Printer-friendly versionSend by emailPDF version

Asia

What Is the Role of Mothers in Transit-Oriented Development? The Case of Osaka–Kyoto–Kobe, Japan

Citation:

Waygood, E. Owen D. 2011. “What Is the Role of Mothers in Transit-Oriented Development? The Case of Osaka–Kyoto–Kobe, Japan.” In Women’s Issues in Transportation: Summary of the 4th International Conference, Vol. 2: Technical Papers, 163-78. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies.

Author: E. Owen D. Waygood

Abstract:

The majority of mothers in Japan are not employed outside the home, but their role in chauffeuring and accompanying children on their trips is much less than in Western societies. Cultural expectations and the built environment in the Osaka region of Japan contribute to children as young as 10 and 11 traveling without adult accompaniment for the majority of trips. This independent travel in turn reduces the chauffeuring burden on parents. The chauffeuring of children in the United States and other Western countries is conducted mostly by mothers, but the role of mothers in the travel context of their children’s travel has not been investigated for Japan. Children ages 10 and 11, from nine different schools in varying neighborhoods, were surveyed about their travel by using a child-friendly diary. The survey results show that parents accompanied children for less than 15% of their trips on weekdays, whereas data from the United States indicate that children are accompanied by a parent on more than 65% of weekday trips they make. The average daily travel time was 40 min for children in Japan versus 72 min for their American counterparts, despite a similar number of trips per day. The paper further examines children’s trips with the accompaniment of parents, by sex of parent, by time of day and mode, and by destination. The influence of various built environment measurements and car ownership on accompaniment and the accumulated time burden on parents is also examined. This research contributes to land use planning through examining the built environment and mobility management through discussion on cultural values.

Topics: Gender, Households, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: Japan

Year: 2011

Agrarian Stress and Climate Change in the Eastern Gangetic Plains: Gendered Vulnerability in a Stratified Social Formation

Citation:

Sugden, Fraser, Niki Maskey, Floriane Clement, Vidya Ramesh, Anil Philip, and Ashok Rai. 2014. “Agrarian Stress and Climate Change in the Eastern Gangetic Plains: Gendered Vulnerability in a Stratified Social Formation.” Global Environmental Change 29: 258-69. 

Authors: Fraser Sugden, Niki Maskey, Floriane Clement, Vidya Ramesh, Anil Philip, Ashok Rai

Abstract:

This paper reviews the complex impact of climate change on gender relations and associated vulnerability on the Eastern Gangetic Plains of Nepal and India. Field research has identified that gendered vulnerability to climate change is intricately connected to local and macro level political economic processes. Rather than being a single driver of change, climate is one among several stresses on agriculture, alongside a broader set of non-climatic processes. While these pressures are linked to large scale political- economic processes, the response on the ground is mediated by the local level relations of class and caste, creating stratified patterns of vulnerability. The primary form of gendered vulnerability in the context of agrarian stress emerges from male out-migration, which has affected the distribution of labour and resources. While migration occurs amongst all socio-economic groups, women from marginal farmer and tenant households are most vulnerable. While the causes of migration are only indirectly associated with climate change, migration itself is rendering women who are left behind from marginal households, more vulnerable to ecological shocks such as droughts due to the sporadic flow of income and their reduced capacity for investment in off-farm activities. It is clear that policies and initiatives to address climate change in stratified social formations such as the Eastern Gangetic Plains, will be ineffective without addressing the deeper structural intersections between class, caste and gender.

Keywords: climate change, vulnerability, Eastern Gangetic Plains, gender, class, caste

Topics: Agriculture, Caste, Class, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender Regions: Asia, South Asia

Year: 2014

Gender and Water in Mongolia

Citation:

Hawkins, Roberta, and Joni Seager. 2010. “Gender and Water in Mongolia.” The Professional Geographer 62 (1): 16–31.

