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Yugoslavia (former)

The Role of Women in Peacebuilding

Citation:

Schirch, Lisa, and Manjrika Sewak. 2005. "The Role of Women in Peacebuilding." Working Paper, Global Partnership for the Prevention of Armed Conflict.

 

Authors: Lisa Schirch, Manjrika Sewak

Abstract:

In the last ten years, a powerful and expanding network of women began to strategize and articulate a global agenda for including women in conflict prevention and peacebuilding.  This paper gives a brief history of that network, examines the current concerns and tensions around women’s roles in peacebuilding, and provides examples, lesson’s learned, recommendations, and resources for civil society, government, and UN actors involved in conflict prevention and peacebuilding.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Conflict Prevention, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Mainstreaming, Peacebuilding, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, Violence Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Asia, South Asia, Europe, Balkans Countries: India, Liberia, Rwanda, Yugoslavia (former)

Year: 2005

Gender, conflict and peace-building: Lessons from the conflict in the former Yugoslavia

Citation:

Korac, Maja. 2006. “Gender, conflict and peace-building: Lessons from the conflict in the former Yugoslavia.” Women's Studies International Forum 29: 510-20.

Author: Maja Korac

Abstract:

This article explores the importance of gender sensitive analysis of conflict constructed as ethnic strife for conceptualising and developing new and more effective ways of intervening in this type of war. It points out that because most of the physical violence and suffering in these conflicts occur at the community level, they generate massive refugee movements, causing not only physical and material devastation, but also the destruction of social networks and local communities. This critically affects the prospects for refugee return, which is central to any sustainable peace agreement and post-conflict democratic development. In searching for an answer to the question of how to address effectively the issue of reconciliation in such a context, the discussion highlights the centrality of acknowledging gender dimensions and dynamics of this type of war, as a way of uncovering and recognising a reconciliatory potential of women as women organising and activism that often occurs in these conflicts. By focusing specifically on the initiatives of some women's groups during the war in the former Yugoslavia, which aimed at rebuilding trust and broken social networks at a communal level, the article examines the reasons why women as women often opt for alternative forms of political mobilisation. It argues that this type of activism has an important potential for conflict resolution and should be recognised in a fundamental way in any attempt to build peace in conflict zones.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Democracy / Democratization, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Governance, Post-Conflict Governance, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Violence Regions: Europe, Balkans Countries: Yugoslavia (former)

Year: 2006

Against the Odds: Sustaining Feminist Momentum in Post-War Bosnia-Herzegovina

Citation:

Cockburn, Cynthia. 2013. “Against the Odds: Sustaining Feminist Momentum in Post-War Bosnia-Herzegovina.” Women’s Studies International Forum 36 (2): 26–35. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2013.01.003.

Author: Cynthia Cockburn

Abstract:

During the nationalist wars that destroyed Yugoslavia, a women's organization in central Bosnia-Herzegovina was set up to respond to the needs of women raped and traumatized in the fighting. In 1995, as the war ended, the author made a study of the feminist and anti-nationalist thinking and relationships among the doctors, therapists and other staff of Medica Women's Therapy Centre. In 2012 she returned to Bosnia to reinterview women and track developments in this post-conflict period. Medica now supports survivors of domestic violence, on the one hand working in a close partnership with local government services and on the other lobbying the state for improved legislation and provision. In a political system riven by nationalism, women report a retrogression in gender relations and high levels of violence against women. A recent split in Medica signals divergences in feminism and aspirations to a more radical and holistic movement.

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Domestic Violence, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Nationalism, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, Rape, SV against Women Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Yugoslavia (former)

Year: 2013

Traffickers and Trafficking in Southern and Eastern Europe: Considering the Other Side of Human Trafficking

Citation:

Surtees, Rebecca. 2008. “Traffickers and Trafficking in Southern and Eastern Europe: Considering the Other Side of Human Trafficking.” European Journal of Criminology 5 (1): 39–68. doi:10.1177/1477370807084224.

Author: Rebecca Surtees

Abstract:

This paper describes patterns of trafficking from and within South-Eastern Europe, with particular attention to traffickers and their activities. This helps to determine the most effective methods of tackling these grave crimes through the strategic use of the criminal justice system. To date, attention has primarily been paid to victims of trafficking – who they are and what makes them vulnerable – in an effort to develop counter-trafficking interventions. To complement these studies of victims, studies of traffickers and their operations are also required. There is a need to address traffickers’ behavior through more effective law enforcement and through legal, social and economic reforms that will cause them to reassess the economic benefits of pursuing this strategy.

Keywords: criminal justice, prevention, prosecution, protection, recruitment, South-Eastern Europe, trafficker profiles, trafficking operations, Trafficking

Topics: Ethnicity, Gender, International Law, International Criminal Law, International Human Rights, Justice, Livelihoods, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Yugoslavia (former)

Year: 2008

Viol d’hommes, masculinités et conflits armés

Citation:

Le Pape, Marc. 2013. “Viol d’hommes, masculinités et conflits armés.” Cahiers d’études africaines, 1, 201‑15.

