'When Does the End Begin?’ Addressing Gender-Based Violence in Post-Conflict Societies: Case Studies from Zimbabwe and El Salvador


Ramisetty, Alivelu, and Muthoni Muriu. 2013. “‘When Does the End Begin?’ Addressing Gender-Based Violence in Post-Conflict Societies: Case Studies from Zimbabwe and El Salvador.” Gender & Development 21 (3): 489–503.

Authors: Alivelu Ramisetty, Muthoni Muriu


This article analyses gender-based violence in the country contexts of Zimbabwe and El Salvador, where distinct periods of conflict and turbulence led to nominal peace, but no recognisable reduction or improvement in the status of women. Women in these two societies continued to experience high levels of gender-based violence. We outline the experience and strategies of Oxfam America along with national partners in addressing gender-based violence in these post-conflict societies. The article draws from Oxfam America's experiences in El Salvador and Zimbabwe, where a campaign and advocacy approach promoted new policy responses and legislation as a result of changes in societal and political attitudes to gender-based violence. It outlines the strategies and partnerships used by the Zimbabwe and El Salvador campaigns, including community outreach, mass mobilisation, and legislative lobbying, to achieve a positive shift in national policies and practices, to prevent gender-based violence.

Keywords: gender-based violence, conflict, Zimbabwe, El Salvador, civil society, campaigning, community outreach, advocacy

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, Central America Countries: El Salvador, Zimbabwe

Year: 2013

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