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Asia

Gender, Marriage, and the Dynamic of (Im)Mobility in the Mid-Western Hills of Nepal

Citation:

Zharkevich, Ina. 2019. “Gender, Marriage, and the Dynamic of (Im)Mobility in the Mid-Western Hills of Nepal.” Mobilities 14 (5): 681–95.

Author: Ina Zharkevich

Abstract:

This paper explores the relationship between gender, marriage, and (im)mobility in rural hilly areas of mid-Western Nepal, showing how (1) the mobility of men is predicated on the ‘immobility’ of women, with marriage being key to the gendered dynamic of (im)mobility, (2) how the construction of hegemonic masculinity, exemplified by a figure of a successful international migrant, is inseparable from an ideal of femininity vested in the figure of a virtuous domesticated housewife. Examining different scales of mobility, the paper cautions against posing a rigid dichotomy between ‘mobile men’ and ‘immobile’ women, illustrating that the ‘left behind’ wives experience an impressive degree of everyday mobility in contrast to their internationally mobile husbands.

Keywords: Nepal, gender, migration, marriage, mobility, immobility, masculinity, femininity

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Gender Roles, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2019

'Knowing One’s Place': Gender, Mobility and Shifting Subjectivity in Eastern Indonesia.

Citation:

Williams, Catharina Purwani. 2005. “‘Knowing One’s Place’: Gender, Mobility and Shifting Subjectivity in Eastern Indonesia.” Global Networks 5 (4): 401–17.

Author: Catharina Purwani Williams

Abstract:

In this article I analyse the gendered space of transnational mobility by problematizing migrant subjectivity in everyday practices. In line with feminist perspectives I highlight the significance of the micro-scale experience of female migrants from Eastern Indonesia in acquiring mobility as a struggle for new subjectivity. I frame this migration as a production of the subjective space of power. Based on in-depth interviews with returned migrants, I present reflexive accounts of two migrants on contract domestic work abroad to illuminate the changing contours of the relationships between gender, mobility and shifting subjectivity. Households take into account the cultural meanings of space in everyday life including local relations in the decisions on mobility. Strategies of ‘knowing one's place’ reflect women's agency in negotiating alternative roles and positions within the intra-household dynamics and in the workplace. Women's personal accounts have the potential to illuminate spatial processes of migration as a contested space for the repositioning of self in networks of family, kin, local and global relations.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Roles, Women Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2005

Exploring Mobility and Migration in the Context of Rural—Urban Linkages: Why Gender and Generation Matter

Citation:

Tacoli, Cecilia, and Richard Mabala. 2010. “Exploring Mobility and Migration in the Context of Rural—Urban Linkages: Why Gender and Generation Matter.” Environment and Urbanization 22 (2): 389–95.

Authors: Cecilia Tacoli, Richard Mabala

Abstract:

This paper draws on case studies in Mali, Nigeria, Tanzania and Vietnam to explore the different ways in which migration intersects with the changing relations between rural and urban areas and activities, and in the process transforms livelihoods and the relations between young and older men and women. Livelihood strategies are becoming increasingly diverse, and during interviews people were asked to describe their first, second and third occupations, the time allocated to each and the income that each produced. In all study regions, the number of young people migrating is increasing. This is influenced not only by expanding employment opportunities in destination areas but also by power inequalities within households, which means limited opportunities at home. It is increasingly common for young women to migrate, in part because they have no land rights and few prospects at home, in part because of more employment opportunities elsewhere. Young women also tend to move further than young men and for longer, and also remit a higher proportion of their income. Older men expect young men to migrate but often criticize young women for doing so, although women’s migration is more accepted as their remittances contribute more to household income. However, if young women had better prospects at home, it would limit their need to move to what is often exploitative and insecure work.

Keywords: gender, generation, livelihoods, migration, rural-urban linkages

Topics: Age, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Mali, Nigeria, Tanzania, Vietnam

Year: 2010

Diasporic Subjects: Gender and Mobility in South Sulawesi

Citation:

Silvey, Rachel M. 2000. “Diasporic Subjects: Gender and Mobility in South Sulawesi.” Women’s Studies International Forum 23 (4): 501–15.

