Sex and Gender in Research on Healthcare Workers in Conflict Settings: A Scoping Review


Habib, Rima R., Dana A. Halwani, Diana Mikati, and Layal Hneiny. 2020. "Sex and Gender in Research on Healthcare Workers in Conflict Settings: A Scoping Review." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17 (12).

Authors: Rima R. Habib, Dana A. Halwani, Diana Mikati, Layal Hneiny


The occupational health literature has established that sex and gender are associated with all dimensions of the workplace. Sex and/or gender (sex/gender) factors play an important role in shaping the experiences, exposures, and health outcomes of male and female healthcare providers working in war and conflict settings. This study aims to (1) assess how sex/gender is considered in the occupational health literature on healthcare workers in conflict settings, and (2) identify the gaps in incorporating sex/gender concepts in this literature. A scoping review was carried out and nine electronic databases were searched using a comprehensive search strategy. Two reviewers screened the titles/abstracts and full-texts of the studies using specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Key information was extracted from the studies and four themes were identified. Of 7679 identified records, 47 were included for final review. The findings underlined the harsh working conditions of healthcare workers practicing in conflict zones and showed sex/gender similarities and differences in experiences, exposures and health outcomes. This review revealed a dearth of articles with adequate consideration of sex/gender in the study design. Sex/gender-sensitive research in occupational health is necessary to develop effective occupational health and safety policies to protect men and women healthcare workers in conflict settings.

Keywords: healthcare workers, scoping review, war, conflict, sex, gender, occupational health and safety

Topics: Armed Conflict, Conflict, Gender, Health, Livelihoods

Year: 2020

© 2023 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at