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Gender Equity in the Argentine Tax System: An Estimation of Tax Burdens by Household Type

Citation:

Rossignolo, Dario. 2018. “Gender Equity in the Argentine Tax System: An Estimation of Tax Burdens by Household Type.” CEPAL Review, no. 124: 177-202.

Author: Dario Rossignolo

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the gender dimension into the analysis of tax incidence in Argentina. To that end, the impact of direct and indirect taxes on income and distribution by gender is calculated to establish the progressivity of taxes and the effects on gender equity when household classifications are analysed. The findings show that while the tax system is moderately progressive and the heaviest burden falls on households with male breadwinners, differences emerge when the impact of indirect and direct taxes is considered separately. The indirect tax system is heavily regressive and female-breadwinner households bear the largest burden, since they are concentrated in the lower income brackets. Households with children bear the highest direct tax burden, particularly male-breadwinner and dual-earner households. 

Keywords: Fiscal policy, gender, households, income, gender equality, Argentina, taxation

Topics: Economies, Public Finance, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Households Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Argentina

Year: 2018

Mining and Women in Northwest Mexico: a Feminist Political Ecology Approach to Impacts on Rural Livelihoods

Citation:

Lutz-Ley, América, and Stephanie J. Buechler. 2020. “Mining and Women in Northwest Mexico: a Feminist Political Ecology Approach to Impacts on Rural Livelihoods.” Human Geography 13 (1): 74-84.

Authors: América Lutz-Ley, Stephanie J. Buechler

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: 
Women’s participation in large-scale mining (LSM) has been increasing in Mexico and worldwide; however, few comprehensive studies exist on the socioeconomic effects of mining on women depending on the specific roles they play in this activity. The objective of this study was to analyze, from a feminist political ecology perspective, the effects of mining on women in a rural community in Sonora State, in arid northwest Mexico, a region with important participation of LSM in the country. For this purpose, we developed a mixed methods approach combining literature review on gender and LSM, semistructured indepth interviews, and analysis of secondary government data. Most literature on women and mining treats them conceptually as a homogeneous social group or focuses on only one role women play in mining. We address this gap by identifying several roles women can play in their interactions with the mining sector and then analyzing and comparing the effects of mining associated with these distinctive roles. In doing so, we unravel the gendered complexities of mining and highlight the socioecological contradictions embedded in these dynamics for individual women who are faced with significant trade-offs. Mining can provide economic and professional opportunities for women of varying educational and socioeconomic levels in otherwise impoverished and landless rural households. At the same time, women are unable to, as one interviewee phrased it, “break the glass ceiling even if using a miner’s helmet,” especially in managerial positions. Extraction of natural resources in the community is accompanied by the extraction of social capital and personal lives of miners. We give voice to the social– ecological contradictions lived by women in these multiple roles and offer potential insights both for addressing gender-based inequities in mining and for avenues toward collective action and empowerment.

SPANISH ABSTRACT: 
La participación de las mujeres en la minería de gran escala se ha incrementado en México y alrededor del mundo; sin embargo, existen escasos estudios comprehensivos de los efectos socioeconómicos de la minería sobre las mujeres dependiendo de los roles específicos que ellas juegan en esta actividad. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar, desde la perspectiva de la ecología política feminista, los efectos de la minería sobre mujeres de una comunidad rural del estado de Sonora, en el noroeste árido de México; una región con importante participación de la minería de gran escala en el país. Con este propósito desarrollamos un acercamiento metodológico mixto, combinando el análisis de literatura sobre género y minería de gran escala, con entrevistas semiestructuradas y análisis de datos secundarios producidos por agencias gubernamentales. La mayoría de los estudios sobre mujeres y minería las concibe conceptualmente como un grupo social homogéneo, o se centran solamente en uno o dos roles de las mujeres en la minería. En este trabajo se cubre esta brecha mediante la identificación de múltiples roles que las mujeres pueden desempeñar en sus interacciones con el sector minero y el análisis comparativo de los efectos de la minería asociados con estos distintos roles. De esta manera, se desentrañan las complejidades de la minería vistas desde el género y se enfatizan las contradicciones socio-ecológicas inmersas en estas dinámicas para mujeres que enfrentan costos individuales significativos. La minería puede proveer oportunidades económicas y profesionales para mujeres de distintos niveles educativos y socioeconómicos en hogares rurales empobrecidos o sin tierras productivas. Al mismo tiempo, las mujeres no han podido, en palabras de una minera, “romper el techo de cristal ni usando un casco minero”, especialmente en posiciones de mando. La extracción de recursos naturales en la comunidad se acompaña de la extracción de capital social y el tiempo de vida personal de las mineras. Se da voz a las contradicciones socio-ecológicas vividas por mujeres que ocupan estos múltiples roles y se ofrecen visiones potenciales para atender estas inequidades basadas en el género en la minería, así como posibles caminos hacia la acción colectiva y el empoderamiento.