Author: Rachel M. Silvey

Abstract:

The economic downturn in Indonesia (1997‐99) has changed the context of gendered spatial mobility in South Sulawesi. For low-income migrants in the region, the monetary crisis has not only reorganized the labor market, but it has also brought about an intensification of the stigma placed on young women's independent residence in an export processing zone. Household surveys and in-depth interviews with migrants and members of their origin and destination site neighborhoods, both before and during the economic retrenchment, illustrate that ideas about women's sexual morality are a key part of the context within which migration decisions are gendered. The article situates survey and interview findings within an overview of Indonesia's recent development history, economic crisis, and official state gender ideology. The article argues that migrants and their communities have identified the ‘prostitute’ as a female-gendered metaphor for the crisis, and finds that post-1997 narratives of women's mobility increasingly revolve around normative judgements regarding young women's independent mobility and sexual behavior.

Topics: Development, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Women Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2000

Stigmatized Spaces: Gender and Mobility under Crisis in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Citation:

Silvey, Rachel M. 2000a. “Stigmatized Spaces: Gender and Mobility under Crisis in South Sulawesi, Indonesia.” Gender, Place & Culture 7 (2): 143–61. 

Author: Rachel M. Silvey

Abstract:

This article considers the gender dynamics of a migrant population living in an industrial processing zone on the outskirts of Ujung Pandang, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Based on historical, demographic, and ethnographic analyses of migration linked to this site, the research focuses on the ways that the relationships between morality, migration, and gender are changing for migrants to this zone. As more young women have migrated to join this peri-urban industrial workforce, their presence has spurred a renegotiation of gendered morality, particularly in terms of gendered meanings of inhabiting “public” space and participating in the industrial labor force. These migrants form their gender identities not only through place-bound contact with people in origin and destination sites, but also through contact with the sociocultural norms of migrants from other parts of the archipelago and world, transnational industrial and media expansion, and continued reference to their families' “Bugis values.” Recent research has analyzed the growth of the new female industrial workforce in relation to postmodern production relations and new patterns of consumption. In this article, I build on these studies to explore the ways migrants' cultural struggles around gender are shaped not only by new production relations and consumer aspirations, but also by the interethnic interactions of low-income migrants themselves living in the zone. The tensions that characterize these negotiations mark a historical shift in the gendered meaning of “the local” in the Bugis diaspora.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Gender, Women Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2000

Gender, Floods and Mobile Subjects: A Postdisaster View

Citation:

Resurrección, Bernadette P., and Edsel E. Sajor. 2015. “Gender, Floods and Mobile Subjects: A Postdisaster View.” In Gendered Entanglements: Revisiting Gender in Rapidly Changing Asia, edited by Ragnhild Lund, Philippe Doneys, and Bernadette P. Resurrección, 207-34. Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies.

Authors: Bernadette P. Resurrección, Edsel E. Sajor

Annotation:

Summary:
“This chapter examines how people in a flood-prone coastal area of the Philippines employ mobility as a means to assuage livelihood insecurity in the face of frequent disasters in unequal gendered and social ways. In particular, this chapter is an attempt to understand: (i) how people make sense of their disaster experiences, (ii) the subjectivities that shape and eventually evolve out of these experiences of prolonged insecurity and increasing mobility or immobility, and (iii) institutional efforts to build disaster resilience and secure livelihoods, and their social effects. In short, this chapter examines the role of gendered mobility in people’s post-disaster efforts at resilience-building through livelihood engagements, and which is envisaged to enable a rethinking of gender in the disaster literature that has focused almost entirely on the impacts of disasters on women and men, citing women as a heavily-impacted, homogenous group. Secondly, the fact that women and men move or remain in-place does not influence views about resilience and disaster response, and if it does, it almost always assumes that men are more mobile than women, and thus reap more advantages. We argue that as people move or remain in place, they reproduce and materialize meanings about their gendered and social selves, and thereby influence how they face and deal with disaster risks and livelihood challenges. This chapter will also employ a feminist political ecology perspective that recognizes rural populations as being geographically mobile, where women and men reconfigure livelihoods, introducing new and possibly unequal patterns of access and control, and new forms of environmental governance at different scales (Elmhirst 2011; Watts 2000)” (Resurrección and Sajor 2015, 207-8).

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods, Security Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2015

Gender, Mobility Regimes, and Social Transformation in Asia

Citation:

Martin, Fran, and Ana Dragojlovic. 2019. “Gender, Mobility Regimes, and Social Transformation in Asia.” Journal of Intercultural Studies 40 (3): 275–86.