Authors: Roberta Hawkins, Joni Seager

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT
Global institutions, academics, and practitioners have long acknowledged the need to consider gender in creating sustainable water management plans. However, for most countries a dearth of context-specific information on gender and water relations hinders gender-sensitive plan development. Mongolia is particularly poorly represented in the gender and water literature. This article presents fieldwork revealing distinctive gendered practices around water use, decision making, and management including an unusually high degree of men's participation in water collection. This research adds new context-specific data to the understanding of actual gender and water relations and underscores the need for further investigation into the Mongolian context.
 
CHINESE ABSTRACT

 

 

 

SPANISH ABSTRACT
Durante mucho tiempo, las instituciones globales, académicos y prácticos han reconocido la necesidad de considerar el género cuando se trate de la formulación de planes de manejo sostenible del agua. Sin embargo, en la mayoría de los países la escasez de información contextual específica sobre género y las relaciones con temas del agua obstaculiza el desarrollo de planes sensibles a la consideración de género. En particular, el caso de Mongolia está pobremente representado en la literatura que relacione género y agua. Este artículo presenta los resultados del trabajo de campo, que revelan prácticas en las que concretamente interviene el género sobre uso, toma de decisiones y manejo del agua, que incluyen un grado inusualmente alto de participación de los hombres en la captación del recurso hídrico. Esta investigación agrega nuevos datos de contexto específico para la cabal comprensión de relaciones entre género y agua, y pone al descubierto la necesidad de más investigación dentro del contexto mongol.

Keywords: gender, Mongolia, water, water management, 性别, 蒙古, 水, 水管理, gênero, agua, manejo del agua

Topics: Gender, Men, Gender Analysis, Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: Mongolia

Year: 2010

Sustainable Development, Water Resources Management and Women's Empowerment: The Wanaraniya Water Project in Sri Lanka

Citation:

Aladuwaka, Seela, and Janet Momsen. 2010. “Sustainable Development, Water Resources Management and Women’s Empowerment: The Wanaraniya Water Project in Sri Lanka.” Gender & Development 18 (1): 43–58.

Authors: Seela Aladuwaka, Janet Momsen

Abstract:

Water is one of the most important natural resources, and its effective management is essential given its scarcity. In rural Sri Lanka, the management of available water resources needs special attention because investment for water resource improvement is hard to obtain, and water itself is relatively scarce in the drier areas of the country. The Wanaraniya Water Project pipes water 6.5km from its source to individual houses in the village, saving women daily time and effort. The project is founded on commitments to community participation and the adoption of local knowledge. It was initiated by women, and has been operated and managed by them for the last six years. This study argues that the project can serve as a model for better planning of water management, and focuses on the unique strategies and innovative methods that have been used. In particular, it shows the impact of involvement in the project on women's empowerment. The implementation of the project has helped women to improve their leadership qualities, confidence, self-reliance, and gain more power in the community through their successful establishment of a village water supply. (Abstract from original source)

Keywords: Sri Lanka, water, community, participatory development, women's empowerment

Topics: Gender, Women, Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Sri Lanka

Year: 2010

Gender and Transport: Experiences of Marketplace Workers in Davao City, Philippines

Citation:

Rivera, Roselle Leah K. 2010. “Gender and Transport: Experiences of Marketplace Workers in Davao City, Philippines.” Environment and Urbanization ASIA 1 (2): 171–86. 

Author: Roselle Leah K. Rivera

Abstract:

What are the strategies which men and women in poor communities utilize to meet their daily mobility needs? This is a key question which captures the emerging policy discussion on transport deprivation in developing countries. As transport deprivation means how people in poor communities, mostly women, experience greatest access problems. The article revisits a neglected dimension of urban poor housing discourse. More often than not, communities are seen as homogenous without recognizing that women and men, from diverse backgrounds, in poor communities have widely varying mobility and accessibility needs. This article initially begins a discussion on the transport experiences, the gendered differences of mobility and travel patterns of the men and women in poor communities, their transport conditions, and the related conditions experienced by poor men and women in three marketplaces. Methods for primary data gathering include (1) a random sample survey of 120 men and women from 3 major marketplaces of the three districts of the city (2) focus group discussions with representatives from four sectors (i.e., transportation leaders, public sector, private sector and NGOs, feminist leaders) and (3) key informant interviews of local and national officials. Secondary data such as official documents of the city were also utilized. While the costs of journey to work vary in the three districts, the time spent traveling for the short distance to work raises time poverty concerns. The article shows that men and women are predominantly pedestrians in a city whose official transport policy and practice is very biased towards high cost projects praised for technological efficiency and management.

