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Vietnam

War in the Blood: Sex, Politics and AIDS in Southeast Asia

Citation:

Beyrer, Chris. 1998. War in the Blood: Sex, Politics and AIDS in Southeast Asia. London: Zed Books.

Author: Chris Beyrer

Abstract:

This engaging and vivid book investigates the course of the HIV epidemic in seven countries of South East Asia: Thailand, Burma, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Vietnam and China’s Yunnan Province. Emphasising the impact of the cultural and political landscapes of these countries on the progress of the disease, the book is the product of both working and travelling in the area. Not merely a commentary on obfuscating government statistics, the author draws upon his encounters with people dealing with the effects of the epidemic and opponents of the regimes of the countries he describes. The epidemic is seen as being vitally linked to the general condition of human rights in the societies.

In the first part of the book the author travels to each country in turn chronicling the different approaches adopted to the epidemic. The second part covers issues involving specific groups at risk - among other topics, women and contraception, prostitution and the traffic in women, HIV and the US military, the Heroin trade, gay sex workers, prisoners, and the work of local activists. The third part of the book looks at policy and the general effect of culture on public health care, stressing the need for local empowerment of populations, and in particular women, to effect social changes that would go hand in hand with improvements in the handling of the HIV epidemic. Both passionate and well-informed, this book is a labour of love that discusses the HIV epidemic while giving an intimate, and ultimately celebratory account of South East Asia and asserting the real possiblity for affirmative action. (Amazon)

Topics: Governance, Health, HIV/AIDS, Reproductive Health, Livelihoods, Sexual Livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Rights, Human Rights, Sexuality, Trafficking, Drug Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, China, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam

Year: 1998

Modern Combat: Sexual Violence in Warfare, Part II

Citation:

Vikman, Elisabeth. 2005. “Modern Combat: Sexual Violence in Warfare, Part II.” Anthropology & Medicine 12 (1): 33–46. doi:10.1080/13648470500049834.

Author: Elisabeth Vikman

Abstract:

The previous part of this paper showed how sexual violence was perpetrated in ancient warfare. To follow here is an examination of modern evidence from China, Vietnam and former Yugoslavia, investigating influences that have pertained over centuries. A considerable amount of literature treats this subject, both with regards to specific cases and general theories. The aim here is to follow up questions posed in the previous paper. When, how and against whom is sexual violence perpetrated? Are there patterns or is it executed at random? What are the motives? Records of the conflicts were researched and existing theories applied to assist the interpretation of data. The results showed that violence often follows a pattern and that individual and common motives are intertwined. Comparing ancient and modern warfare, this paper demonstrates how certain cultural factors of military life shape the execution and perception of sexual violence during war, historically and cross-culturally.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Sexual Violence Regions: Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Balkans Countries: China, Vietnam, Yugoslavia (former)

Year: 2005

Strategic Transformation: Cultural and Gender Identity Negotiation in First-Generation Vietnamese Youth

Citation:

Stritikus, Tom, and Diem Nguyen. 2007. "Strategic Transformation: Cultural and Gender Identity Negotiation in First-Generation Vietnamese Youth." American Educational Research Journal 44 (4): 853-95.

Authors: Tom Stritikus, Diem Nguyen

Abstract:

This article explores the various ways in which recent Vietnamese immigrant students form cultural and gender identities as they transition to U.S. schooling. Using data from a 2-year qualitative study that tracked the social and academic adjustment processes of recent Vietnamese immigrant youth, this article examines the tensions that students struggle with as they bring their own values and practices into the school site. The findings suggest that gender functions as a complex social category for recent immigrants that shifts across social contexts. The authors argue that accounting for a full picture of gender identity more accurately captures the manner in which recent immigrant students adapt to U.S. schooling.

