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Accountability of Private Military and Security Contractors in the International Legal Regime

Citation:

Huskey, Kristine A. 2012. Accountability of Private Military and Security Contractors in the International Legal Regime. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(3): 193-212.

Author: Kristine Huskey

Abstract:

The rapidly growing presence of private military and security contractors (PMSCs) in armed conflict and post-conflict situations in the last decade brought corresponding incidents of serious misconduct by PMSC personnel. The two most infamous events one involving the firm formerly known as Blackwater and the other involving Titan and CACl engendered scrutiny of available mechanisms for criminal and civil accountability of the individuals whose misconduct caused the harm. Along a parallel track, scholars and policymakers began examining the responsibility of states and international organizations for the harm that occurred. Both approaches have primarily focused on post-conduct accountability of the individuals who caused the harm, of the state in which the harm occurred, or of the state or organization that hired the PMSC whose personnel caused the harm. Less attention, however, has been paid to the idea of pre-conduct accountability for PMSCs and their personnel. A broad understanding of accountability for PMSCs and their personnel encompasses not only responsibility for harm caused by conduct, but responsibility for hiring, hosting, and monitoring these entities, as well as responsibility to the victims of the harm. This article provides a comprehensive approach for analyzing the existing international legal regime, and whether and to what extent the legal regime provides accountability for PMSCs and their personnel. It does so by proposing a practical construct of three phases based on PMSC operations Contracting, In-the-Field, and Post-Conduct with which to assess the various bodies of international law.

 

Keywords: private military and security companies, accountability, international human rights law, International Humanitarian Law, Montreux Document, International Criminal Law, U.N. Draft Convention on Private Military and Security Contractors

Topics: International Law, International Criminal Law, International Human Rights, International Humanitarian Law IHL, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Security Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2012

Love and Money in an Age of Neoliberalism: Gender, Work, and Single Motherhood in Postrevolutionary Nicaragua

Citation:

Cupples, Julie. 2005. “Love and Money in an Age of Neoliberalism: Gender, Work, and Single Motherhood in Postrevolutionary Nicaragua.” Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space 37 (2): 305–22.

Author: Julie Cupples

Abstract:

Based on qualitative research conducted in 1999 and 2001 with a group of single mothers in Matagalpa, Nicaragua, this paper examines the contradictory impacts of neoliberalism on work, based on the understanding that economic restructuring can generate both crisis and a space for changes in gender identities. By focusing on the broader picture of women's work and on the intersections between paid and unpaid work, it discusses what happens to these intersections in times of intense political and economic change. Despite the hardships caused by neoliberalism, it appears that work is a site in which gender ideologies can be challenged. The paper has four main sections. First, it explores the ways in which certain cultural processes are intensified under neoliberalism which affects the relationship between constructions of masculinity and femininity. Second, it assesses the impact of neoliberalism on domestic work and the implications of this for GAD (gender and development) understandings of the double burden and of how the balance of women's paid and unpaid work changes under neoliberalism. Third, it examines the ways in which hegemonic understandings of femininities and motherhood and revolutionary legacies can be resistant to the neoliberal present. Finally, it discusses how work under neoliberalism can be a site of female empowerment or self-esteem.

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Nicaragua

Year: 2005

Hurricane Andrew Through Women’s Eyes: Issues and Recommendations

Citation:

Morrow, Betty Hearn and Elaine Enarson. 1996. "Hurricane Andrew Through Women’s Eyes: Issues and Recommendations." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 14 (1): 5-22.

Authors: Betty Hearn Morrow, Elaine Enarson

Abstract:

While gender is a central organizing principle in social systems, limited attention has been paid to differences in the disaster-related experiences of women and men. To address some gender-related we conducted a qualitative sociology analysis of women’s experiences in the most heavily impacted areas of Dade County, Florida after Hurricane Andrew. Through interviews, focus groups, surveys, secondary data analysis, and fieldwork we document ways in which the private and public caregiving responsibilities of women expanded, often under very difficult and stressful circumstances. Being particularly interested in the intersection of gender with race/ethnicity and class, much of our work focused on minority groups having particular problems with recovery, including migrant workers, recent immigrants, single mothers, and battered women. The effects of household and community losses tended to be different for women and in many respects more profound. Being female was an important dimension which appeared to increase the negative effects of being a victim and to retard personal and family recovery, especially when compounded with poverty and minority status. Based on issues which emerged from the experiences of women victims and careproviders, we offer a series of recommendations to disaster planners to increase the involvement of women at every level of disaster response.