English: Le Pape, Marc. 2013. “Male Rape, Masculinities and Armed Conflicts.” Reports on African Studies, 1, 201‑15.

Author: Marc Le Pape

Abstract:

Les violences sexuelles commises contre des hommes au cours de conflits armés ont longtemps été négligées. Elles ont été reconnues par des activistes des droits de l’homme et quelques ONG médicales dans les contextes de guerre en ex-Yougoslavie et à l’Est de la République du Congo. Puis, au début des années 2000, des études ont commencé à se donner pour objectif à la fois d’enquêter sur ces formes de brutalité et d’expliquer le fait qu’elles aient été si rarement considérées par les ONG et les agences des Nations Unies. Nous examinons ces études et les explications qu’elles donnent aux approches exclusivement orientées sur les viols de femmes.

English Abstract:

For a long time the topic of sexual violence against men in wartime has been neglected. Inquiries have been conducted for the first time by human rights activists and some medical NGOs during wars in ex-Yugoslavia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Since as early as 2000, researchers began to investigate sexual assaults on men, and at the same time tried to explain why general comments by NGOs and UN agencies about sexual violence have explicitly excluded male victims. We examine these studies and the critical explanations they give for approaches exclusively oriented on the rape of women.

Keywords: Democratic Republic of Congo, armed conflicts, international law, homophobia, sexual violence, male rape

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, International Law, Sexual Violence, Rape, SV against Men Regions: Africa, Central Africa, Europe, Balkans Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Yugoslavia (former)

Year: 2013

The Hidden Prevalence of Male Sexual Assault During War

Citation:

Carlson, Eric Stener. 2006. "The Hidden Prevalence of Male Sexual Assault During War." The British Journal of Criminology 46 (1): 16-25.

Author: Eric Stener Carlson

Abstract:

The article presents the author's observation on the prevalence of male sexual assault during war. The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia investigated sexual assault in the mid-1990s. The male prisoners were sexually assaulted by forced fellatio, masturbation, mutilation of the genitals and insertion of objects into the anus. Sexual torture is widely used to break down the identity of political prisoners. In most cases of sexual assault, the victim is reluctant to admit that he or she was abused. Therefore, it is important to understand the psychodynamics of this trauma. (Abstract from EBSCO)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Men, Health, Trauma, Justice, International Tribunals & Special Courts, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, SV against Men, Torture, Sexual Torture, Violence Regions: Europe, Balkans Countries: Yugoslavia (former)

Year: 2006

Refugee Women in Serbia: Invisible Victims of War in the Former Yugoslavia

Citation:

Nikolic-Ristanovic, Vesna. 2003. “Refugee Women in Serbia: Invisible Victims of War in the Former Yugoslavia.” Feminist Review 73: 104–113.

Author: Vesna Nikolic-Ristanovic

Abstract:

In this paper, I explore the experiences of women who found refuge in Serbia during the war in the former Yugoslavia. I look at the women's experiences of both leaving home and coping with everyday life in refuge. The exploration of refugee women's experiences is mainly based on analyses of their own stories, which I collected while researching women and war. In spite of all the hardship of their lives, refugee women who fled to Serbia have been treated by Western media, the public and aid organizations as 'UNPEOPLE' or as non-existent. Making their experiences visible as women, refugees and citizens is the main purpose of this article.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Citizenship, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Serbia, Yugoslavia (former)

Year: 2003

Rethinking the Spoils of War: Prosecuting Rape as a War Crime in the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia

Citation:

Coan, Christin B. 2001. “Rethinking the Spoils of War: Prosecuting Rape as a War Crime in the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia.” North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation 26 (1): 183-237.

Author: Christin B. Coan

Topics: Gender, Justice, International Tribunals & Special Courts, War Crimes, Sexual Violence, Rape Regions: Europe, Balkans Countries: Yugoslavia (former)

Year: 2001

Breaking the Silence: Rape as an International Crime

Citation:

Ellis, Mark. 2006. “Breaking the Silence: Rape as an International Crime.” Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 38 (2): 225–47.

Author: Mark Ellis

Abstract:

The article focuses on the advancement of the crime of rape as an international crime through the ad hoc Tribunals for Yugoslavia and Rwanda. The concept of rape as an international crime has been defined as a crime of genocide, a crime against humanity, and a war crime. The legal development of rape came in 1949, when rape and assault were included in the Geneva Conventions. Furthermore, the International Criminal Court conduct a diverse out-reach campaign for victims of sexual violence.

Topics: Gender, Justice, Crimes against Humanity, International Tribunals & Special Courts, War Crimes, Sexual Violence, Rape Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Europe, Balkans Countries: Rwanda, Yugoslavia (former)

Year: 2006

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