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Americas

The Flight of the Swallow

"Due to the extreme situation in her country, a woman decides to cross the border on foot in search of a better life. The journey leads to devastating consequences that will change her life forever."

Source: https://films.sff.ba/en/detail/?film=The-Flight-of-the-Swallow

Ecomasculinities: Negotiating Male Gender Identity in U.S. Fiction

Citation:

Cenamor, Rubén, and Stefan L. Brandt, eds. 2019. Ecomasculinities: Negotiating Male Gender Identity in U.S. Fiction. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. 

Authors: Rubén Cenamor, Stefan L. Brandt

Annotation:

Summary: 
While there exist numerous studies on ecocriticism and ecofeminism, much less has been written about ecomasculinities. This volume contributes to filling this gap by examining models of fictional ecomasculinity in and through contemporary U.S. literature and cinema. Our study examines ecomasculinities as practices of masculinity which are deeply conservationist and can embrace non-masculine traits. In this line of thought, a main goal of the volume is to interrogate the potential of ecomasculinities to elicit in men a desire to become engage in other practices of masculinity that are counter-hegemonic and have as main goal to achieve equality on different strata of society. Bridging the gap between the Social Sciences and the Humanities, the book interrogates intersections between ecomasculinities and masculinities beyond capitalism, ecomasculinities and aging, and ecomasculinities and queerness, among others. (Summary from WorldCat)
 
Table of Contents:
Introduction: Ecomasculinities: Negotiating Male Gender Identity in U.S. Fiction
Stefan L. Brandt and Rubén Cenamor
 
1. The Wild Ones: Ecomasculinities in the American Literary Imagination
Stefan L. Brandt 
 
2. Men in Nature: A Critical Analysis of the Mythopoetic Men’s Movement
Paul M. Pulé and Martin Hultman 
 
3. Eco-men from the Outer Space? Mars and Utopian Masculinities in Fin de Siècle Literature
Alessandra Calanchi
 
4. A New Man Emerges : Masculinities Beyond Capitalism and the Eco-Man in 1950’s America
Rubén Cenamor
 
5. Gender Blending and Psychic Phenomena: Forming Ecomasculinities in Gravity’s Rainbow 
Victoria Addis 
 
6. Cormac McCarthy’s Eco-men: The Loss of the Natural World in the Twentieth Century American Landscape
Layla Hendow 
 
7. Aging Men in Nature: Jane Smiley’s Ecocritical Exploration of Masculinities Across the Life Course in A Thousand Acres 
Teresa Requena 
 
8. The Film Star as Eco-Warrior: Harrison Ford Saves the Planet (and this Time It is for Real)
Virginia Luzón 
 
9. True Detective: Not Flourishing Yet, but Maybe Germinating
Bill Phillips 
 
10. Polar Bears and Electric Plugs: Green Shopping and Twenty-First Century Queer American Masculinity
Evangeline M. Heiliger 

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Sexuality Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2019

Ecofeminism, Hegemonic Masculinity, and Environmental Movement Participation in British Columbia, Canada, 1998–2007: ‘Women Always Clean up the Mess'

Citation:

Stoddart, Mark C. J., and D. B. Tindall. 2011. “Ecofeminism, Hegemonic Masculinity, and Environmental Movement Participation in British Columbia, Canada, 1998–2007: ‘Women Always Clean up the Mess.’” Sociological Spectrum 31 (3): 342–68.

Authors: Mark C.J. Stoddart, D.B. Tindall

Abstract:

This article draws upon two waves of interviews with environmental movement members in British Columbia, Canada, in order to examine participants' interpretations of the relationship between gender and environmental politics. Four claims emerge from this analysis. First, our results support the notion that there is an affinity between environmental politics and feminism. Second, despite recent critiques of ecomaternalism and the dual subjugation of nature and women within ecofeminism, these discourses remain useful as interpretive resources for research participants. Third, while ecomaternalism is a recurrent theme, it appears to be declining in relative importance as a discursive resource. Finally, notions of hegemonic masculinity are becoming more salient as an interpretive framework. While the first two claims emphasize continuity in participants' interpretive framework, the latter findings describe shifts in participants' understandings of gender and environmental politics.