Keywords: immigration, gender identity

Topics: Age, Youth, Education, Gender Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: United States of America, Vietnam

Year: 2007

Symptom Responses of Female Vietnam Veterans to Operation Desert Storm

Citation:

Wolfe, Jessica, Pamela J. Brown, and Maria L. Bucsela. 1992. "Symptom Responses of Female Vietnam Veterans to Operation Desert Storm." The American Journal of Psychiatry 149 (5): 676-79.

Authors: Jessica Wolfe, Pamela J. Brown, Maria L. Bucsela

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the status of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a cohort of women after the onset of Operation Desert Storm.

METHOD: Seventy-six non-treatment-seeking Vietnam veterans were obtained from lists of those who recently had participated in other research projects conducted at the National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Before the onset of Operation Desert Storm, subjects had completed a set of psychometrically valid instruments measuring general psychological symptoms and PTSD symptoms (e.g., SCL-90-R, Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder). On the basis of the latter scale, subjects were divided into groups with and without PTSD symptoms. At the height of the military conflict, subjects were recontacted and asked to complete the SCL-90-R and the Veterans Update Form, a measure assessing changes in PTSD symptoms.

RESULTS: Multivariate analyses indicated that while most female Vietnam veterans experienced some intensification of stress-related symptoms during Operation Desert Storm, those who had previously reported high levels of PTSD were significantly more susceptible to greater distress.

CONCLUSIONS: Results of this survey indicate that female Vietnam veterans with prior wartime exposure are an at-risk population for the intensification of stress symptoms after the recurrence of a military conflict.

Keywords: mental health, female veterans, posttraumatic stress disorder

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: United States of America, Vietnam

Year: 1992

Relationship of Peritraumatic Dissociation and Posttraumatic Stress: Findings in Female Vietnam Theater Veterans

Citation:

Tichenor, Victoria, Charles R. Marmar, Daniel S. Weiss, Thomas J. Metzler, and Heidi M. Ronfeldt. 1996. "The Relationship of Peritraumatic Dissociation and Posttraumatic Stress: Findings in Female Vietnam Theater Veterans." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 64 (5): 1054-59.

Authors: Victoria Tichenor, Charles R. Marmar, Daniel S. Weiss, Thomas J. Metzler, Heidi M. Ronfeldt

Abstract:

This study examined the relationship of dissociation at the time of trauma, as assessed by the Peritraumatic Dissociation Experiences Questionnaire, Rater Version (PDEQ-RV; C. R. Marmar, D. S. Weiss, & T. J. Metzler, in press), and posttraumatic stress symptoms in a group of 77 female Vietnam theater veterans. PDEQ-RV ratings were found to be associated strongly with posttraumatic stress symptomatology, as measured by the Impact of Event Scale (M. J. Horowitz, N. Wilner, & W. Alvarez), and also positively associated with level of stress exposure and general dissociative tendencies, measured by the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The PDEQ-RV was unassociated with general psychiatric symptomatology, as assessed by the clinical scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989). The PDEQ-RV was predictive of posttraumatic stress symptoms beyond the contributions of level of stress exposure and general dissociative tendencies. The findings provide further support for the reliability and validity of the PDEQ-RV as a measure of peritraumatic dissociation. 

Keywords: trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, female veterans, mental health

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, Military Forces & Armed Groups Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: United States of America, Vietnam

Year: 1996

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Vietnamese Women

Citation:

Shepard, Judith. 1992. "Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Vietnamese Women." Women & Therapy 13 (3): 281-296.

Author: Judith Shepard

Abstract:

This article describes the extraordinary events Vietnamese women immigrants and refugees experienced prior to their resettlement in the United States. Oral history data illustrate the need for sensitization to issues of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and the historical-cultural background of this special population. Oral history narratives from five Vietnamese women suggest differences in the way men and women define wartime trauma, and that women's biological makeup may precipitate some stress reactions unique to women. These narratives are examined in terms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), a diagnosis that has been applied primarily to male veterans in treating their physical and psychological problems resulting from war, not to Vietnamese women who lived under war conditions.

