Gendered Immobility: Influence of Social Roles and Local Context on Mobility Decisions in Pakistan


Adeel, Muhammad and Anthony G.O. Yeh. 2018. “Gendered Immobility: Influence of Social Roles and Local Context on Mobility Decisions in Pakistan." Transportation Planning and Technology: 41 (6): 660-78.

Authors: Muhammad Adeel, Anthony G.O. Yeh


This paper examines the instances of one-day immobility in Pakistan and reports its socio-demographic determinants using the nationally representative dataset of the 2007 Pakistan Time Use Survey. Of 37,830 time diary respondents, nearly 30% did not report travel during the diary day. Homemakers and those out of the workforce were more likely to be immobile than employed or student respondents. Immobility rates were very high among women (55%) as compared to men (4%). Among women, those between 20 and 34 years of age, married, with children, having better education, dependent on other household members and those living in higher income households were more likely to be immobile. The excessive gender nature of immobility seems to be triggered by a gender-based sociocultural environment, which restricts female mobility due to family honor concerns. Other than this, those living in the provinces of Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa or in urban areas were more likely to be immobile than those living in Punjab and Sindh provinces or in rural areas. The significant geographic effect at broader spatial scale is caused by the demographic structure as well as due to differences in the social and cultural context of these areas. Finally, questions regarding the measurement of immobility and the potential implications of increased female immobility are discussed.

Keywords: mobility, travel behavior, gender, Time use, immobility, Pakistan


Topics: Gender, Women Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2018

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