Authors: Fran Martin, Ana Dragojlovic

Keywords: mobility, migration, gender, Asia

Annotation:

Summary:
“This special issue, which grows out of an international symposium that the editors hosted at the University of Melbourne in November 2016, explores the interrelations among gender, human mobilities, and power across selected sites in East and Southeast Asia, where today an intensification and acceleration in spatial movements of all kinds is reconfiguring the ways in which gender relations are lived and imagined. Gender, sexuality, intimacy, and family are taking on new expressions, shaped by political and economic demands for participation in geographic mobilities, flexible labour, intimate markets, and social reproduction. The articles gathered here explore how contemporary regimes of governance in Singapore, Indonesia, China, Taiwan and beyond impact on the spatial and social movements of people, and interrogate the economic, political, affective, and especially gendered dimensions of these emergent forms of mobility. Bringing together scholars from across gender studies, anthropology, and cultural studies, this issue explores how interdisciplinary methods and theories can productively engage the operations of mobility regimes in the making and un-making of gender relations in the Asian region” (Martin and Dragojlovic 2019).

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Gender, Gendered Power Relations Regions: Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: China, Indonesia, Singapore, Taiwan

Year: 2019

Gender, Everyday Mobility, and Mass Transit in Urban Asia

Citation:

Lee, Anru. 2017. “Gender, Everyday Mobility, and Mass Transit in Urban Asia.” Mobility in History 8 (1): 85–94.

Author: Anru Lee

Abstract:

Mobility is a key word for understanding gender and class formation. In a recent review of feminism, gender, and mobility, historian Georgine Clarsen reminds us that movement never occurs through neutral physical space; it involves gendered bodies through gendered spaces, by means of transport technologies that are often deeply gendered. Furthermore, gendered meanings, practices, and experiences change greatly over time and location. For all these reasons, mobility is—and has to be—contextualized. This article takes inspiration from Clarsen and investigates recent literature on the issue of gender and everyday mobility in urban Asia across a number of academic disciplines.

Topics: Class, Feminisms, Gender, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Asia

Year: 2017

Family Strategies: Fluidities of Gender, Community and Mobility in Rural West China.

Citation:

Judd, Ellen R. 2010. “Family Strategies: Fluidities of Gender, Community and Mobility in Rural West China.” The China Quarterly, no. 204: 921–38.

Author: Ellen R. Judd

Abstract:

This article queries the current mobility of China's rural population by inverting the usual urban perspective and looking at this mobility through exploring the lives of those who do not move. It departs from a micro-analysis of who remains in the countryside in three west China agricultural communities between 2003 and 2005 and links this with an exploration of emergent structural features of rural communities as they are remade in the early 21st century in the wake of the abolition of agricultural taxes and levies. The ethnographic approach adopted highlights the agency, choices and practices of local people in charting their courses in a rural social world being drained of people. It proposes the utility for analysis of family strategies, identifying a repertoire of resourceful and diverse practices through which people strive to recreate and repopulate their social worlds. The argument links the study of historical directions in polity and economy with local and gendered practices in everyday life.

Topics: Agriculture, Gender Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: China

Year: 2010

How Gender Differences and Perceptions of Safety Shape Urban Mobility in Southeast Asia

Citation:

Hidayati, Isti, Wendy Tan, and Claudia Yamu. 2020. “How Gender Differences and Perceptions of Safety Shape Urban Mobility in Southeast Asia.” Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 73: 155–73.

Authors: Isti Hidayati, Wendy Tan, Claudia Yamu

Abstract:

Despite numerous studies on how gender differences affect transport mobility choices and perception of safety, there has been little emphasis on the influence of spatial and socio-cultural constructs on it, particularly in the Southeast Asian context. This article investigates this relation through (1) an on-street survey involving 383 participants in eight neighbourhoods in Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur, (2) analysing videos taken with the walking with video approach, and (3) a computational analysis of the street network using space syntax. Findings suggest that a large proportion of women ascribed to negative perceptions of safety as compared to men. Negative perceptions of safety were related to wariness towards motorcycles in Jakarta and absence of other pedestrians and the image of the place in Kuala Lumpur. This difference can be attributed to distinctions in spatial configurations and socio-cultural constructs between both cities. Findings provide practical insights – mode segregation or changes to street design – to address gendered mobility for sustainable urban transport in the region.

Keywords: mobility, gender, perceived safety, on-street survey, walking with video, space syntax

Topics: Gender, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia, Malaysia

Year: 2020

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