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How Do Women Respond in the Context of Acquisition of Agricultural Land? A Micro Level Study in Semi-Urban South Bengal, India


Kanti Das, Bidhan, and Nabanita Guha. 2016.  “How Do Women Respond in the Context of Acquisition of Agricultural Land? A Micro Level Study in Semi-Urban South Bengal, India.”  Indian Journal of Human Development 10 (2):  253-69.

Authors: Bidhan Kanti Das, Nabanita Guha


The state’s ‘eminent domain’ provision under colonial Land Acquisition Act, 1894 is the major cause that forcefully dispossesses the peasantry of their major means of production, that is, land. Though it facilitates rapid industrialization, it has a severe impact on affected persons that often leads to socio-economic impoverishment. Despite the existence of a significant number of studies on the relationship and impacts of development-forced displacement and resettlement in general, only a few studies focus on gender issues. Moreover, there is complete absence of studies on the consequences, which women face in the context of acquisition of agricultural land, where the affected persons are not physically relocated. Based on a micro-level field study, it tries to explore what the affected persons, particularly the women, do when the productive assets like agricultural lands have been acquired for private industries. Furthermore, it tries to examine whether there is any impact on the members of neighbouring families, particularly the women, whose lands have not been acquired. Analyzing the village-level data in an industrial zone of South Bengal, India, it is revealed that land acquisition forced the affected women to go outside for earning, thereby enhancing their position in the family in an agrarian environment. This positively affected the neighbouring women and made them engage in income-generating activities, breaking the cultural traditions of non-participation of women in outside work and patriarchal subjugation, prevalent in peasant societies of India.

Keywords: Land acquisition Act 1894, occupational change, utilisation of compensation money, South Bengal

Topics: Agriculture, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Economies, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Land grabbing, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2016

Improving the Socioeconomic Status of Rural Women Associated with Agricultural Land Acquisition: A Case Study in Huong Thuy Town, Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam


Pham Thi, Nhung, Martin Kappas, and Heiko Faust. 2019. “Improving the Socioeconomic Status of Rural Women Associated with Agricultural Land Acquisition: A Case Study in Huong Thuy Town, Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam.” Land 8 (10): 151. 

Authors: Nhung Pham Thi, Martin Kappas, Heiko Faust


Since the 2000s, agricultural land acquisition (ALA) for urbanization and industrialization has been quickly implemented in Vietnam, which has led to a huge socioeconomic transformation in rural areas. This paper applies the sustainable livelihoods framework to analyze how ALA has impacted the socioeconomic status (SES) of rural women whose agricultural land was acquired. To get primary data, we surveyed 150 affected households, conducted three group discussions and interviewed nine key informants. The research findings reveal that ALA, when applied toward urbanization, has significantly improved the occupational status of rural women by creating non-farm job opportunities that have improved their income, socioeconomic knowledge and working skills. While their SES has been noticeably enhanced, these positive impacts are still limited in cases where ALA is applied toward industrial and energy development, since these purposes do not create many new jobs. Moreover, the unclear responsibility of stakeholders and inadequate livelihood rehabilitation programs of ALA projects have obstructed the opportunities of rural women. To improve the SES of rural women, we recommend that ALA policy initiate a flexible livelihoods support plan based on the purpose of ALA and the concrete responsibilities of stakeholders and investors.

Keywords: agricultural land acquisition, alternative job, socio-economic status, rural women and land use policy

Topics: Economies, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Energy, Land grabbing, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Vietnam

Year: 2019

Impact of Land Acquisition on Women: An Anthropological Case Study on Gokulpur, Paschim Medinipur (India)


Majumder, Arup. 2014.  “Impact of Land Acquisition on Women: An Anthropological Case Study on Gokulpur, Paschim Medinipur (India).” International Journal of Interdisciplinary and Multidisciplinary Studies (IJIMS) 1 (4): 26-34.

Author: Arup Majumder


The acquisition of agricultural land for industrialisation leads to a number of socio-economic consequences. The Paschim Medinipur district in the state of West Bengal is chiefly an agricultural district where more than seventy per cent of the population lives in the rural area and among them majority depends on agriculture and agriculture related occupations. In this paper, we have presented some empirical data on the socio- economic consequences of women of the establishment of the industry on the fertile agricultural land in the Kharagpur subdivision of Paschim Medinipur district in the early 1990s with the cooperation of West Bengal government.The findings revealed that acquisition of agricultural land for industry leads to change among the women as well as children of landloser families who depended on agriculture for their livelihood. Field data showed that the school dropout rate among female members of landloser families have been increased than nonlandloser families. This study has also showed that after the acquisition, livelihood pattern have been changed among the female members of landloser families. Moreover the “age at marriage” have been decreased among the girls of landloser families than non- landloser families.

