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Gender in Development Discourses of Civil Society Organisations and Mekong Hydropower Dams

Citation:

Lebel, Louis, Phimphakan Lebel, Kanokwan Manorom, and Zhou Yishu. 2019. “Gender in Development Discourses of Civil Society Organisations and Mekong Hydropower Dams.” Water Alternatives 12 (1): 192–220.

Authors: Louis Lebel, Phimphakan Lebel, Kanokwan Manorom, Zhou Yishu

Abstract:

'Gender in development' discourses are used to justify interventions into, or opposition to, projects and policies; they may also influence perceptions, practices, or key decisions. Four discursive threads are globally prominent: livelihoods and poverty; natural resources and the environment; rights-based; and managerial. Civil society organisations (CSOs) have been vocal in raising awareness about the adverse impacts of large-scale hydropower developments on the environment, on local livelihoods, and on vulnerable groups including women. This discourse analysis first examines how CSOs engaging in hydropower processes in the Mekong Region frame and use gender in development discourses, and then evaluates the potential of these discourses to empower both women and men. Documents authored by CSOs are examined in detail for how gender is represented, as are media reports on CSO activities, interview transcripts, and images. The findings underline how CSOs depend on discursive legitimacy for influence. Their discursive strategies depend on three factors: the organizations’ goals with respect to development, gender, and the environment; whether the situation is pre- or post-construction; and, on their relationships with the state, project developers and dam-affected communities. The implications of these strategies for empowerment are often not straightforward; inadvertent and indirect effects, positive and negative, are common. The findings of this study are of practical value to CSOs wishing to be more reflexive in their work and more responsive to how it is talked about, as it shows the ways that language and images may enhance or inadvertently work against efforts to empower women.

Keywords: civil society organisations, gender in development, discourse, representation, hydropower

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Environment, Gender, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam

Year: 2019

Payments for Environmental Services, Gendered Livelihoods and Forest Management in Vietnam: A Feminist Political Ecology Perspective

Citation:

Tuijnman, Wouter, Mucahid Mustafa Bayrak, Pham Xuan Hung, and Bui Duc Tinh. 2020. “Payments for Environmental Services, Gendered Livelihoods and Forest Management in Vietnam: a Feminist Political Ecology Perspective.” Journal of Political Ecology 27 (1): 317-34.

Authors: Wouter Tuijnman , Mucahid Mustafa Bayrak, Pham Xuan Hung, Bui Duc Tinh

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: 
Economic approaches to combat environmental degradation and deforestation have resulted in development initiatives such as the Payment for Environmental Services program (PES). This study deals with the effects of PES on women's livelihoods in Thuong Lo commune, Central Vietnam. Employing a feminist political ecology perspective and adopting a qualitative approach, we analyze the gendered roles, responsibilities and effects of PES on local livelihoods. We found that the women in our study portrayed different preferences and knowledge in relation to PES, forest management and livelihoods. Women are often excluded in PES projects due to a range of various socio-cultural factors.

FRENCH ABSTRACT: 
Les approches économiques pour lutter contre la dégradation de l'environnement ont donné lieu à des initiatives  de développement comme le programme de Paiement des Services Environnementaux (PSE). Cette étude-ci s'agit des effets de PSE sur les moyens de subsistance de femmes dans la communauté Thuong Lo, au Vietnam  central. Utilisant une perspective fondée sur l'écologie politique féministe et une méthode de recherche qualitative, on analyse les rôles sexués, les responsabilités  et les effets de PSE sur les moyens locaux de subsistance. Les femmes dans cette étude ont exprimé des préférences et des connaissances différentes par  rapport au PSE, l'aménagement forestier et les moyens de subsistance. Les femmes souvent sont exclues du PSE à cause d'une variété de facteurs socio-culturels.

SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Las diferentes estrategias económicas para luchar contra el deterioro ambiental y la deforestación han resultado  en iniciativas de desarrollo como el programa de Pago por Servicios Ambientales (PSA). Este estudio trata  acerca de los efectos de PSA sobre los medios de sub sistencia locales de las mujeres en la comunidad Thuong  Lo, en Vietnam Central. Utilizando una perspectiva ecología política feminista y un método cualitativo, analizamos las funciones de los géneros, responsabilidades y los efectos de PSA en los medios de subsistencia  locales. En este estudio, alegamos que las mujeres en este estudio reflejaron preferencias y conocimientos  diferentes respecto al PSA, la gestión forestal y los medios de subsistencia. Generalmente las mujeres están  excluidas de PSA debido a una variedad de factores socio-culturales.

Keywords: payments for environmental services, forest management, gender, women's empowerment, livelihoods, Central Vietnam, Co Tu people, paiement des services environnementaux, l'aménagement forestier, sexe émancipation des femmes, moyens de subsistan ce, Vietnam Central, peuple Co Tu, pagos por servicios ambientales, gestión forestal, gênero, empoderamiento femenino, medios de subsistencía, pueblo Co Tu

Topics: Development, Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Gender Roles, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Vietnam

Year: 2020

Women's War: Gender Activism in the Vietnam War and in the Wars for Kurdish Autonomy

Citation:

Chaguri, Mariana Miggiolaro, and Flávia X. M. Paniz. 2019. "Women's War: Gender Activism in the Vietnam War and in the Wars for Kurdish Autonomy." Sociologia & Antropologia 9 (3): 895-918.

Authors: Mariana Miggiolaro Chaguri, Flávia X. M. Paniz

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This paper debates women’s activism in two events: the Vietnam War (1954-1975) and the historical Kurdish struggle for autonomy (known as “Kurdish question”). We hypothesize that the reorganization of gender roles during the conflicts marks the meanings of wars and configures what we call a woman for the times of war, that is, a woman who transits across the spaces of public confrontation, armed conflict and domesticity. The approach outlined here is structured into three parts: the first and the second ones present aspects of both conflicts by pointing to possible convergences and differences between them; we also present the variety of networks of participation and activism of women in both cases. In the third and final part, we discuss the interfaces among the production of gender, war, and ideas, crossing a manifold of narratives, experiences, and stories that reveal different dimensions of wars and nations, and the diversity of the regimes of ideas that attached to them.

PORTUGUESE ABSTRACT:
Este artigo problematiza a participação e debate o ativismo de mulheres em dois eventos: a Guerra do Vietnã (1954-1975) e as guerras pelo Curdistão (1923 em diante). Como hipótese, sustentamos que tais lutas podem ser lidas a partir do esforço comum de tornar inteligível e nomear um conjunto variado de experiências que, reorganizadas a partir ou em função do conflito armado, produzem novas mediações entre gênero e nação. O artigo está dividido em três partes: nas duas primeiras, são apresentados aspectos dos dois conflitos apontando eventuais convergências e diferenças; na sequência, observam-se as variadas formas de participação e de ativismo de mulheres existentes nos dois casos; finalmente, são debatidas as interfaces entre a produção do gênero, da guerra e das ideias, percorrendo uma multiplicidade de narrativas, experiências e relatos que apontam para a dimensão heterogênea das guerras, das nações e, portanto, do regime de ideias que deve acompanhá-las.

Keywords: gender, war, nation and nationalism, post-colonial feminism, gênero, guerra, nação e nacionalismo, feminismo pós-colonial

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Civil Society, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Nationalism Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Southeast Asia Countries: Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, Vietnam

Year: 2019

Improving the Socioeconomic Status of Rural Women Associated with Agricultural Land Acquisition: A Case Study in Huong Thuy Town, Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam

Citation:

Pham Thi, Nhung, Martin Kappas, and Heiko Faust. 2019. “Improving the Socioeconomic Status of Rural Women Associated with Agricultural Land Acquisition: A Case Study in Huong Thuy Town, Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam.” Land 8 (10): 151. 

