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Vietnam

Exploring Mobility and Migration in the Context of Rural—Urban Linkages: Why Gender and Generation Matter

Citation:

Tacoli, Cecilia, and Richard Mabala. 2010. “Exploring Mobility and Migration in the Context of Rural—Urban Linkages: Why Gender and Generation Matter.” Environment and Urbanization 22 (2): 389–95.

Authors: Cecilia Tacoli, Richard Mabala

Abstract:

This paper draws on case studies in Mali, Nigeria, Tanzania and Vietnam to explore the different ways in which migration intersects with the changing relations between rural and urban areas and activities, and in the process transforms livelihoods and the relations between young and older men and women. Livelihood strategies are becoming increasingly diverse, and during interviews people were asked to describe their first, second and third occupations, the time allocated to each and the income that each produced. In all study regions, the number of young people migrating is increasing. This is influenced not only by expanding employment opportunities in destination areas but also by power inequalities within households, which means limited opportunities at home. It is increasingly common for young women to migrate, in part because they have no land rights and few prospects at home, in part because of more employment opportunities elsewhere. Young women also tend to move further than young men and for longer, and also remit a higher proportion of their income. Older men expect young men to migrate but often criticize young women for doing so, although women’s migration is more accepted as their remittances contribute more to household income. However, if young women had better prospects at home, it would limit their need to move to what is often exploitative and insecure work.

Keywords: gender, generation, livelihoods, migration, rural-urban linkages

Topics: Age, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Mali, Nigeria, Tanzania, Vietnam

Year: 2010

Gender and Natural Resource Management: Livelihoods, Mobility and Interventions

Citation:

Resurrección, Bernadette P., and Rebecca Elmhirst. 2012. Gender and Natural Resource Management: Livelihoods, Mobility and Interventions. Abingdon: Routledge.

Authors: Bernadette P. Resurrección, Rebecca Elmhirst

Annotation:

Summary:
This book is about the gender dimensions of natural resource exploitation and management, with a focus on Asia. It explores the uneasy negotiations between theory, policy and practice that are often evident within the realm of gender, environment and natural resource management, especially where gender is understood as a political, negotiated and contested element of social relationships. It offers a critical feminist perspective on gender relations and natural resource management in the context of contemporary policy concerns: decentralized governance, the elimination of poverty and the mainstreaming of gender. Through a combination of strong conceptual argument and empirical material from a variety of political economic and ecological contexts (including Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Thailand and Vietnam), the book examines gender-environment linkages within shifting configurations of resource access and control. The book will serve as a core resource for students of gender studies and natural resource management, and as supplementary reading for a wide range of disciplines including geography, environmental studies, sociology and development. It also provides a stimulating collection of ideas for professionals looking to incorporate gender issues within their practice in sustainable development. Published with IDRC. (Summary from Routledge)

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Feminisms, Gender Regions: Asia Countries: Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam

Year: 2012

Water Insecurity in Disaster and Climate Change Contexts: A Feminist Political Ecology View

Citation:

Resurrección, Bernadette P. 2019. “Water Insecurity in Disaster and Climate Change Contexts: A Feminist Political Ecology View.” In People and Climate Change: Vulnerability, Adaptation, and Social Justice, edited by Lisa Reyes Mason and Jonathan Rigg, 51–67. New York: Oxford University Press. 
 

Author: Bernadette P. Resurrección

Keywords: feminist political ecology, water, neoliberalism, emotions, subjectivities

Annotation:

Summary:
This chapter applies a feminist political ecology lens to episodes of climate change-related water insecurity in three Southeast Asian peri-urban area sites affected by flooding, water shortages, and pollution induced by long dry spells and heavy precipitation. It presents highlights from a 3-year research project that examined the everyday lives of women as they “deal with water” in the context of increasing water pollution, water scarcity, and flooding compounded by neoliberal socioeconomic conditions. These accounts illustrate how in water- and climate-change contexts, the neoliberal logics of privatization, commercialization, and reified separation between “the natural” and “the social” engage closely with emotions and intersectional gender subjectivities. The use of a feminist political ecology lens offers more holistic and grounded ways of probing into people’s experiences of climate-related water insecurity and stresses, aspects of which are often missed: gendered violence, hierarchies of place, affect, and insecurity in everyday life. (Summary from Oxford Scholarship Online)
 

Topics: Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Women, Privatization, Violence Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam

Year: 2019

Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation in Vietnam from a Gender Perspective: A Case Study of Northern Province of Vietnam

Citation:

Nong, Ha Thi Thuy, Christopher Gan, and Baiding Hu. 2020. “Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation in Vietnam from a Gender Perspective: A Case Study of Northern Province of Vietnam.” International Journal of Social Economics 47 (8): 953–72.

