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia

Year: 1995

The Praxis of Access: Gender in Myanmar’s National Land Use Policy

Citation:

Faxon, Hilary Oliva. 2015. “The Praxis of Access: Gender in Myanmar’s National Land Use Policy.” Paper presented at the Conference on Land Grabbing, Conflict and Agrarian‐Environmental Transformations: Perspectives from East and Southeast Asia, Chaing Mai University, June 5-6. 

Author: Hilary Olivia Faxon

Abstract:

In Myanmar, heated struggles around land grabs, acquisition, and formalization fail to acknowledge the complexity and heterogeneity of existing land relations. Gender dynamics are key to shaping these systems, and have been neglected in current research and policy. This paper examines women’s access to land and the emergence of gender discourse in land policy debates through a participant ethnography of the National Land Use Policy consultation process. I explore both ways in which land access is lived by rural women, and feminist contributions to land-based social movements. Attention to the differentiated yet interlinked spheres of the household, customary law, and land formalization enhances understanding of land politics, and women’s presence, gender concerns, and the nascent common identity of the pan-Myanmar women can catalyze effective advocacy for just land reform in Myanmar.

Topics: Development, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Households, Land grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Myanmar

Year: 2015

Stepchildren of Progress: The Political Economy of Development in an Indonesian Mining Town

Citation:

Robinson, Kathryn M. 1986. Stepchildren of Progress: The Political Economy of Development in an Indonesian Mining Town. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Author: Kathryn M. Robinson

Annotation:

Summary:
Dramatic changes caused by a foreign-owned nickel mining company in an Indonesian town provide the setting for this ethnographic study. Robinson notes the changes that took place in Soroako, a village in Sulawesi. The book outlines the effects of this new development, principally in regard to the 1,000 indigenous Soroakans whose former agricultural land is now the site for the mining town. It presents an analysis of developing capitalist relations in the mining town, investigating changes not only in the sphere of production manifested in daily life as new forms of work, but also in culture and ideology. The book also investigates related changes in other areas of social life, in particular that of women's roles, marriage and the family, and the importance of ideologies of race and ethnicity in regulating relations between different groups in the mining town. Furthermore, Robinson shows that new ideological forms have arisen in the context of the evolving class structure. (Summary from SUNY Press)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
 
2. The Mining Town
 
3. The Village of Soroako: Its People and the Beginnings of Their Incorporation Into the Modern World 
 
4. Political Independence: The Village in the New State 
 
5. Land, Labour, and Social Relations in the Preproject Economy 
 
6. Peasants, Proletarians, and Traders in the Peripheral Capitalist Economy 
 
7. Domination and Conflict: The Company, the Village, and the State
 
8. The Wedding of Hijra: Changing Social Relations
 
9. Race Relations and Class Domination 
 
10. Stepchildren of Progress: Ethnicity and Class Consciousness in the Mining Town
 
11. Conclusion 

Topics: Class, Development, Economies, Ethnicity, Extractive Industries, Gender, Gender Roles, Political Economies, Race, Rights, Indigenous Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 1986

Militarization and Gender in Israel

Citation:

Golan, Galia. 2019. "Militarization and Gender in Israel." In: Galia Golan: An Academic Pioneer on the Soviet Union, Peace and Conflict Studies, and a Peace and Feminist Activist: 221-35. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Author: Galia Golan

Abstract:

Many changes have occurred in recent years with regard to the status of women in Israel in general and the effects of militarization on gender in particular. The present chapter attempts to update the picture as well as point to often contradictory as well as disturbing recent trends. Therefore, I shall focus on the changes that have occurred, i.e., what is new, the results of these changes, and the reactions or responses to them (primarily amongst women). I shall not deal with the Palestinian minority in Israel, for whom militarization has quite different effects, including the effects related to gender. This topic has been addressed elsewhere and warrants far greater attention than I can accord in this short chapter. Another caveat is that even within Jewish Israeli society there are vast differences of class, ethnicity, and so on, which do produce differences and refinements in the way militarization affects each of them, some of which may impact on gender. These will be referred to only slightly in the following analysis.

Topics: Class, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel

Year: 2019

Gender Dimensions of Poverty and Food Security: A Case Study of Palamu District of Jharkhand

Citation:

Sharma, Kiran. 2019. "Gender Dimensions of Poverty and Food Security: A Case Study of Palamu District of Jharkhand." Indian Journal of Public Administration 65 (1): 171-88.

Author: Kiran Sharma

Abstract:

A wide regional and inter-district disparity exists in the state of Jharkhand. The rankings of its districts on indicators of development reveal that those located in the north-western parts of Jharkhand including Palamu and its north-eastern parts are less developed compared to the ones falling in the central and western parts of the state (Planning-cum-Finance Department, 2017, Jharkhand Economic Survey 2017-17, Ranchi: Government of Jharkhand). Jharkhand is one of the most poverty-stricken states of India with a sharp contrast between rural and urban poverty. Studies often show that the process of liberalisation and economic reforms in India has a mixed impact on a mineral rich state like Jharkhand. The well-known phenomenon of ‘resource curse’ is particularly observed in the case of Jharkhand where manufacturing sector growth is increasing but the state is lagging behind in terms of human development indicators. The political instability and unplanned exploitation of its mineral wealth without benefiting the tribal population clearly indicate that the state suffers from the deficit of governance and development. It is in this context that this article analyses the patterns of poverty and food security among tribals and other social groups in seven villages of Manatu block under Palamu district of Jharkhand from a gender perspective. The article also explores the factors influencing the dynamics of household food security in Palamu district through empirical findings. It examines how the poor rural/tribal communities cope with food insecurity through case studies. Finally, the article critically analyses the implementation of social policies in addressing food security problem of Jharkhand.