Authors: Nhung Pham Thi, Martin Kappas, Heiko Faust

Abstract:

Since the 2000s, agricultural land acquisition (ALA) for urbanization and industrialization has been quickly implemented in Vietnam, which has led to a huge socioeconomic transformation in rural areas. This paper applies the sustainable livelihoods framework to analyze how ALA has impacted the socioeconomic status (SES) of rural women whose agricultural land was acquired. To get primary data, we surveyed 150 affected households, conducted three group discussions and interviewed nine key informants. The research findings reveal that ALA, when applied toward urbanization, has significantly improved the occupational status of rural women by creating non-farm job opportunities that have improved their income, socioeconomic knowledge and working skills. While their SES has been noticeably enhanced, these positive impacts are still limited in cases where ALA is applied toward industrial and energy development, since these purposes do not create many new jobs. Moreover, the unclear responsibility of stakeholders and inadequate livelihood rehabilitation programs of ALA projects have obstructed the opportunities of rural women. To improve the SES of rural women, we recommend that ALA policy initiate a flexible livelihoods support plan based on the purpose of ALA and the concrete responsibilities of stakeholders and investors.

Keywords: agricultural land acquisition, alternative job, socio-economic status, rural women and land use policy

Topics: Economies, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Energy, Land grabbing, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Vietnam

Year: 2019

Gender Inequality and Adaptive Capacity: The Role of Social Capital on the Impacts of Climate Change in Vietnam

Citation:

Phan, Loan Thi, Sue Ching Jou, and Jun-Hua Lin. 2019. "Gender Inequality and Adaptive Capacity: The Role of Social Capital on the Impacts of Climate Change in Vietnam." Sustainability 11 (5)

Authors: Loan Thi Phan, Sue Ching Jou, Jun-Hua Lin

Abstract:

Climate change has exacerbated gender inequality, and women are a vulnerable group. Previous research attributed this to physical gender differences, gender differences in ownership and control of natural resources, and socioeconomic status. We used a survey of 99 participants, seven focus group discussions, and 13 in-depth interviews in a coastal community in Vietnam to gain insight into the roots of gender inequality in the capacity to adapt to climate change. We analysed the role of social capital in regulating and mobilising other livelihood assets from a gendered perspective and found that gender norms explain the division and interactions of men and women in formal and informal networks. Based on our results, we suggest that policy-makers should pay more attention to gender issues when proposing climate change policies and reducing the gender imbalance in the impact of climate change adaptation.

Keywords: social capital, adaptive capacity, gender inequality

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Vietnam

Year: 2019

Climate Change Adaptation and Gender Inequality: Insights from Rural Vietnam

Citation:

Ylipaa, Josephine, Sara Gabrielsson, and Anne Jerneck. 2019. "Climate Change Adaptation and Gender Inequality: Insights from Rural Vietnam." Sustainability 11 (1): 2805-21.

Authors: Josephine Ylipaa, Sara Gabrielsson, Anne Jerneck

Abstract:

Vietnam is one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change impacts, especially from extreme weather events such as storms and floods. Thus, climate change adaptation is crucial, especially for natural resource-dependent farmers. Based on a qualitative research approach using a feminist political ecology lens, this article investigates gendered patterns of rural agrarian livelihoods and climate adaptation in the province of Thái Bình. In doing so, we identify differentiated rights and responsibilities between female and male farmers, leading to unequal opportunities and immobility for females, making them more vulnerable to climate impacts and threatening to reduce their capacity to adapt. This research also shows that demands on farmers to contribute to perpetual increases in agricultural output by the state poses a challenge, since farming livelihoods in Vietnam are increasingly becoming feminised, as a result of urbanisation and devaluation of farming. Past and present national strategies and provincial implementation plans linked to climate change do not consider the burden affecting rural female farmers, instead the focus lies on addressing technical solutions to adaptation. With little attention being paid to an increasingly female workforce, existing gender inequalities may be exacerbated, threatening the future existence of rural livelihoods and the viability of Vietnam’s expansion into global markets.