Authors: Ha Thi Thuy Nong, Christopher Gan, Baiding Hu

Abstract:

Purpose – This study analyses climate change vulnerability and adaptation in a northern province in Vietnam from the gender perspective.
 
Design/methodology/approach – A survey questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. The Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI) was calculated for 134 female and 239 male-headed households. Descriptive statistics were synthesized to investigate climate change adaptation from the gender perspective.
 
Findings – The results show that the LVI of female-headed households is higher than male-headed households, but the variation is negligible. In addition, female and male farmers in the study area use different methods to adapt to climate change. Female farmers have critically contributed to the family workforce and climate change adaptation. Nevertheless, female farmers have less accessibility to agricultural services such as training and credit.
 
Research limitations/implications – The study suggests that gendered interventions for improvement of livelihood to adapt to climate change should be developed for each aspect of the livelihood. Furthermore, enhancement of services for women and recognition of women’s roles in responding to climate change would contribute to more active adaptation to climate change.
 
Originality/value – Studies on climate change from the gender perspective in Vietnam have been conducted on a limited scale. Particularly, there are very limited studies on climate change in association with gender issue in North Vietnam. Thus, this study will provide more insights into the gender dimension of climate change vulnerability and adaptation so that gender-based adaptation strategies can be developed.

Keywords: climate change, vulnerability, adaptation, gender, livelihood, Northern Vietnam

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Vietnam

Year: 2020

Ecosystem-Based Adaptation and Gender Perspectives from a Participatory Vulnerability Assessment in Mountainous Rural Vietnam

Citation:

Lien, Tran Thi Kim, and Kathryn Brown. 2020. "Ecosystem-Based Adaptation and Gender Perspectives from a Participatory Vulnerability Assessment in Mountainous Rural Vietnam." In Handbook of Climate Change Resilience, edited by Walter Leal Filho, 699-716. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Authors: Tran Thi Kim Lien, Kathryn Brown

Abstract:

Smallholder farmers in rural Vietnam are dependent on ecosystems for their daily subsistence and income. Female and male farmers are differently affected by climate change, and they have different responses to and ability to cope with climate change. Men and women in Son Tho commune, a mountainous rural site in Ha Tinh province, Vietnam, were surveyed to determine what ecosystems and services they depend on, what losses and damage from climate change they are facing, and identify any appropriate ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) measures that could be implemented to build resilience. Data were collected at meetings with commune staff and male and female farmers through open-ended and structured questionnaires and focus-group discussions. Both groups acknowledged that livelihoods of people in the study area are ecosystem-based. Perceived changes in the local climate included an increase in heat waves; more intense droughts due to delays in the onset of rain and reduction in total annual rainfall; cold spells; typhoons; and floods. The influences of these phenomena on livelihoods were interpreted differently by female and male farmers. As a result, EbA interventions are defined and selected differently by gender.

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Vietnam

Year: 2020

Indigenous Perspectives on Gender, Power and Climate-Related Displacement

Citation:

Pentlow, Sarah. 2020. "Indigenous Perspectives on Gender, Power and Climate-Related Displacement." Forced Migration Review 64: 28-31.

 

Author: Sarah Pentlow

Abstract:

The impacts of climate change are most severely felt by those who live closest to their natural habitats. Indigenous Peoples in the Greater Mekong subregion of Southeast Asia are facing threats to their livelihoods and traditional ways of life and are being forced to migrate as an adaptation strategy. Within these communities, women bear the brunt of the work to adapt as they, culturally, are responsible for the food supply and livestock care. In this context, the Climate Smart Women initiative undertook village-level field research in selected Indigenous communities in Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam to understand the gendered impacts of climate change at a community level and how communities are responding. Pre-existing inequalities are exacerbated by climate change, resulting in differentiated vulnerabilities.

