Ecofeminist Philosophy: A Western Perspective on What It Is and Why It Matters


Warren, Karen J. 2000. Ecofeminist Philosophy: A Western Perspective on What It Is and Why It Matters. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Author: Karen J. Warren


How are the unjustified dominations of women and other humans connected to the unjustified domination of animals and nonhuman nature? What are the characteristics of oppressive conceptual frameworks and systems of unjustified domination? How does an ecofeminist perspective help one understand issues of environmental and social justice? In this important new work, Karen J. Warren answers these and other questions from a Western perspective. Warren looks at the variety of positions in ecofeminism, the distinctive nature of ecofeminist philosophy, ecofeminism as an ecological position, and other aspects of the movement to reveal its significance to both understanding and creatively changing patriarchal (and other) systems of unjustified domination. (Summary from Amazon)

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy Regions: Americas, Europe

Year: 2000

Rachel Carson Died of Breast Cancer: The Coming of Age of Feminist Environmentalism


Seager, Joni. 2003. “Rachel Carson Died of Breast Cancer: The Coming of Age of Feminist Environmentalism.” Signs 28 (3): 945–72.

Author: Joni Seager


To discuss the state of feminist environmentalism, discussion opens with an examination of ecofeminism. Arguing that debates surrounding ecofeminism have exhausted their intellectual & political returns, recent feminist environmental scholarship on animal rights, public health, & global political economy is reviewed. Some remarks are then offered on the "population question," particularly with respect to how environmental policy is underpinned by the blaming of poor, minority, & non-Euro-American women for global environmental ills; the critical feminist environmentalist literature on populationism is briefly touched on. 

Topics: Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Health, Rights Regions: Americas Countries: United States of America

Year: 2003

Good-Natured Feminist: Ecofeminism and the Quest for Democracy


Sandilands, Catriona. 1999. Good-Natured Feminist: Ecofeminism and the Quest for Democracy. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Author: Catriona Sandilands


Heroic mothers defending home and hearth against a nature deformed by multinationalist corporate practice: this may be a compelling story, but it is not necessarily the source of valid feminist or ecological critique. What’s missing is the democratic element, an insistence on bringing to public debate all the relations of gender and nature that such a view takes for granted. This book aims to situate a commitment to theory and politics—that is, to democratic practice—at the center of ecofeminism and, thus, to move toward an ecofeminism that is truly both feminist and ecological. The Good-Natured Feminist inaugurates a sustained conversation between ecofeminism and recent writings in feminist postmodernism and radical democracy. Starting with the assumption that ecofeminism is a body of democratic theory, the book tells how the movement originated in debates about “nature” in North American radical feminisms, how it then became entangled with identity politics, and how it now seeks to include nature in democratic conversation and, especially, to politicize relations between gender and nature in both theoretical and activist milieus. (Summary from ProQuest)





Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender Regions: Americas, North America

Year: 1999

Healing the Wounds: The Promise of Ecofeminism


Plant, Judith. 1989. Healing the Wounds: The Promise of Ecofeminism. Philadelphia, PA: New Society Publishers.

Author: Judith Plant



Twenty-five activist authors--including Ursula LeGuin, Vandana Shiva, Margot Adler and Joanna Macy—strive to unite the visions and energies of the feminist and ecological perspectives. Healing the Wounds draws together the personal, political and spiritual into one enlivening whole. This is the book, and these are the practitioners, that started the movement (Summary from Google Books).

Table of Contents:

