Yugoslavia (former)

The Body of War: Media, Ethnicity, and Gender in the Break-Up of Yugoslavia


Žarkov, Dubravka. 2007. The Body of War: Media, Ethnicity, and Gender in the Break-Up of Yugoslavia. Durham: Duke University Press.

Author: Dubravka Žarkov


In The Body of War, Dubravka Žarkov analyzes representations of female and male bodies in the Croatian and Serbian press in the late 1980s and in the early 1990s, during the war in which Yugoslavia disintegrated. Žarkov proposes that the Balkan war was not a war between ethnic groups; rather, ethnicity was produced by the war itself. Žarkov explores the process through which ethnicity was generated, showing how lived and symbolic female and male bodies became central to it. She does not posit a direct causal relationship between hate speech published in the press during the mid-1980s and the acts of violence in the war. Instead, she argues that both the representational practices of the “media war” and the violent practices of the “ethnic war” depended on specific, shared notions of femininity and masculinity, norms of (hetero)sexuality, and definitions of ethnicity.

Tracing the links between the war and press representations of ethnicity, gender, and sexuality, Žarkov examines the media’s coverage of two major protests by women who explicitly identified themselves as mothers, of sexual violence against women and men during the war, and of women as militants. She draws on contemporary feminist analyses of violence to scrutinize international and local feminist writings on the war in former Yugoslavia. Demonstrating that some of the same essentialist ideas of gender and sexuality used to produce and reinforce the significance of ethnic differences during the war often have been invoked by feminists, she points out the political and theoretical drawbacks to grounding feminist strategies against violence in ideas of female victimhood. (Amazon)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Combatants, Female Combatants, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Media, Sexuality, Sexual Violence, SV against Men, SV against Women, Violence Regions: Europe, Balkans Countries: Croatia, Serbia, Yugoslavia (former)

Year: 2007

Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Rape- and War-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder With a Female, Bosnian Refugee


Schulz, Priscilla M., Davorka Marovic-Johnson, and L. Christian Huber. 2006. “Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Rape- and War-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder With a Female, Bosnian Refugee.” Clinical Case Studies 5 (3): 191–208.

Authors: Priscilla M. Schulz, Davorka Marovic-Johnson, L. Christian Huber


Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among rape victims and war refugees is high. Cognitive-behavioral interventions have demonstrated effectiveness in alleviating PTSD in rape survivors. Effectiveness of such interventions when rape is perpetrated as part of war hostilities has not been examined. Rape and plunder of civilian populations characterized the 1991 to 1995 war in the former Yugoslavia. Rape camps terrorized civilians on all sides of that conflict. This case study illustrates a course of cognitive-behavioral treatment for PTSD with a female, Bosnian refugee and rape survivor. At post treatment, the client no longer met criteria for PTSD,and improvements were evident at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Approaches to treating PTSD in war refugees are discussed.

Keywords: posttraumatic stress disorder, treatment, refugees, rape

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, Humanitarian Assistance, Context-Appropriate Response to Trauma, Sexual Violence, Rape Regions: Europe, Balkans Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Yugoslavia (former)

Year: 2006

Gender, Peace and Conflict


Skjelsbæk, Inger, and Dan Smith. 2001. Gender, Peace and Conflict. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Authors: Inger Skjelsbæk, Dan Smith


Gender is increasingly recognized as central to the study and analysis of the traditionally male domains of war and international relations. This book explores the key role of gender in peace research, conflict resolution and international politics. Rather than simply ‘add gender and stir’, the aim is to transcend different disciplinary boundaries and conceptual approaches to provide a more integrated basis for research and study. To this end Gender, Peace and Conflict uniquely combines theoretical chapters alongside empirical case studies to demonstrate the importance of a gender perspective to both theory and practice in conflict resolution and peace research. The theoretical chapters explore the gender relationship and engage with the many stereotypical elisions and dichotomies that dominate and distort the issue, such as the polarized pairs of femininity and peace versus masculinity and war. The case study chapters (drawing on examples from South America, South Asia and Europe, including former Yugoslavia) move beyond theoretical critique to focus on issues such as sexual violence in war, the role of women in military groups and peacekeeping operations, and the impact of a ‘critical mass’ of women in political decision-making. Gender, Peace and Conflict provides an invaluable survey and new insights in a central area of contemporary research. It will be essential reading for academics, students and practitioners across peace studies, conflict resolution and international politics. (SAGE Publications)

Keywords: gender, conflict resolution, peace, conflict

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Sexual Violence, SV against Women Regions: Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia, Europe, Balkans Countries: Yugoslavia (former)

Year: 2001


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