Keywords: women in mining, feminist political ecology, rural livelihoods, northwest Mexico, extractivism, mujeres en la minería, ecología política feminista, medios de vida rurales, noroeste de México, extractivismo

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2020

A Political Ecology of Women, Water and Global Environmental Change

Citation:

Buechler, Stephanie, and Anne-Marie S. Hanson, eds. 2015. A Political Ecology of Women, Water and Global Environmental Change. New York: Routledge.

Authors: Stephanie Buechler, ed. , Anne-Marie S. Hanson, ed.

Annotation:

Summary:
This edited volume explores how a feminist political ecology framework can bring fresh insights to the study of rural and urban livelihoods dependent on vulnerable rivers, lakes, watersheds, wetlands and coastal environments. Bringing together political ecologists and feminist scholars from multiple disciplines, the book develops solution-oriented advances to theory, policy and planning to tackle the complexity of these global environmental changes. Using applied research on the contemporary management of groundwater, springs, rivers, lakes, watersheds and coastal wetlands in Central and South Asia, Northern, Central and Southern Africa, and South and North America, the authors draw on a variety of methodological perspectives and new theoretical approaches to demonstrate the importance of considering multiple layers of social difference as produced by and central to the effective governance and local management of water resources. This unique collection employs a unifying feminist political ecology framework that emphasizes the ways that gender interacts with other social and geographical locations of water resource users. In doing so, the book further questions the normative gender discourses that underlie policies and practices surrounding rural and urban water management and climate change, water pollution, large-scale development and dams, water for crop and livestock production and processing, resource knowledge and expertise, and critical livelihood studies. This book will be of interest to students and scholars of environmental studies, development studies, feminist and environmental geography, anthropology, sociology, environmental philosophy, public policy, planning, media studies, Latin American and other area studies, as well as women’s and gender studies.

Table of Contents: 
1. Introduction: Towards a Feminist Political Ecology of Women, Global Change and Vulnerable Waterscapes
Anne-Marie Hanson and Stephanie Buechler

2. Interrogating Large-Scale Development and Inequality in Lesotho: Bridging Feminist Political Ecology, Intersectionality and Environmental Justice Frameworks
Yvonne Braun

3. The Silent (and Gendered) Violence: Understanding Water Access in Mining Areas
Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt

4. Urban Water Visibility in Los Angeles: Legibility and Access for All
Kathleen Kambic

5. Advances and Setbacks in Women’s Participation in Water Management in Brazil
Andrea Moraes

6. Climate-Water Challenges and Gendered Adaptation Strategies in Rayon, a Riparian Community in Sonora, Mexico
Stephanie Buechler

7. International Partnerships of Women for Sustainable Watershed Governance in Times of Climate Change
Patricia E. (Ellie) Perkins and Patricia Figuieredo Walker

8. Women’s Contributions to Climate Change Adaptation in Egypt’s Mubarak Resettlement Scheme through Cactus Cultivation and Adjusted Irrigation
Dina Najjar

9. Shoes in the Seaweed and Bottles on the Beach: Global Garbage and Women’s Oral Histories of Socio-Environmental Change in Coastal Yucatán
Anne-Marie Hanson

10. Heen Kas’ el’ti Zoo: Among the Ragged Lakes – Storytelling and Collaborative Water Research with Carcoss/Tagish First Nation (Yukon Territory, Canada)
Eleanor Hayman with Mark Wedge and Colleen James

11. Pamiri Women and the Melting Glaciers of Tajikistan: A Visual Knowledge Exchange for Improved Environmental Governance
Citt Williams and Ivan Golovnev

12. Conclusion: Advancing Disciplinary Scholarship on Gender, Water and Environmental Change through Feminist Political Ecology
Stephanie Buechler, Anne-Marie Hanson, Diana Liverman and Miriam Gay-Antaki

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Intersectionality, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, North America, South America, Asia, Central Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: Brazil, Canada, Egypt, Lesotho, Mexico

Year: 2015

A Threat to Canadian National Security: A Lesbian Soldier's Story

Citation:

Gouliquer, Lynne, Carmen Poulin, and Jennifer Moore. 2018. "A Threat to Canadian National Security: A Lesbian Soldier's Story." Qualitative Research in Psychology 15 (2-3): 323-35.