Keywords: land acquisition, landloser, women, gender, dropout, age at marriage, Industrialisation

Topics: Agriculture, Education, Gender, Land grabbing, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2014

Creating Opportunities for Women in the Renewable Energy Sector: Findings from India


Baruah, Bipasha. 2015. “Creating Opportunities for Women in the Renewable Energy Sector: Findings from India.” Feminist Economics 21 (2): 53-76.

Author: Bipasha Baruah


This paper identifies opportunities and constraints that low-income women face in accessing livelihoods in the renewable-energy sector in India through qualitative and quantitative research conducted in collaboration with The Energy Resources Institute (TERI) and the Self Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) in 2012–13. Whereas previous research has focused on women mostly as end users of solar and biomass technologies, this research attempts also to understand women’s potential as entrepreneurs, facilitators, designers, and innovators. Findings reveal that although access to technology and employment in the energy sector is limited by inadequate purchasing power and low social status, there is tremendous potential to create livelihoods for women at all levels of the energy supply chain. Broader findings indicate that women can gain optimal traction from employment in the energy sector only if there are wider socially progressive policies in place, including state intervention to create a robust social welfare infrastructure and accessible, high-quality, public services.

Keywords: women's labor force participation, employment, poverty, renewable energy, solar energy, biomass

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Governance, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2015

Renewable Energy as Income Generation for Women


Balakrishnan, Lalita. 2000. “Renewable Energy as Income Generation for Women.” Renewable Energy 19 (1): 319–24.

Author: Lalita Balakrishnan


“The promotion of large scale use of renewable energy and the propagation of the concept of sustainable development have been recognised as necessary pre-requisites for improving the quality of life of developing countries, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region, and India has been a pioneer in this worthwhile effort. Energy problems in this region have almost always been linked with socio-economic realities that men and women living in rural areas have to encounter everyday in their lives. To improve the status of women, it has been acknowledged that they need to be helped in acquiring economic independence. Before they can undertake remunerative activities, which will help to improve their economic independence, and also enhance their prestige in the family and their social groups, the drudgery of household chores that they face always has to be reduced considerably, if not eliminated. Towards attaining this objective, the introduction of various renewable energy devices is seen as an important input, apart from its being a solution to problems like deforestation, health-hazards, smoke-related diseases and drudgery resulting from domestic work” (Balakrishnan 2000, 319).

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Environment, Gender, Women, Health, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2000

Renewable Energy Sources and Women: A National Women’s Organisation’s Perspective on Domestic Device


Balakrishnan, Lalita. 1997. “Renewable Energy Sources and Women: A National Women’s Organisation’s Perspective on Domestic Device.” In Proceedings of the Thirty-Second Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, 1767–72. Honolulu, Hawaii: IEEE.

Author: Lalita Balakrishnan


Since its inception in 1927, the premier nongovernmental organisation (NGO) for women, the All India Women's Conference (AIWC), has been working for the upliftment and emancipation of women, and one important activity is centred on meeting the needs of women for energy, particularly for cooking and other household needs, especially where commercial energy cannot be made available to them or the price for the same is beyond their reach. For nearly two decades, AIWC has been implementing various schemes for meeting their daily energy needs both in rural and urban areas, by using renewable sources of energy, including solar power, biogas and improved woodstoves. The results of these programmes conducted consistently all over India through their large network of branches have shown highly beneficial results for rural and urban women, minimising their drudgery and saving them from smoke related diseases. In addition, they also serve to empower women through the income generation component of the programmes along with an improvement in their overall quality of life. AIWC's experience has shown that more emphasis should be given on users' training and awareness and also to strengthen the capacity building of the NGO's implementing these programmes.

Keywords: renewable energy sources, urban areas, law, employee welfare, water heating, solar energy, diseases, educational programs, instruments, legislation

Topics: Gender, Women, Governance, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, NGOs Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 1997

Energy Conservation & Management – Role of Women


Balakrishnan, Lalita. 1996. “Energy Conservation & Management – Role of Women.” Renewable Energy 9 (1–4): 1165–70.

