The Gender Gap in Yugoslavia: Elite versus Mass Levels


Clark, Cal, and Janet Clark. 1987. “The Gender Gap in Yugoslavia: Elite versus Mass Levels.” Political Psychology 8 (3): 411–26.

Authors: Cal Clark, Janet Clark


Compared levels of political participation by 423 men and 85 women in  elite and nonelite occupations (M. G. Zaninovich, 1970) in Yugoslavia.  Among nonelites, substantial male–female differences existed for both participatory norms and actual behavior, reflecting the impact of a male-dominated traditional culture and paralleling the "old gender gap" in the US. Among elites, in contrast, gender differences in participatory norms and several types of political activities were either insignificant or muted, suggesting the effects of socialist ideology and socioeconomic modernization. However, despite this movement toward participatory equality in the elites, women elites still cannot attain equal entry into actually holding political office and controlling societal resources.

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Gender Equity, Governance Regions: Europe, Balkans Countries: Yugoslavia (former)

Year: 1987

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