Authors: Lynne Gouliquer, Carmen Poulin, Jennifer Moore

Abstract:

Before 1992, lesbians and gay soldiers were purged and discharged from the Canadian military for “reasons of homosexuality.” Those caught or suspected of homosexuality were subject to lengthy, humiliating, and degrading interrogations. This short story sheds light on this painful past. It is based on findings of a nationally funded pan-Canadian longitudinal study examining how Canadian military policies and practices influenced the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender soldiers and their partners. In total, 126 people were interviewed. While in the military, countless soldiers were investigated, numerous interrogated, many lost their careers, some committed suicide and others survived. Personal details have been changed to ensure the anonymity of the people, but it is their voices that tell this story. An official state apology was delivered November 28, 2017. Due to an impending class action court case, an agreement for compensation was also reached. Compensation and memorials will be forthcoming to those who were affected by the LGBTQI2+ purge campaign. To this day, no evidence exists that these soldiers were “ever” a threat to national security.

Keywords: Canadian military, discharged soldiers, homosexuality, interrogations, justice, LGBT, national security, purge campaign

Topics: Combatants, Justice, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Security, Sexuality Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2018

Feminist Political Ecology and Rural Women-Led Cooperatives in Hidalgo, Mexico

Citation:

Alarcón, Jozelin María Soto, Diana Xóchitl González Gómez, Eduardo Rodríguez Juárez, and Angélica María Vázquez Rojas. 2020. “Feminist Political Ecology and Rural Women-Led Cooperatives in Hidalgo, Mexico.” Textual 75: 131-55.

Authors: Jozelin María Soto Alarcón, Diana Xóchitl González Gómez, Eduardo Rodríguez Juárez, Angélica María Vázquez Rojas

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: 
This study analyzes through feminist political ecology approach the gender strategies enacted by two peasant and indigenous rural women-led cooperatives in Hidalgo Mexico, to access and manage natural resources intersected by ethnicity and training. With a long-term longitudinal study, the interdependence between cooperative organization and climate change processes are explored. Time poverty, gender restriction for rural women, collective strategies to create productive autonomous space and identify stakeholders’ co-responsibility, are discussed. The cooperatives efforts in climate change processes in critical environments are highlighted by the approach.

SPANISH ABSTRACT: 
El  artículo  analiza  desde  la  ecología  política  feminista  las  estrategias  de  género  implementadas   por   dos   cooperativas   dirigidas   por   mujeres   campesinas   e   indígenas   en   Hidalgo,   México,   para   acceder   y   controlar   recursos   naturales,   intersectados  por  la  etnia  y  la  capacitación.  Mediante  un  estudio  longitudinal  de  largo plazo, se explora la interdependencia entre la organización cooperativa y los procesos de cambio ambiental encabezados por las socias. Se discute el tiempo de pobreza, las restricciones de género para mujeres rurales, las estrategias colectivas para construir espacios autónomos de producción e identifica la corresponsabilidad de actores involucrados. El enfoque destaca el papel de las cooperativas en procesos de cambio ecológico en entornos ambientales críticos.

Keywords: gender, environmental preservation, time poverty

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Women, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2020

Experiences of Trauma, Discrimination, Microaggressions, and Minority Stress among Trauma-Exposed LGBT Veterans: Unexpected Findings and Unresolved Service Gaps

Citation:

Livingston, Nicholas A., Danielle S. Berke, Mollie A. Ruben, Alexis R. Matza, and Jillian C. Shipherd. 2019. "Experiences of Trauma, Discrimination, Microaggressions, and Minority Stress among Trauma-Exposed LGBT Veterans: Unexpected Findings and Unresolved Service Gaps." Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy 11 (7): 695-703.

Authors: Nicholas A. Livingston, Danielle S. Berke, Mollie A. Ruben, Alexis R. Matza, Jillian C. Shipherd

Abstract:

Objective: LGBT veterans experience high rates of trauma, discrimination, and minority stress. However, guidelines for case conceptualization and treatment remain limited. The aim of the current study was to examine the experiences of trauma and other high impact experiences among LGBT veterans to inform case conceptualization and treatment.
 