Topics: Class, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Ethnicity, Gender, Gender Analysis Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 1996

Mulheres rurais: tecendo novas relações e reconhecendo direitos

Citation:

Sales, Celecina de Maria Veras. 2007. “Mulheres rurais: tecendo novas relações e reconhecendo direitos.” Estudos Feministas 15 (2): 437-43.

Author: Celecina de Maria Veras Sales

Abstract:

A presença das mulheres rurais na produção agrícola familiar é um fato. Mesmo na invisibilidade, não se pode negar que elas estão ocupando terras, plantando, colhendo, e cultivando o desejo de ter uma terra livre e usufruí-la com seu trabalho. Presentes na casa, no quintal, na roça e na luta pela terra, as mulheres tiveram ainda de lutar pelo direito de serem reconhecidas como trabalhadoras. A emergência das mulheres rurais nos movimentos sociais proporcionou seu aparecimento como sujeito político, rompendo sua invisibilidade como trabalhadora. Nesse aprendizado e experimentação as mulheres rurais criaram seu próprio movimento, consolidado na década de 1980. Desde então realizam encontros nacionais, marchas e campanhas, criaram coletivos de mulheres e conquistaram direitos. Os Coletivos de Mulheres estão vinculados à Federação de Trabalhadores da Agricultura do Ceará (FETRAECE) ou ao Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (MST) e constituem espaços importantes de ressignificação das atividades produtivas das mulheres.

Keywords: mulher rural, participação política, grupos produtivos, movimentos sociais rurais

Topics: Political Participation, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2007

Diferenças de gênero em relação a bens: a propriedade fundiária na América Latina

Citation:

Deere, Carmem Diana, and Magdalena León de Leal. 2003. “Diferenças de gênero em relação a bens: a propriedade fundiária na América Latina.” Sociologias 5 (10): 100–53.

Authors: Carmem Diana Deere, Magdalena León de Leal

Topics: Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America

Year: 2003

Mulheres em áreas rurais nas regiões norte e nordeste do Brasil

Citation:

Cordeiro, Rosineide de LM, and Russel Parry Scott. 2007. “Mulheres em áreas rurais nas regiões norte e nordeste do Brasil.” Revista Estudos Feministas 15 (2): 419–23.

Authors: Rosineide de LM Cordeiro , Russel Parry Scott

Topics: Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2007

Gênero e agricultura: a situação da mulher na agricultura do Rio Grande do Sul

Citation:

Brumer, Anita. 2004. “Gênero e agricultura: a situação da mulher na agricultura do Rio Grande do Sul.” Revista Estudos Feministas 12 (1): 205–27.

Author: Anita Brumer

Abstract:

O texto examina as formas de inserção das mulheres na agricultura familiar, procurando explicar a seletividade de gênero do processo migratório. Primeiramente, aborda a distribuição da população, por sexo e por grupos de idade, em diversas regiões do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, caracterizando o maior índice de emigração de mulheres jovens do que dos demais grupos etários e de sexo. Depois, trata da divisão do trabalho por sexo e idade, dos efeitos da modernização sobre o trabalho agrícola, da inserção dos jovens no trabalho da unidade produtiva familiar, das atividades fora da agricultura e dos procedimentos utilizados pelos produtores agrícolas para a transmissão da propriedade rural para os filhos. Finalmente, discute o possível efeito do acesso das mulheres rurais à Previdência Rural sobre suas perspectivas de permanecer ou não na atividade agrícola. 

Keywords: gênero e agricultura, mulher rural, migração rural

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2004

Relações de gênero e subjetividades no devir MST

Citation:

Silva, Cristiani Bereta da. 2004. “Relações de gênero e subjetividades no devir MST.” Estudos Feministas 12 (1): 269–87.

Author: Cristiani Bereta da Silva

Abstract:

Os relatórios internos e as diversas e distintas publicações do e sobre o MST produzidos nos últimos 20 anos desvelam processos que permitem perceber que outras preocupações foram constituídas em meio às lutas e disputas pela conquista da terra. Essas preocupações foram mudando, adquirindo outros contornos nas idas e vindas da produção de idéias, práticas e sujeitos de um Movimento em construção. Este estudo é um exercício crítico de reflexão sobre a natureza dessas produções nas relações cotidianas, nas tentativas de construir sujeitos militantes. Busca investigar como as mudanças foram sendo construídas e de que forma foram investidas sobre as relações de trabalho, sociais, políticas e, também, afetivas de mulheres e homens, bem como de homens e homens, e de mulheres e mulheres nas dobras do MST.