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Discourses Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2011

Coming Back Across the Fence: Masculinity and the Transition to Sustainable Agriculture*

Citation:

Peter, Gregory, Michael Mayerfeld Bell, Susan Jarnagin, and Donna Bauer. 2000. “Coming Back Across the Fence: Masculinity and the Transition to Sustainable Agriculture*.” Rural Sociology 65 (2): 215–33.

Authors: Gregory Peter, Michael Mayerfeld Bell, Susan Jarnagin, Donna Bauer

Abstract:

In this paper we explore the social construction of agricultural masculinity and its role in the transition to sustainable agriculture. We draw our evidence from a participatory qualitative study comparing members of the sustainable agriculture group Practical Farmers of Iowa (PFI) with their non-PFI neighbors. On the non-PFI farms, men more often rep- resented what we call monologic masculinity, a conventional masculinity with rigid and polarized gender expectations and strictly negotiated performances that make a clear distinction between men's and women's activities. The male farmers belonging to PFI, on the other hand, more often represented what we call dialogic masculinity, characterized by different measures for work and success than in monologic masculinity, less need for control over nature, and greater social openness. Although both are present to some extent in all male participants, we argue that acceptance of a more dialogic masculinity helps promote the transition to sustainable agriculture.

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2000

Masculinity, Work, and the Industrial Forest in the US Pacific Northwest

Citation:

Loomis, Erik. 2017. “Masculinity, Work, and the Industrial Forest in the US Pacific Northwest.” RCC Perspectives: Transformations in Environment and Society, no. 4, 37–44.

Author: Erik Loomis

Annotation:

Summary: 
In this paper, Erik Loomis explores the connections between natural resource workers, industrialized nature, and masculinity as constructed by the logger working class in the US Pacific Northwest. In the industrial forest, different ideas of masculinity and nature were formed and performed. Loomis argues that the working class histories of natural resource workers need to be included in sustainable economies and environmental history. This way, environmental activists can develop more sophisticated strategies for creating coalitions with natural resource workers. (Summary from Environment & Society Portal)

Topics: Economies, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2017

Man-of-Action Heroes: The Pursuit of Heroic Masculinity in Everyday Consumption

Citation:

Holt, Douglas B., and Craig J. Thompson. 2004. “Man-of-Action Heroes: The Pursuit of Heroic Masculinity in Everyday Consumption.” Journal of Consumer Research 31 (2): 425–40.

Authors: Douglas B. Holt, Craig J. Thompson

Abstract:

We develop a model describing how certain American men, those men who have been described as emasculated by recent socioeconomic changes, construct themselves as masculine through their everyday consumption. We find that American mass culture idealizes the man‐of‐action hero—an idealized model of manhood that resolves the inherent weaknesses in two other prominent models (the breadwinner and the rebel). The men we studied drew from this three‐part discourse—what we call the ideology of heroic masculinity—to construct themselves in dramatic fashion as man‐of‐action heroes. In addition, we show that these men pursue heroic masculinity in very different ways, depending on their social class positions.

Topics: Class, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2004

Rural Masculinities in Tension: Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation in Nicaragua

Citation:

Gonda, Noémi. 2017. “Rural Masculinities in Tension: Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation in Nicaragua.” RCC Perspectives: Transformations in Environment and Society, no. 4, 69–76.

Author: Noémi Gonda

Annotation:

Summary: 
Noémi Gonda explores the role of the masculine figure of the cattle rancher in local explorations of climate change adaptation in Nicaragua. Cattle ranchers generally refuse to take part in local projects that encourage cocoa production because it jeopardizes the traditional normative rural masculinity associated with cattle ranchers. Using a case study in El Pijibay, Gonda argues that many climate change projects fail because they do not take the rural population’s gendered subjectivities into account. Instead, these failed projects reinforce both existing inequalities and their intersection with environmental degradation. (Summary from Environment & Society Portal)

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Nicaragua

Year: 2017

Imperial Democracies, Militarised Zones, Feminist Engagements

Citation:

Mohanty, Chandra Talpade. 2011. “Imperial Democracies, Militarised Zones, Feminist Engagements.” Economic and Political Weekly 46 (13): 76–84.