Keywords: transport deprivation, mobility, gender and transport, Davao City

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2010

Climate Change and Women’s Place-Based Vulnerabilities – A Case Study from Pakistani Highlands

Citation:

Nizami, Arjumand, and Jawad Ali. 2017. "Climate Change and Women’s Place-Based Vulnerabilities – A Case Study from Pakistani Highlands." Climate and Development 9 (7): 662-70.

Authors: Arjumand Nizami, Jawad Ali

Abstract:

Changes in temperature and hydro-meteorological patterns due to climate change are believed to be impacting farming communities in different ways. From a gender neutral perspective, climate change implications affect members of communities alike. From a gender perspective however, impacts of change vary from place to place, household to household and for individual members of the household due to a multiplicity of factors including expectation of individual members of a household to take additional responsibilities in difficult times. Taking empirical evidence from the hazard affected region of Chitral Pakistan, we argue that climate change vulnerabilities are contextually determined, are place based and impact individual members of households differently. As an unavoidable coping strategy, the affected communities are compelled to send male members away from home in search of alternate sources of livelihoods. This compels women to take additional responsibilities at farm household and the community levels. These responsibilities give birth to new vulnerabilities for women. Female members are forced to contribute to communal tasks traditionally performed by male member. Therefore, differentiated analysis of climate change impacts, based on gender roles and responsibilities, is crucial to understand impacts of climate change on different segments of the society even individual members of the same households.

Keywords: climate change, migration, women, vulnerability, Pakistan

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2017

Gender, Environment and Migration in Bangladesh

Citation:

Evertsen, Kathinka Fossum, and Kees van der Geest. 2019. "Gender, Environment and Migration in Bangladesh." Climate and Development, April, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2019.1596059.

Authors: Kathinka Fossum Evertsen, Kees van der Geest

Abstract:

This article addresses how gender norms impact the process of migration, and what this means for the use of migration as an adaptation strategy to cope with environmental stressors. Data was collected through qualitative fieldwork, taking the form of semi-structured and open-ended interviews and focus group discussions from a Dhaka slum and three villages in Southern Bangladesh's Bhola district. Our data revealed that women migrate when environmental stress threatens livelihoods and leave male household members unable to earn enough income for their families. Employing an analytical framework that focuses on the perceptions of individuals, this article shows how gender norms create social costs for women who migrate. Women thus have ambivalent feelings about migration. On the one hand, they do not wish to migrate, taking on a double work load, forsaking their purdah, and facing the stigma that follows. On the other hand, women see migration as a means to help their families, and live a better life. While social costs negatively affect the utilization and efficiency of female migration as an adaptation strategy to environmental stressors, it becomes clear that female migration is imperative to sustain livelihoods within the Bhola community.

Keywords: gender, environment, climate change, migration, adaptation

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2019

Depleting Fragile Bodies: The Political Economy of Sexual and Reproductive Health in Crisis Situations

Citation:

Tanyag, Maria. 2018. “Depleting Fragile Bodies: The Political Economy of Sexual and Reproductive Health in Crisis Situations.” Review of International Studies 44 (4): 654-71. 