 

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Gender, Gender Roles, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Indigenous, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam

Year: 2020

Making Space for Women: Civil Society Organizations, Gender and Hydropower Development in the Mekong Region

Citation:

Lebel, Phimphakan, Louis Lebel, Darunee Singphonphrai, Chatta Duangsuwan, and Yishu Zhou. 2019. “Making Space for Women: Civil Society Organizations, Gender and Hydropower Development in the Mekong Region.” International Journal of Water Resources Development 35 (2): 305-25.

Authors: Phimphakan Lebel, Louis Lebel, Darunee Singphonphrai, Chatta Duangsuwan, Yishu Zhou

Abstract:

Large-scale hydropower development disrupts local livelihoods and resource access. Adverse impacts are often greater for women than men, but also large for children, the elderly, poorer households and ethnic minorities. Burdens of resettlement often fall disproportionately on already disadvantaged individuals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how international, national and local civil society organizations (CSOs) have addressed gender in hydropower development in the Mekong Region. Four CSO orientations are distinguished: communitarian, environmentalist, knowledge-based and feminist. Common activities of CSOs were to share information, to expand participation and to mobilize development. The extent to which these activities were promoted and appear to be making space for women depended on the types of CSOs and women and men targeted or otherwise involved. 

Keywords: civil society organizations, gender, hydropower, Mekong

Topics: Age, Youth, Civil Society, Displacement & Migration, Development, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam

Year: 2019

Gender in Development Discourses of Civil Society Organisations and Mekong Hydropower Dams

Citation:

Lebel, Louis, Phimphakan Lebel, Kanokwan Manorom, and Zhou Yishu. 2019. “Gender in Development Discourses of Civil Society Organisations and Mekong Hydropower Dams.” Water Alternatives 12 (1): 192–220.

Authors: Louis Lebel, Phimphakan Lebel, Kanokwan Manorom, Zhou Yishu

Abstract:

'Gender in development' discourses are used to justify interventions into, or opposition to, projects and policies; they may also influence perceptions, practices, or key decisions. Four discursive threads are globally prominent: livelihoods and poverty; natural resources and the environment; rights-based; and managerial. Civil society organisations (CSOs) have been vocal in raising awareness about the adverse impacts of large-scale hydropower developments on the environment, on local livelihoods, and on vulnerable groups including women. This discourse analysis first examines how CSOs engaging in hydropower processes in the Mekong Region frame and use gender in development discourses, and then evaluates the potential of these discourses to empower both women and men. Documents authored by CSOs are examined in detail for how gender is represented, as are media reports on CSO activities, interview transcripts, and images. The findings underline how CSOs depend on discursive legitimacy for influence. Their discursive strategies depend on three factors: the organizations’ goals with respect to development, gender, and the environment; whether the situation is pre- or post-construction; and, on their relationships with the state, project developers and dam-affected communities. The implications of these strategies for empowerment are often not straightforward; inadvertent and indirect effects, positive and negative, are common. The findings of this study are of practical value to CSOs wishing to be more reflexive in their work and more responsive to how it is talked about, as it shows the ways that language and images may enhance or inadvertently work against efforts to empower women.

Keywords: civil society organisations, gender in development, discourse, representation, hydropower

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Environment, Gender, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam

Year: 2019

Payments for Environmental Services, Gendered Livelihoods and Forest Management in Vietnam: A Feminist Political Ecology Perspective

Citation:

Tuijnman, Wouter, Mucahid Mustafa Bayrak, Pham Xuan Hung, and Bui Duc Tinh. 2020. “Payments for Environmental Services, Gendered Livelihoods and Forest Management in Vietnam: a Feminist Political Ecology Perspective.” Journal of Political Ecology 27 (1): 317-34.

Authors: Wouter Tuijnman , Mucahid Mustafa Bayrak, Pham Xuan Hung, Bui Duc Tinh

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: 
Economic approaches to combat environmental degradation and deforestation have resulted in development initiatives such as the Payment for Environmental Services program (PES). This study deals with the effects of PES on women's livelihoods in Thuong Lo commune, Central Vietnam. Employing a feminist political ecology perspective and adopting a qualitative approach, we analyze the gendered roles, responsibilities and effects of PES on local livelihoods. We found that the women in our study portrayed different preferences and knowledge in relation to PES, forest management and livelihoods. Women are often excluded in PES projects due to a range of various socio-cultural factors.