Keywords: agriculture, climate change adaptation, gender inequality, feminist political ecology, vulnerability, policy, sustainability, Vietnam

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Vietnam

Year: 2019

Impact of Climate Change to Women Exacerbated by Gender Inequality: A Case Study of Lao Cai

Citation:

Thuy, Nguyen Thi Thu, and Phan Thanh Thanh. 2019. "Impact of Climate Change to Women Exacerbated by Gender Inequality: A Case Study of Lao Cai." KKU International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 9 (2): 118-47.

Authors: Nguyen Thi Thu Thuy, Phan Thanh Thanh

Abstract:

This paper is based on the results of a study conducted in Lao Cai to explore how climate change affects to women’s agricultural activities as well as how gender inequality strengthens the impacts. The method of this study is qualitative with data collected in three communes of Ban Qua, Quang Kim and Muong Vi in Bat Xat district with qualitative tools namely expert interviews, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussion and quantitative tool namely survey. The finding of the research is that firstly, climate change can lead to vulnerable livelihoods. Moreover, the consequences of climate change are by no means gender-neutral. This is related to the second finding that traditional system of Vietnam is patriarchy and Confucianism in which women have to devote their time to family, have lower social status, have limited access to natural, financial and educational resources. The conclusion of the research is that women can be an effective agent of changes in climate change adaptation if they have more capitals such as finance, network and capabilities such as technical knowledge and sciences in agriculture. 

Keywords: gender inequality, women empowerment, climate change adaptation, food security, right to food

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Rights, Security, Food Security Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Vietnam

Year: 2019

Disasters, Ruins, and Crises: Masculinity and Ramifications of Storms in Vietnam

Citation:

Rydström, Helle. 2020. "Disasters, Ruins, and Crises: Masculinity and Ramifications of Storms in Vietnam." Ethnos 85 (2) 351-70.

Author: Helle Rydström

Abstract:

This article explores climate disasters in the era of the Anthropocene from a gender specific crisis perspective; as conditions of unpredictable outcomes and ruination which are encroaching differentiated ramifications upon inhabitants in coastal Vietnam. The article contests the ways in which the notions of vulnerability and resilience tend to understand a disaster as an interrupting event, which could be overcome by those upon whom the damage has befallen so life can return to normal. A crisis perspective, the article argues, offers an alternative avenue to an analysis of disasters by focusing on the entanglements between a crisis of emergency and a spectrum of various crises antecedents fostered by gendered livelihoods, masculinized privileges, and violences. When various crises modalities, intensities, and temporalities intersect with one another, a crisis in context might morph into crisis as context; into a disordered order of slow harm which impedes the return to pre-disaster normalcy.

Keywords: Anthropocene, Crisis, climate disaster, gender, masculinity, violence, Vietnam

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Livelihoods, Violence Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Vietnam

Year: 2020

Gender, Agriculture and Agrarian Transformations: Changing Relations in Africa, Latin America and Asia

Citation:

Sachs, Carolyn E., ed. 2019. Gender, Agriculture and Agrarian Transformations: Changing Relations in Africa, Latin America and Asia. Abingdon: Routledge.

Author: Carolyn E. Sachs

Annotation:

Summary:
This book presents research from across the globe on how gender relationships in agriculture are changing.
 
In many regions of the world, agricultural transformations are occurring through increased commodification, new value-chains, technological innovations introduced by CGIAR and other development interventions, declining viability of small-holder agriculture livelihoods, male out-migration from rural areas, and climate change. This book addresses how these changes involve fluctuations in gendered labour and decision making on farms and in agriculture and, in many places, have resulted in the feminization of agriculture at a time of unprecedented climate change. Chapters uncover both how women successfully innovate and how they remain disadvantaged when compared to men in terms of access to land, labor, capital and markets that would enable them to succeed in agriculture. Building on case studies from Africa, Latin America and Asia, the book interrogates how new agricultural innovations from agricultural research, new technologies and value chains reshape gender relations.
 