Author: Chandra Talpade Mohanty

Annotation:

Summary:
The post-11 September 2001 consolidation of imperial democracies and securitised regimes in the United States, Israel, and India mobilise anatomies of violence anchored in colonial legacies and capitalist profitmaking. These regimes utilise specific and connected racial and gendered ideologies and practices at their social and territorial borders - in the US-Mexico borderlands, the West Bank and Gaza, and the Kashmir Valley. They exercise militarised and masculinised forms of control, surveillance and dispossession that illuminate the contours of national political subjectivities and the uneven construction of citizenship. These imperial democracies militarise all domains of social life, and discipline or imprison not just abandoned and criminalised communities, but all state subjects. The essay suggests that an alternative vision of connectivity and solidarity requires building ethical, cross-border feminist solidarities that confront neoliberal militarisation globally. (Summary from original source) 

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Nationalism, Violence Regions: MENA, Americas, North America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: India, Israel, United States of America

Year: 2011

From Victims and Mothers to Citizens: Gender-Just Transformative Reparations and the Need for Public and Private Transitions

Citation:

Weber, Sanne. 2018. “From Victims and Mothers to Citizens: Gender-Just Transformative Reparations and the Need for Public and Private Transitions.” International Journal of Transitional Justice 12 (1): 88–107.

Author: Sanne Weber

Abstract:

Colombia’s 2011 Victims’ Law is often seen as an example of best practice in transitional justice, combining land restitution and individual and collective reparations. This law builds on the increasingly popular concept of transformative reparations and moreover prescribes a ‘differential focus’ to guarantee the inclusion and protection of groups considered to be especially vulnerable. Based on nine months of ethnographic and participatory visual fieldwork in two villages in Colombia’s Caribbean coast, this article discusses how this ‘differential focus’ plays out in practice by critiquing the way in which it is based on a highly essentialized and narrow understanding of gender. Based on the experiences and ideas of women involved in the Victims’ Law process, the article suggests how a focus on citizenship could offer a new approach to reparations, with more potential for transforming gender inequality.

Keywords: gender, reparations, citizenship, Colombia, displacement

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Justice, Transitional Justice, Peace Processes, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2018

Black and Indigenous Territorial Movements: Women Striving for Peace in Colombia

Citation:

Gruner, Sheila, and Charo Mina Rojas. 2018. “Black and Indigenous Territorial Movements: Women Striving for Peace in Colombia.” Canadian Woman Studies 33 (1–2): 211-21.

Authors: Sheila Gruner, Charo Mina Rojas

Abstract:

In this article, we will explore Black and Indigenous peoples' efforts at peace building, particularly women, as a reflection of ethnoterritorial organizational struggles in Colombia during the recent peace negotiations and during the subsequent and ongoing "implementation phase" of the "Final Agreement to End the Conflict and Construct a Stable and Lasting Peace" (or Havana Peace Accords). First, we offer some historical context to the conflict from the perspective of Indigenous and particularly Black communities, followed by some general background on the peace agreements, emphasizing the role that women and ethnoterritorial organizations have played and are playing to ensure an "ethnic" and gendered perspective in the construction of peace. We then focus on some of the grassroots mobilization and advocacy/lobbying pivotal to the achievements related to the ethnic chapter. We also reflect briefly on how "gender" was constructed as a threat to conservative elements of Colombian society during the referendum on the peace accords. Following this, we explore contributions of the Ethnic Commission for Peace and Defense of Territorial Rights, which was formed to lobby the Havana negotiators for self-representation in the peace process.

Followed by this, we examine problems that have arisen since the signing of the peace agreements related to women, rural, Indigenous and Black movements, whose social leaders have been targeted by violence and whose communities continue to live within generalized conditions of war. Systematic threats, assassinations and significant levels of violence continue in, and against, ethnic communities, including the recent massacres of rural and Indigenous coca workers, and the selective assasinations of Black leaders in the region of Tumaco, an Afro-descendant coastal area in the Colombian south pacific and site of geopolitical and narco industry interests, and related territorial conflicts. Finally, we will conclude with considerations for advancing towards the realization of peace that includes Indigenous and Black peoples in face of significant challenges.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2018

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