Keywords: posttraumatic stress disorder, mental health, trauma, female refugees

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: United States of America, Vietnam

Year: 1992

PTSD and Utilization of Medical Treatment Services among Male Vietnam Veterans

Citation:

Schnurr, Paula P., Matthew J. Friedman, Anjana Sengupta, M. K. Jankowski, and Tamara Holmes. 2000. "PTSD and Utilization of Medical Treatment Services among Male Vietnam Veterans." The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 188 (8): 496-504.

Authors: Paula P. Schnurr, Matthew J. Friedman, Anjana Sengupta, M. K. Jankowski, Tamara Holmes

Abstract:

This study investigated the effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on help-seeking for physical problems. Merging two large data sets resulted in a sample of 1773 male Vietnam veterans from white, black, Hispanic, Native Hawaiian, and Japanese American ethnic groups. Predictors of utilization included PTSD, other axis I disorders, and substance abuse. In analyses that adjusted only for age, PTSD was related to greater utilization of recent and lifetime VA medical services, and with recent inpatient care from all sources. Further analysis showed that the increased utilization associated with PTSD was not merely due to the high comorbidity between PTSD and other axis I disorders. The uniqueness of the association between PTSD and medical utilization is discussed in terms of somatization and physical illness. 

Keywords: male veterans, posttraumatic stress disorder, mental health

Topics: Combatants, Male Combatants, Ethnicity, Gender, Men, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, Military Forces & Armed Groups Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: United States of America, Vietnam

Year: 2000

Relationships Among Trauma Exposure, Chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Self-Reported Health in Women: Replication and Extension

Citation:

Kimerling, Rachel, Gretchen A. Clum, and Jessica Wolfe. 2000. "Relationships Among Trauma Exposure, Chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, and Self-reported Health in Women: Replication and Extension." Journal of Traumatic Stress 13 (1): 115-28.

Authors: Rachel Kimerling, Gretchen A. Clum, Jessica Wolfe

Abstract:

Fifty-two women who served during the Vietnam era were assessed for war-zone exposure, traumatic life events, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and self-reported health status. Symptoms of PTSD were examined as mediators in the relationship between traumatic exposure and subsequent reports of health problems. Results showed that PTSD symptoms accounted significantly for variance in health problems reported by women with prior traumatic stressor exposure. When the cardinal symptom domains of PTSD (reexperiencing, numbing, avoidance, hyperarousal) were analyzed separately, the symptom cluster representing hyperarousal accounted uniquely for the variance associated with health complaints, beyond that contributed by other symptom clusters. Discussion of the results focuses on mechanisms underlying the relationship between specific symptoms of PTSD and self-reported health. Implications for intervention within the medical system are also considered.

Keywords: trauma, post, mental health, female veterans

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, Military Forces & Armed Groups Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Vietnam

Year: 2000

Refugee Experiences and Southeast Asian Women's Mental Health

Citation:

Davis, Ruth E., Michael G. Kennedy, and Wendy Austin. 2000. "Refugee Experiences and Southeast Asian Women’s Mental Health." Western Journal of Nursing Research 22 (2): 144-68.

Authors: Ruth E. Davis, Michael G. Kennedy, Wendy Austin

Abstract:

The wars in Southeast Asia displaced thousands of families from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. The upheavals led to a number of waves of immigration to the United States. Current research supports hypotheses of post-traumatic stress disorder diagnoses in refugees from the wars in Vietnam but omits pertinent cultural factors. This phenomenological study of 19 women from Southeast Asia examines the meanings of their refugee experiences. Open-ended interviews with these women reveal themes of survival, despair, and isolation. Health care providers may notice cultural bereavement as opposed to post-traumatic stress disorder, reflecting a psychological resilience not extensively explored previously. Developing empathetic interactions and including important ethnic identity factors in caring for refugee women appear essential in providing appropriate health care.

Keywords: female refugees, mental health, posttraumatic stress disorder

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam

Year: 2000

As the Mirror Burns

Pages

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