Using new methodological approaches and intersectional analyses, this book will be of great interest to students and scholars of agriculture, gender, sustainable development and environmental studies more generally. (Summary from Routledge)
 
Table of Contents
1. Gender, Agriculture and Agrarian Transformations
Carolyn Sachs
 
2. The Implications of Gender Relations for Modern Approaches to Crop Improvement and Plant Breeding
Jacqueline Ashby and Vivian Polar
 
3. Change in the Making: 1970s and 1980s Building Stones to Gender Integration in CGIAR Agricultural Research
Margreet van der Burg
 
4. How to Do Gender Research? Feminist Perspectives on Gender Research in Agriculture
Ann R. Tickamyer and Kathleen Sexsmith
 
5. Intersectionality at the Gender-Agriculture Nexus: Relational Life Histories and Additative Sex-Disaggregated Indices
Stephanie Leder and Carolyn Sachs
 
6. Diversity of Small-Scale Maize Farmers in the Western Highlands of Guatemala: Integrating Gender into Farm Typologies
Tania Carolina Camacho-Villa, Luis Barba-Escoto, Juan Burgueño-Ferreira, Ann Tickamyer, Leland Glenna, and Santiago López-Ridaura
 
7. "A Bird Locked in a Cage:" Hmong Young Women’s Lives After Marriage in Northern Vietnam
Nozomi Kawarazuka, Nguyen Thi Van Anh, Vu Xuan Thai and Pham Huu Thuong
 
8. Defeminizing Effect: How Improved Dairy Technology Adoption Affected Women's and Men's Time Allocation and Milk Income Share in Ethiopia
Birhanu Megersa Lenjiso
 
9. Implementing "Gender Equity" in Livestock Interventions: Caught between Patriarchy and Paternalism?
Katie Tavenner and Todd A. Crane
 
10. Implications of Agricultural Innovations on Gender Norms: Gender Approaches in Aquatic Agriculture in Bangladesh
Lemlem Aregu, Afrina Choudhury, Surendran Rajaratnam, Margreet van der Burg, and Cynthia McDougall
 
11. Permanently Seasonal Workers: Gendered Labor Relations and Working Conditions of Asparagus Agricultural Workers in Ica, Perú
María del Rosario Castro Bernardini
 
12. Gender Equality and Trees on Farms: Considerations for Implementation of Climate-Smart Agriculture
Tatiana Gumucio, Diksha Arora, Jennifer Twyman, Ann Tickamyer, and Monica Clavijo
 
13. Kinship Structures, Gender, and Groundnut Productivity in Malawi
Edward Bikketi, Esther Njuguna-Mungai, Leif Jensen, and Edna Johnny
 
14. Changes in Participation of Women in Rice Value Chains: Implications for Control over Decision-Making
Sujata Ganguly, Leif Jensen, Samarendu Mohanty, Sugandha Munshi, Arindam Samaddar, Swati Nayak, and Prakashan Cehllattan Veettil

Topics: Class, Agriculture, Displacement & Migration, Environment, Climate Change, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, Central America, South America, Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Malawi, Peru, Vietnam

Year: 2019

Gender Gaps in Landownership Across and Within Households in Four Asian Countries

Citation:

Kieran, Caitlin, Kathryn Sproule, Agnes R. Quisumbing, and Cheryl R. Doss. 2017. "Gender Gaps in Landownership Across and Within Households in Four Asian Countries." Land Economics 93 (2): 342-70.

Authors: Caitlin Kieran, Kathryn Sproule, Agnes R. Quisumbing, Cheryl R. Doss

Abstract:

Using nationally representative data from Bangladesh, Tajikistan, Timor-Leste, and Vietnam, this paper investigates which individual and household characteristics influence men’s and women’s landownership across and within households. Often neglected in household-level statistics, married women in all countries are landowners. Across different household structures, women own less land than men, and less land relative to the household average as household landholdings increase. Increasing gender inequality with household wealth cannot be consistently explained by an increasing share of household land devoted to crops. Findings support the need to strengthen women’s land rights within marriage and to protect them should the marriage dissolve.

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Oceania Countries: Bangladesh, Tajikistan, Timor-Leste, Vietnam

Year: 2017

Pages

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