Method: We recruited 47 LGBT veterans with a history of exposure to LGBT-related Criterion A trauma and performed semistructured interviews about their experiences in trauma treatment, barriers to engagement, and treatment needs and preferences. We used thematic analysis of qualitative codes guided by inductive and deductive approaches to characterize the variety of trauma and high impact experiences reported.
 
Results: LGBT veterans disclosed a range of clinically relevant stressors, including Criterion A traumatic events, minority stress, and microaggression experiences, including interpersonal and institutional discrimination perpetrated by fellow service members/veterans, citizens, therapy group members, and health care providers.
 
Conclusion: These data provide a unique account of LGBT veteran's identity-related trauma and concomitant interpersonal and institutional discrimination, microaggression experiences, minority stress, and traumatic stress symptoms. Findings highlight existing service gaps regarding evidence-based treatments for the sequalae of trauma, discrimination, microaggressions, and minority stress. In addition, we noted past and present issues in military and health care settings that may lead to or exacerbate trauma-related distress and discourage treatment seeking among LGBT veterans. We provide suggestions for clinical work with LGBT veterans and encourage ongoing research and development to eliminate remaining service gaps. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

Topics: Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Sexuality Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2019

Addressing the Needs of Transgender Military Veterans: Better Access and More Comprehensive Care

Citation:

Dietert, Michelle, Dianne Dentice, and Zander Keig. 2017. "Addressing the Needs of Transgender Military Veterans: Better Access and More Comprehensive Care." Transgender Health 2 (1): 35-44.

Authors: Michelle Dietert, Dianne Dentice, Zander Keig

Abstract:

Purpose: There is a gap in social science literature addressing issues of access and quality of care for transgender military veterans. Psychologists, medical doctors, and other health professionals are beginning to address some of the barriers present in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) system that affect veterans who are also transgender and intersex. Over a 7-year period, between 2006 and 2013, 2600 transgender veterans were served by the VA. Data from several surveys revealed that most transgender veterans perceive the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to be less than accommodating for their special needs. The goal of this study was to investigate the experiences of a sample of transgender veterans with regard to their experiences with healthcare services provided by the VHA.
 
Methods: Using snowball sampling techniques, we were able to recruit 22 transgender military veterans to participate in our study. A combination of telephone interviews and questionnaires provided data from veterans in various branches of the military throughout the United States.
 
Results: Findings indicate that even though the VHA is working to address issues of inequality for transgender veterans, our participants indicated that there are still some problems with administration of care, proper training of staff and physicians, and availability of comprehensive services for the unique healthcare needs of transgender individuals.
 
Conclusion: Since our data were collected, the VA has worked to bridge the gap by focusing on increased training for VHA providers and staff and establishing LGBT programs at VA facilities. However, we suggest that one key area of importance should continue to focus on how mental health and medical providers and ancillary staff are trained to interact with and provide care for their transgender patients.

Keywords: gender identity discrimination, Transgender, U.S. military, Veterans Health Administration

Topics: Gender, Health, Mental Health, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Post-Conflict Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2017

Gender Dysphoria in the Military

Citation:

Ford, Shannon, and Carla Schnitzlein. 2017. "Gender Dysphoria in the Military." Current Psychiatry Reports 19 (12): 102.

Authors: Shannon Ford, Carla Schnitzlein

Abstract:

Purpose of Review: With the announcement that members of the military who identify as transgender are allowed to serve openly, the need for Department of Defense behavioral health providers to be comfortable in the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of this population becomes quickly evident. This population has been seeking care in the community and standards have been developed to help guide decision-making, but a comparable document does not exist for the military population.
 
Recent Findings: Previously published papers were written in anticipation of the policy allowing for open service. The civilian sector has treatment guidelines and evidence supporting the same for reference. There is no similar document for the military population, likely due to the recent change and ongoing development. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the recent Department of Defense policy and walks the reader through key considerations when providing care to a transgender member of the military as it relates to those who are currently serving in the military through the use of a case example.
 