Toward a New World: An Introduction
Judith Plant

1. Remembering Who We Are: The Meaning of Ecofeminism. Split Culture
Susan Griffin

2. The Ecology of Feminism and the Feminism of Ecology
Ynestra King

3. A New Movement, a New Hope: East Wind, West Wind, and the Wind from the South
Corinne Kumar D'Souza

4. Mama Coyote Talks to the Boys
Sharon Doubiago

5. Women/Wilderness
Ursula K. Le Guin

6. Healing All Our Relations: Ecofeminist Politics. Poem: Tampons
Ellen Bass

7. First Mother and the Rainbow Children
Anne Cameron

8. Women Act: Women and Environmental Protection in India
Pamela Philipose

9. Speaking for the Earth: The Haida Way

10. Development, Ecology, and Women
Vandana Shiva

11. A Power of Numbers
Rachel Bagby

12. From Healing Herbs to Deadly Drugs: Western Medicine's War Against the Natural World
Marti Kheel

13. She Is Alive in You: Ecofeminist Spirituality. Poem: A Story of Beginnings

14. Invoking the Grove
Deena Metzger

15. Toward an Ecofeminist Spirituality
Charlene Spretnak

16. The Give and the Take
Dale Colleen Hamilton

17. Toward an Ecological-Feminist Theology of Nature
Rosemary Radford Ruether

18. The Juice of the Mystery
Margot Adler

19. Sacred Land, Sacred Sex
Dolores LaChapelle

20. Lakshmi Ashram: A Gandhian Perspective in the Himalayan Foothills
Radha Bhatt

21. Feminist Earth-Based Spirituality and Ecofeminism

22. The Circle Is Gathering: Ecofeminist Community. Poem: Lost Arrows and the Feather People
Ursula K. Le Guin

23. Survival on Earth: The Meaning of Feminism
Dorothy Dinnerstein

24. Awakening to the Ecological Self
Joanna Macy

25. Wings of the Eagle: A Conversation with Marie Wilson

26. The Subjective Side of Power
Margo Adair and Sharon Howell

27. Community: Meeting Our Deepest Needs
Helen Forsey

28. Consensus and Community: A Conversation with Caroline Estes

29. The Circle is Gathering
Judith Plant

Topics: Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Religion Regions: Americas, Asia, South Asia Countries: India, United States of America

Year: 1989

Moon Phases, Menstrual Cycles, and Mother Earth: The Construction of a Special Relationship between Women and Nature


Nordgaard, Kari. 1999. “Moon Phases, Menstrual Cycles, and Mother Earth: The Construction of a Special Relationship between Women and Nature.” Ethics and the Environment 4 (2): 197-209.

Author: Kari Nordgaard



“This paper will explore a number of contradictions to the theme of a special relationship between women and nature by examining associations between men and nature and ways that women may be considered distance from nature. I will suggest a variety of reasons why literature in women and environment, ecofeminism, and feminist political ecology has chosen this particular story about a special connection between women and nature (and thus failed to include other stories), and I will ask whether ecofeminist constructions of gender inadvertently reinforce the very social and ecological relations so many of us critique. Although much of my discussion will be directed towards ecofeminism, the fields of women and environment and feminist political ecology share the emphasis on women and nature to which I refer. I recognize that whether theorists see relationships between women and nature as biological or social has been the subject of much writing and criticism between theorists who consider themselves to be in different fields. But at this point, the fact that there is now such a large body of literature focusing on relationships between women and nature (or environment) sets up a cultural story that is present across fields. I will use the term special relationship to refer to the full range of ways that women and nature have been connected” (Nordgaard 1999, 198).

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender Regions: Americas Countries: United States of America

Year: 1999

Eco/Feminism on the Edge


Mortimer-Sandilands, Catriona. 2008. “Eco/Feminism on the Edge.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 10 (3): 305-13.

Author: Catriona Mortimer-Sandilands


In this commentary I extend and converse with Niamh Moore's account of ecofeminist politics at Clayoquot Sound during the 1993 peace camp. In agreeing with her argument that such activist moments are more complex than the charges of maternalism and essentialism that have been thrown at them, I support her genealogical approach to understanding the particular gender relations that unfolded during the protest. In addition, I suggest that an understanding of the wider gender politics of the region, in addition to further consideration of other ecofeminist problematiques, would extend and enrich such analyses of ecofeminist activisms. 

Keywords: ecofeminism, maternalism, essentialism, evironmentalism, peace activism, Clayoquot Sound

Topics: Environment, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Gendered Power Relations Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2008

Making Matter Great Again? Ecofeminism, New Materialism and the Everyday Turn in Environmental Politics


MacGregor, Sherilyn. 2021. “Making Matter Great Again? Ecofeminism, New Materialism and the Everyday Turn in Environmental Politics.” Environmental Politics 30 (1-2): 41-60.