Keywords: movimentos sociais, gênero, sujeito, subjetividades

Topics: Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2004

O Gênero da Posse da Terra: um estudo sobre o poder de negociação de mulheres titulares de lotes via reforma agrária

Citation:

Barbosa, Maria L. D. A., and Débora F. Lerrer. 2016. “O Gênero da Posse da Terra: um estudo sobre o poder de negociação de mulheres titulares de lotes via reforma agrária.” Revista Brasileira de Sociologia 4 (8): 243–74.

Authors: Maria L. D. A. Barbosa, Débora F. Lerrer

Abstract:

PORTUGUESE ABSTRACT:
Ocupar terras, ser assentada via política de reforma agrária e ser titular do lote é um fato que raramente ocorre na trajetória da maioria das mulheres do campo. Este estudo, com pesquisa realizada no Assentamento Santa Rosa/Córrego das Posses, localizado na região do Vale do Mucuri em Minas Gerais/Brasil, teve como foco verificar se e como o direito e a posse da terra reposicionam as mulheres em âmbito doméstico e público, isto é, se conferem a elas maior poder de barganha. A literatura aponta que a construção de igualdades reais para as mulheres rurais está vinculada à conquista da posse da terra. O caso estudado apontou que a posse influencia as possibilidades de negociação das mulheres, mas, sobretudo, quando é operada concomitantemente a outras dimensões, como a renda, divisão sexual do trabalho, relações sociais e família.
 
ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Occupying, settling on the basis of agrarian land reform policies, and holding title of the land are not common facts in the trajectory of most rural women. This research examines if and how having rights to land leads to changes in the bargaining power of women, both domestically and in public sphere. The fieldwork was carried out in the Settlement Santa Rosa/Córrego das Posses, in the Mucuri valley, Minas Gerais. The case under study shows that such rights influence the capacity of women for negotiation, particularly when combined with changes in other dimensions, such as income, the sexual division of labor, social relations, and the family.

Keywords: relações de gênero, posse da terra, assentamento, gender relations, land tenure, settlement

Topics: Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2016

¿Quién toma las decisiones agrícolas? Mujeres propietarias en el Ecuador

Citation:

Deere, Carmen D, and Jennifer Twyman. “¿Quién toma las decisiones agrícolas? Mujeres propietarias en el Ecuador.” Agricultura, Sociedad y Desarrollo 11, no. 3 (2014): 425–440.

Authors: Carmen D. Deere, Jennifer Twyman

Abstract:

Este trabajo investiga si las mujeres propietarias de parcelas participan en las decisiones agrícolas sobre ellas. Con base en una muestra nacional de Ecuador, el análisis demuestra que la gran mayoría de mujeres dueñas participan activamente en la conducción de sus parcelas, sean éstas propiedades de ellas de manera individual o en conjunto con su pareja. También revela que hay diferencias en el nivel de participación de las mujeres, dependiendo de su estado civil o situación marital (si son casadas o unidas en comparación con jefas de hogar solteras, separadas, divorciadas o viudas) y de la forma de la propiedad. Además, su participación varía según la decisión agrícola bajo consideración. De todos modos, nuestro análi­sis conduce a una conclusión sobresaliente: los datos censales proporcionan una visión distorsionada de la agricultura fa­miliar porque no se toma en cuenta que las decisiones agrí­colas son tomadas frecuentemente por la pareja y conllevan a una subestimación de la participación de las mujeres casadas/unidas como agricultoras. (Abstract from original source)
 
This study investigates whether women landowners participate in the agricultural decisions about their plots. Based on a national sample from Ecuador, the analysis shows that the large majority of women owners participate actively in the conduction of their plots, whether they are their property individually or jointly with their couple. It also reveals that there are differences in the level of participation of women, depending on their marital status (whether they are married or united, in comparison to heads of households who are single, separated, divorced or widows) and the form of property. Also, their participation varies depending on the agricultural decision under consideration. In any case, our analysis leads to an outstanding conclusion: the census data provide a distorted vision of family agriculture because they do not take into account that agricultural decisions are frequently made by the couple, and they lead to an underestimation of the participation of women married/united as agricultural producers. (English provided by original source)

Topics: Class, Economies, Economic Inequality, Environment, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador

Year: 2014

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