Author: Lalita Balakrishnan


Mahatma Gandhi said about the Planet Earth that there was sufficient resource to meet everybody's need (in the planet), but not for anybody's greed - nothing could be more appropriate at present in the context of the Global Energy situation. Renewable Energy has now been recognised as the only solution to the problem of sustainable development. Among Asian countries, India would continue to remain one of the major consumers of fossil fuels, because of the fast growth in her economy, since the new economic policies were initiated around 1991. With demand far out-stripping supply, shortages of power in India are growing every year with more and more forest covers getting depleted and women everywhere are being affected, directly or indirectly.

Experts have projected that unless the present level of carbon dioxide emissions coming from fossil fuels is reduced to 60% of the present level, there would be a major climatic shift by the middle of 2000 A.D. The Government of India has realised that such a reduction in carbon-dioxide emissions would not be possible unless there is a shift from the present fossil-fuel based economy to a Renewable Energy based economy. The contribution of carbon dioxide emissions from the use of renewable energy is the least compared with those from other fuels, and is of the order of 0.001% per kwh, as against 1.2% per k. wh for coal and 0.6% per k. wh for oil.

Keywords: Gandhi, women, AIWC, wood stoves, biogas

Topics: Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 1996

Linkages Between Women and Energy Sector in Bangladesh


Amin, Sakib Bin, and Saanjaana Rahman. 2019. “Linkages Between Women and Energy Sector in Bangladesh.” In Energy Resources in Bangladesh: Trends and Contemporary Issues, 89–92. Cham: Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

Authors: Sakib Bin Amin, Saanjaana Rahman


Energy and women can be interrelated in many ways. The nature of the energy resource base, the features of the household, the effectiveness of energy policy and the position of women in the households can affect the relationship between energy and women. Women are usually deprived in Bangladesh regarding ownership and access to land, natural resources, credit, information and decision-making, at all levels. The energy industry is one of the most gender imbalanced sectors across the world. This hinders the development process of the developing and transition countries. Since the goal of Bangladesh government is to ensure everyone has access to sustainable energy, it is important for policymakers to understand the crucial and vital connection between gender and sustainable energy. To bridge the gender knowledge gap of macro energy projects, an initiative needs to be taken to unite mitigation practitioners to share optimum practices and insights into mainstreaming gender in the renewable energy sector. Incorporating gender perspectives into energy projects, policy and planning are essential to ensuring their effectiveness.

Keywords: gender, women, rural, Bangladesh, development, cooking, renewable, policy, Energy

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2019

Fighting about Women: Ideologies of Gender in the Syrian Civil War


Szekely, Ora. 2020. "Fighting about Women: Ideologies of Gender in the Syrian Civil War." Journal of Global Security Studies 5 (3): 408-26.

Author: Ora Szekely


This article seeks to map and explain the sudden increase in the appearance of female combatants in the propaganda distributed by various parties to the Syrian civil war. Based on interviews and the analysis of online propaganda, the article argues that the importance of ideologies of gender to two of the four main participants in the Syrian civil war (specifically, the Kurdish Partiya Yekîtiya Demokrat, PYD, and the Islamic State, or ISIS) has rendered gender ideology an unusually salient point of ideological cleavage in the Syrian context. This has meant that other parties to the conflict, for whom gender ideology is less important, are able to easily signal their position in relation to other conflict participants by means of policies or actions relating to women’s participation in the conflict.

Keywords: civil war, gender, Syria, middle east

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Media Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Syria

Year: 2020

Laws in Conflict: Legacies of War, Gender, and Legal Pluralism in Chechnya


Lazarev, Egor. 2019. "Laws in Conflict: Legacies of War, Gender, and Legal Pluralism in Chechnya." World Politics 71 (4): 667-709.

Author: Egor Lazarev


How do legacies of conflict affect choices between state and nonstate legal institutions? This article studies this question in Chechnya, where state law coexists with Sharia and customary law. The author focuses on the effect of conflict-induced disruption of gender hierarchies because the dominant interpretations of religious and customary norms are discriminatory against women. The author finds that women in Chechnya are more likely than men to rely on state law and that this gender gap in legal preferences and behavior is especially large in more-victimized communities. The author infers from this finding that the conflict created the conditions for women in Chechnya to pursue their interests through state law—albeit not without resistance. Women’s legal mobilization has generated a backlash from the Chechen government, which has attempted to reinstate a patriarchal order. The author concludes that conflict may induce legal mobilization among the weak and that gender may become a central cleavage during state-building processes in postconflict environments.

Topics: Conflict, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Justice, Post-Conflict, Religion Regions: Asia, Europe Countries: Russian Federation

Year: 2019


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