Author: Sherilyn MacGregor


The idea that sustainability requires changing individuals’ routines and choices has for decades been regarded as tantamount to the depoliticization of environmentalism. But the 21st century has seen a shift toward considering ‘everyday material practices’ as driving a new wave in environmental politics. Claims about the radical potential of material practices have led some scholars down new theoretical paths and reaffirmed old critiques for others. Viewing this development through an ecofeminist lens uncovers problematic oversights. Starting from the position that ecofeminist theory has never not been grounded in materiality, I offer two arguments. First, it is wrong to accept claims of newness in an ‘everyday turn’ that ignore the past and overlook their specificity. Second, if this turn represents a new scholarly agenda, then old ecofeminist insights about the politics of everyday living should be incorporated. Both my arguments call for reflection on the politics of publishing in environmental politics. 

Keywords: environmentalism, everyday life, new/sustainable materialism, green/ecofeminist political theory

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism Regions: Americas, Europe

Year: 2021

Reshaping the Ear: Honorable Listening and Study of Ecowomanist and Ecofeminist Scholarship for Feminist Discourse


Harris, Melanie L. 2017. “Reshaping the Ear: Honorable Listening and Study of Ecowomanist and Ecofeminist Scholarship for Feminist Discourse.” Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 33 (2): 158–62.

Author: Melanie L. Harris


Harris utlilizes an ecowomanist approach to tackle the issue of climate change and its impact on women. Ecowomanism is an approach that centers the voices, theoretical, religious, and ecospiritual activism of women of African descent and other women of color. It uses race-class-gender intersectional analysis to highlight the impact environmental health disparities have on communities of color in the age of climate change. Rather than ignore the plight of thousands upon thousands of African American and Latino/a families living in food deserts and the historical connections this social injustice has to white supremacy and access to land rights and clean water, ecowomanist approaches raise awareness about environmental racism. It links a social justice agenda with earth justice recognizing the similar logic of domination at work in parallel oppressions suffered by women of color and the earth. 

Keywords: Alice Walker, Delores S. Williams, ecowomanism, sin of defilement, social justice, women of color

Topics: Class, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Health, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Race, Religion, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, Americas

Year: 2017

Ecowomanism and Ecological Reparations


Harris, Melanie L. 2017. “Ecowomanism and Ecological Reparations.” In The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Religion and Ecology, edited by John Hart, 195–202. New York; UK: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated.

Author: Melanie L. Harris


This chapter examines the contributions that can be made to ecological justice from the templates of social justice that have emerged from the BlackLivesMatter movement. Specifically, an ecowomanist perspective is employed to explore anti-racist reparations paradigms that can be translated into ecological reparations work. 

Keywords: climate change, ecological reparation, ecowomanism, racial justice, white privilege, womanist religious thought

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Race Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2017

Ecowomanism: Black Women, Religion, and the Environment


Harris, Melanie L. 2016. “Ecowomanism: Black Women, Religion, and the Environment.” The Black Scholar 46 (3): 27–39

Author: Melanie L. Harris


“This essay is an introduction to ecowomanism, an interdisciplinary discourse in womanist thought that reflects upon black women’s religious orientations and connections with the earth. It serves as an overview and provides a survey of ecowomanist discourse. Ecowomanism centers the religious, theological, and spiritual perspectives of black women and women of color as they confront multilayered oppressions such as racism, classism, sexism, and environmental injustice. In the essay I explicate the theoretical foundations for ecowomanism, namely the womanist writings of Alice Walker, the environmental justice movement, and its relation to eco-feminism. I also describe the important roots of African American religious thought for an ecowomanist approach. In addition, I provide a brief survey of four important sources for ecowomanist research from the theological perspectives of Karen Baker Fletcher, Delores S. Williams, the ecological perspective of Shamara Shantu Riley, and the scholarly insights and personal reflection of African theologian, Mercy Amba Oduyoye" (Harris 2016, 27).

Topics: Class, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Race, Religion Regions: Africa, Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2016


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