Keywords: gender, poverty, food security, tribes, livelihood strategies

Topics: Class, Economies, Poverty, Food Security, Gender, Livelihoods, Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2019

Sovereignty, Vulnerability, and a Gendered Resistance in Indian-Occupied Kashmir

Citation:

Osuri, Goldie. 2018. “Sovereignty, Vulnerability, and a Gendered Resistance in Indian-Occupied Kashmir.” Third World Thematics: A TWQ Journal 3 (2): 228–43.

Author: Goldie Osuri

Abstract:

Drawing on Iffat Fatima’s documentary film, Khoon Diy Baarav or Blood Leaves its Trail (2015), this paper explores how a gendered Kashmiri activism against human rights violations allows for reenvisioning the concept of an authoritarian and violent Westphalian sovereignty concerned with exclusive political authority and territory. Previous studies of gendered resistance are examined as are reformulations of sovereignty through feminist and Indigenous critiques. Through these examinations, the paper offers a way to rethink sovereignty through the theoretical concept of vulnerability. Such a rethinking of sovereignty may point to an interrelational model of sovereignty where the vulnerability of gendered bodies and the environment may be emphasised. In the context of human rights violations in Kashmir, this reenvisioning of sovereignty may be a necessary counter to the repetitious cycles of necropolitical sovereign power.

Keywords: Gender and sovereignty, Kashmir, human rights, vulnerability, resistance and activism

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Environment, Feminisms, Gender, Governance, Rights, Human Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Pakistan

Year: 2018

Livelihoods for Women in Mindanao: A Post-Conflict Reconstruction Approach

Citation:

Santillan, Karina R. 2015. “Livelihoods for Women in Mindanao: A Post-Conflict Reconstruction Approach.” Asian Journal of Women’s Studies 21 (1): 15–30.

Author: Karina R. Santillan

Abstract:

The conflict in Mindanao has displaced over two million people in the period 2000 to 2009. As it subsides, the displaced return to their communities and begin the process of reconstruction. This paper studies how women contributed to the post-conflict reconstruction of Mindanao by engaging in livelihood activities. It explores five different livelihood intervention projects implemented in Mindanao between 2000 and 2010. The extent of women's contribution to post-conflict reconstruction is measured by identifying the benefits gained at household and community levels, generated by women's livelihood work. I argue that women's participation in such activities have led to economic, social and political reconstruction of the communities affected by in Mindanao. This paper also compares the women's livelihoods approach with other reconstruction strategies. It also illustrates that interventions for reconstruction therefore must include livelihood programs that encourage women's participation, as exemplified by the experience of Mindanao.

Keywords: Mindanao, women's livelihoods, post-conflict reconstruction, internally displaced persons (IDPs)

Topics: Development, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Conflict, Post-conflict Governance, Households, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2015

Gendered Vulnerabilities of Smallholder Farmers to Climate Change in Conflict-Prone Areas: A Case Study From Mindanao, Philippines

Citation:

Chandra, Alvin, Karen E. McNamara, Paul Dargusch, Ana Maria Caspe, and Dante Dalabajan. 2017. “Gendered Vulnerabilities of Smallholder Farmers to Climate Change in Conflict-Prone Areas: A Case Study from Mindanao, Philippines.” Journal of Rural Studies 50 (February): 45–59.

Authors: Alvin Chandra, Karen E. McNamara, Paul Dargusch, Ana Maria Caspe, Dante Dalabajan

Abstract:

Smallholder farmers in the Philippines are typically considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change, yet, relatively little is known about how that vulnerability differs between men and women farmers, particularly in conflict-prone areas. Using the region of Mindanao in Philippines as a case study, this paper presents an analysis of focus groups (n = 14) and interviews (n = 77) to showcase gendered vulnerabilities of smallholder farmers to climate change. This analysis reveals that both climate change and conflict significantly increase smallholder vulnerability, resulting in loss of livelihoods, financial assets, agricultural yield and the worsening of debt problems. Women and men are affected differently, resulting in changing farming patterns and coping strategies. Women are more disadvantaged and as such tend to farm in smaller plots, work shorter hours or limit farming to cash crops. Extreme climate events in conflict-prone agrarian communities appear to subject women to forced migration, increased discrimination, loss of customary rights to land, resource poverty and food insecurity. The paper concludes by recommending implementing climate-smart agriculture solutions that are both gender and conflict sensitive.

Keywords: agriculture, climate change, gender, Mindanao, smallholder, Loss and damage

Topics: Agriculture, Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights, Security, Food Security Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2017

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