Author: Maria Tanyag

Abstract:

In a crisis-prone world, the number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) uprooted by both armed conflicts and environmental disasters has drastically increased and displacement risks have intensified. Despite the growing attention within global security and development agendas to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), there remain striking gaps in addressing SRHR in crisis situations, particularly among IDP women and girls. This article examines the continuum between social reproduction in times of crisis and the material and ideological conditions that restrict women’s bodily autonomy in everyday life. Using the case of the Philippines where millions of people are routinely affected by conflict and disaster-induced displacements, it argues that the failure to recognise the centrality of women’s health and bodily autonomy not only hinders the sustainable provision of care and domestic labour during and after crisis, but also fundamentally constrains how security is enacted within these spaces. Thus, the article highlights an urgent need to rethink the gendered political economy of crisis responses as a building block for stemming gendered violence and depletion of social reproductive labour at the household, state, and global levels.

Keywords: feminist political economy, social reproduction, depletion, Crisis, global health

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Health, Reproductive Health, Livelihoods, Political Economies Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2018

Right-Wing Sisterhood: Everyday Politics of Hindu Nationalist Women in India and Zionist Settler Women in Israel-Palestine

Citation:

Mehta, Akanksha. 2017. "Right-Wing Sisterhood: Everyday Politics of Hindu Nationalist Women in India and Zionist Settler Women in Israel-Palestine." PhD diss., SOAS University of London.

Author: Akanksha Mehta

Annotation:

Summary: 
"Right-Wing movements have gained political momentum in the last few decades, drawing within their ranks women who not only embody their exclusionary and violent politics but who also simultaneously contest everyday patriarchies. This thesis examines the everyday politics of women in two right-wing movements, the cultural nationalist Hindu right-wing project in India and the settler-colonial Zionist project in Israel-Palestine. Based on fourteen months of ethnographic, narrative, and visual ‘fieldwork’ conducted with women in both these movements, I argue that through a politics of the everyday, right-wing women bargain and negotiate with patriarchal communities/homes, male-formulated ideologies and discourses, and maledominated right-wing projects and spaces. These mediations replicate and affirm as well as subvert and challenge patriarchal structures and power hierarchies, troubling the binaries of home/world, private/public, personal/political, and victim/agent. I assert that dominant literature on rightwing women focuses on motherhood and family, ignoring various other crucial subject positions that are constituted and occupied by right-wing women and neglecting the agential and empowering potential of right-wing women’s subjectivities.
 
"I use four themes/lenses to examine the everyday politics of right-wing women. These are: pedagogy and education; charity and humanitarian work; intimacy, friendship, sociability and leisure; and political violence. By interrogating the practices that are contained in and enabled by these four locations of Hindu right-wing and Zionist settler women’s everyday politics, this thesis highlights the multiple narratives, contradictions, pluralities, hierarchies, power structures, languages, and discourses that encompass right-wing women’s projects" (Mehta 2017, 3-4). 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Nationalism, Political Participation, Religion, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Southeast Asia Countries: India, Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2017

Effects of Drought on Livelihoods and Gender Roles: A Case Study of Meghalaya

Citation:

Singh, Ram, S.M. Feroze, and Lala I.P. Ray. 2013.“Effects of Drought on Livelihoods and Gender Roles: A Case Study of Meghalaya.” Indian Journal of Gender Studies 20 (3): 453–67.

Authors: Ram Singh, S.M. Feroze, Lala I.P. Ray

Abstract:

Climate change has serious repercussions on food security, availability, accessibility and utilisation and food system stability. Women farmers currently account for 45–80 per cent of all food production in developing countries depending on the region. When climate change-related disasters strike, women are more vulnerable than men, and the workload of women and girls increases. In India, women are actively engaged in agricultural activities, including paddy cultivation and fishing, which are both affected by changing weather patterns. Loss of livelihood increases women’s vulnerability and marginalisation. The current study was conducted in 10 villages of Meghalaya, a north-eastern state in India. It concluded that extreme climate variability affects both the sexes but with different consequences as they are subjected to different roles and responsibilities. We suggest empowering women with requisite knowledge of their rights, relevant information and skills, and also by being helped with adequate resources to enable them to act and make their own decisions.

Keywords: drought, women's livelihoods, north-east India, Meghalaya, climate change, women

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Food Security, Gender, Gender Roles, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2013

Pages

© 2019 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at info@genderandsecurity.org.

Subscribe to RSS - Asia