FRENCH ABSTRACT: 
Les approches économiques pour lutter contre la dégradation de l'environnement ont donné lieu à des initiatives  de développement comme le programme de Paiement des Services Environnementaux (PSE). Cette étude-ci s'agit des effets de PSE sur les moyens de subsistance de femmes dans la communauté Thuong Lo, au Vietnam  central. Utilisant une perspective fondée sur l'écologie politique féministe et une méthode de recherche qualitative, on analyse les rôles sexués, les responsabilités  et les effets de PSE sur les moyens locaux de subsistance. Les femmes dans cette étude ont exprimé des préférences et des connaissances différentes par  rapport au PSE, l'aménagement forestier et les moyens de subsistance. Les femmes souvent sont exclues du PSE à cause d'une variété de facteurs socio-culturels.

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Las diferentes estrategias económicas para luchar contra el deterioro ambiental y la deforestación han resultado  en iniciativas de desarrollo como el programa de Pago por Servicios Ambientales (PSA). Este estudio trata  acerca de los efectos de PSA sobre los medios de sub sistencia locales de las mujeres en la comunidad Thuong  Lo, en Vietnam Central. Utilizando una perspectiva ecología política feminista y un método cualitativo, analizamos las funciones de los géneros, responsabilidades y los efectos de PSA en los medios de subsistencia  locales. En este estudio, alegamos que las mujeres en este estudio reflejaron preferencias y conocimientos  diferentes respecto al PSA, la gestión forestal y los medios de subsistencia. Generalmente las mujeres están  excluidas de PSA debido a una variedad de factores socio-culturales.

Keywords: payments for environmental services, forest management, gender, women's empowerment, livelihoods, Central Vietnam, Co Tu people, paiement des services environnementaux, l'aménagement forestier, sexe émancipation des femmes, moyens de subsistan ce, Vietnam Central, peuple Co Tu, pagos por servicios ambientales, gestión forestal, gênero, empoderamiento femenino, medios de subsistencía, pueblo Co Tu

Topics: Development, Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Gender Roles, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Vietnam

Year: 2020

Women's War: Gender Activism in the Vietnam War and in the Wars for Kurdish Autonomy

Citation:

Chaguri, Mariana Miggiolaro, and Flávia X. M. Paniz. 2019. "Women's War: Gender Activism in the Vietnam War and in the Wars for Kurdish Autonomy." Sociologia & Antropologia 9 (3): 895-918.

Authors: Mariana Miggiolaro Chaguri, Flávia X. M. Paniz

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This paper debates women’s activism in two events: the Vietnam War (1954-1975) and the historical Kurdish struggle for autonomy (known as “Kurdish question”). We hypothesize that the reorganization of gender roles during the conflicts marks the meanings of wars and configures what we call a woman for the times of war, that is, a woman who transits across the spaces of public confrontation, armed conflict and domesticity. The approach outlined here is structured into three parts: the first and the second ones present aspects of both conflicts by pointing to possible convergences and differences between them; we also present the variety of networks of participation and activism of women in both cases. In the third and final part, we discuss the interfaces among the production of gender, war, and ideas, crossing a manifold of narratives, experiences, and stories that reveal different dimensions of wars and nations, and the diversity of the regimes of ideas that attached to them.

PORTUGUESE ABSTRACT:
Este artigo problematiza a participação e debate o ativismo de mulheres em dois eventos: a Guerra do Vietnã (1954-1975) e as guerras pelo Curdistão (1923 em diante). Como hipótese, sustentamos que tais lutas podem ser lidas a partir do esforço comum de tornar inteligível e nomear um conjunto variado de experiências que, reorganizadas a partir ou em função do conflito armado, produzem novas mediações entre gênero e nação. O artigo está dividido em três partes: nas duas primeiras, são apresentados aspectos dos dois conflitos apontando eventuais convergências e diferenças; na sequência, observam-se as variadas formas de participação e de ativismo de mulheres existentes nos dois casos; finalmente, são debatidas as interfaces entre a produção do gênero, da guerra e das ideias, percorrendo uma multiplicidade de narrativas, experiências e relatos que apontam para a dimensão heterogênea das guerras, das nações e, portanto, do regime de ideias que deve acompanhá-las.

Keywords: gender, war, nation and nationalism, post-colonial feminism, gênero, guerra, nação e nacionalismo, feminismo pós-colonial

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Civil Society, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Nationalism Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Southeast Asia Countries: Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, Vietnam

Year: 2019

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