Summary: The military transgender population faces some unique challenges due to the need to balance readiness and deployability with medically necessary health care. Also complicating patient care is that policy development is ongoing—as of this publication, the decision has not yet been made regarding how people who identify as transgender will access into the military nor is there final approval regarding coverage for surgical procedures. Unique circumstances of this population are brought up to generate more discussion and encourage further evaluation and refinement of the process.

Keywords: Transgender, gender dysphoria, military, Veteran, LGBT, mental health, open service

Topics: Gender, Health, Mental Health, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2017

Experiences of Sexual Harassment, Stalking, and Sexual Assault during Military Service among LGBT and Non‐LGBT Service Members

Citation:

Schuyler, Ashley, Cary Klemmer, Mary Rose Mamey, Sheree M. Schrager, Jeremy T. Goldbach, Ian W. Holloway, and Carl Andrew Castro. 2020. "Experiences of Sexual Harassment, Stalking, and Sexual Assault during Military Service among LGBT and Non‐LGBT Service Members." Journal of Traumatic Stress 33 (3): 257-66.

Authors: Ashley Schuyler, Cary Klemmer, Mary Rose Mamey, Sheree M. Schrager, Jeremy T. Goldbach, Ian W. Holloway, Carl Andrew Castro

Abstract:

Sexual victimization, including sexual harassment and assault, remains a persistent problem in the U.S. military. Service members identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) may face enhanced risk, but existing research is limited. We examined experiences of sexual harassment, stalking, and sexual assault victimization during service in a sample of LGBT and non‐LGBT active duty service members. Service members who identified as LGBT (n = 227 LGB, n = 56 transgender) or non‐LGBT (n = 276) were recruited using respondent‐driven sampling for an online survey. Logistic regression models examined the correlates of sexual and stalking victimization. Victimization was common among LGBT service members, including sexual harassment (80.7% LGB, 83.9% transgender), stalking (38.6% LGB, 30.4% transgender), and sexual assault (25.7% LGB, 30.4% transgender). In multivariable models, LGB identity remained a significant predictor of sexual harassment, OR = 4.14, 95% CI [2.21, 7.78]; stalking, OR = 1.98, 95% CI [1.27, 3.11]; and assault, OR = 2.07, 95% CI [1.25, 3.41]. A significant interaction between LGB identity and sex at birth, OR = 0.34, 95% CI [0.13, 0.88], suggests an elevated sexual harassment risk among male, but not female, LGB service members. Transgender identity predicted sexual harassment and assault at the bivariate level only. These findings suggest that LGBT service members remain at an elevated risk of sexual and/or stalking victimization. As the military works toward more integration and acceptance of LGBT service members, insight into victimization experiences can inform tailored research and intervention approaches aimed at prevention and care for victims.

Topics: Gender, Health, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Sexuality, Sexual Violence Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2020

Re-Politicizing the Gender and Climate Change Debate: The Potential of Feminist Political Ecology to Engage with Power in Action in Adaptation Policies and Projects in Nicaragua

Citation:

Gonda, Noémi. 2019. “Re-Politicizing the Gender and Climate Change Debate: The Potential of Feminist Political Ecology to Engage with Power in Action in Adaptation Policies and Projects in Nicaragua.” Geoforum 106: 87-96.

Author: Noémi Gonda

Abstract:

The time of gender-blind climate change policies and projects has passed. However, while research is increasingly moving away from understanding the relationship between gender and climate change in a linear, technocratic, and instrumental way, gender and climate change policy-makers and project practitioners are having difficulties operationalizing this progress. In the meantime, as climate change effects are increasingly felt worldwide, and because the policy context after the Paris Agreement (2015) is bringing new challenges for gender and equity concerns, (re-)politicizing the climate justice debate in a policy and project-relevant way is more crucial than ever. My aim in this article is to contribute to this endeavor by exploring how a feminist political ecology framework applied to a specific case study in Nicaragua—one of the countries most affected by climate change in the world—can generate new policy and project-relevant lessons and insights from the ground that can in turn strengthen the conceptual debate on gender and climate change adaptation. Based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in 2013 and 2014, as well as eight years of professional experience as a development worker in Nicaragua, I discuss the workings of power in the feminist political ecology of climate change adaptation; in so doing I raise new questions that will, I hope, lead policy-makers and project practitioners to explore how adaptation processes could open up the conceptual possibility for emancipation, transformation, and new ways of living life in common.

Keywords: power, feminist political ecology, climate change adaptation, gender, Nicaragua

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender Regions: Americas, Central America

Year: 2019

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